|Publication number||WO2013123921 A1|
|Publication date||29 Aug 2013|
|Filing date||21 Feb 2013|
|Priority date||21 Feb 2012|
|Publication number||PCT/2013/19, PCT/CZ/13/000019, PCT/CZ/13/00019, PCT/CZ/2013/000019, PCT/CZ/2013/00019, PCT/CZ13/000019, PCT/CZ13/00019, PCT/CZ13000019, PCT/CZ1300019, PCT/CZ2013/000019, PCT/CZ2013/00019, PCT/CZ2013000019, PCT/CZ201300019, WO 2013/123921 A1, WO 2013123921 A1, WO 2013123921A1, WO-A1-2013123921, WO2013/123921A1, WO2013123921 A1, WO2013123921A1|
|Inventors||Jan IVANKA, Silvie BELASKOVA|
|Applicant||Tomas Bata University In Zlin|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Non-Patent Citations (3), Classifications (8), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: Patentscope, Espacenet|
Device for Non-contact Scanning and Regression of Non-stationary Temperature Fields - Especially in Biological Objects
Field of the Invention
This invention is intended for the non-contact scanning and subsequent regression of non-stationary temperature fields - especially those of biological objects. Regression enables the retro-evaluation of the course of temperature change time of the object including the determination of the time of initiation of this process. This information is a very important factor that shows the time of death of humans or other living organisms. Therefore, the device is highly suitable and useful, especially for Forensic Criminology.
Background of the Art
Progressive getting cold is an inevitable phenomenon that accompanies the death of the human organism, just the same as for other warm-blooded life-forms. After the arrest of the key life-important functions, the body-temperature begins be on the decrease which, in essence, continues in an exponential curve dependent upon changes in the temperature gradients between the body itself and its surroundings, at first significantly and then gradually tapering-off in its time-court until the point where the temperature of the human body is equal to the temperature of the surrounding environment.
The body-temperature of a dead person during the getting cold-period is therefore, in Criminology, a fundamental factor and data, from which one can more-or-less precisely determine the moment of death of the given person. Methods for determining the body temperature of the deceased used in everyday practice to-date are based upon the classic method of measuring temperature via the rectum. The current state of knowledge and observations in this field correspond to the method based upon the so-called Hanssge Monogram, which requires several measurements of the body-core at the crime-scene, while at the same time taking measurements of temperatures in the biological object's surroundings.
The above-mentioned method suffers from a whole range of restrictions and insufficiencies. Predominantly, these have to do with the fact that the per-rectal measurement of temperatures itself represents a significant intervention on the human body after its death. In order to minimalise the impact upon a body, this method requires the professional insertion of a rectal probe into the biological material, and it is therefore essential that this operation be performed by a doctor. Rectal probes must comply with work and hygiene requirements. Even when complying with these requirements, the introduction/insertion of the probe with its length of 15 cm into the rectum requires the locomotion of the biological object and thereby, damage of the body and the consequent destruction of criminal clues may be caused. Additionally, this method has appreciable time constraints - upon discovery of a body, even though its temperature has not yet equalised itself with the ambient temperature, due to the stiffening of the corpse (rigor mortis) is this invasive method decidedly problematical for a certain period of time.
With regard to the factors which can cause biased results using the afore-mentioned methods, it is above all necessary to point out that post-mortem, a range of processes occur in the rectal area, where gases accumulate in the "intestinum tenue" and "intestinum crassum" (small and large intestines) as well as remnants of the digestive processes, thus there is a need to eliminate the impact of these phenomena through correctional factors. Of course, a whole range of other factors of the surrounding ambient have an influence upon the temperature timeline. These external factors are partially eliminated using Henssge's mathematical equation for this purposes, however it does not sufficiently cover in a complex manner all of the important external factors and totally fails regarding internal correctional factors of the human body that significantly influence the course of decreasing temperature, and thereby complicate the establishment of the exact time of death.
Another insufficiency of the existing measurement system is also the fact the system is technically demanding - requiring 10 internal as well as external measurements of elements and requiring the installation of special software - (GSOFT 3050). Despite this, its accuracy is not proportional to. the technical difficulties involved - the literature indicates this as 55 % of accuracy. A further disadvantage of this system is that, in case of the destruction of the investigated area, it is impossible to use the Henssge Method.
Summary of the Invention
The above-mentioned disadvantages and insufficiencies of the current known systems for. the evaluation of the temperature of biological objects are, to a very significant extent, eliminated by the device for non-contact scanning and subsequent regression of non- statiohary temperature fields, especially for biological objects, according to the invention. The ground of the invention is that the device consists of a microbolometric matrix, an ambient environment parameter scanning unit and an evaluation unit, which is linked with the microbolometric matri and with ambient environment parameter scanning unit and equipped with a data-entry system of corrective parameters of the measured object.
The device for non-contact scanning and subsequent regression of non-stationary temperature field according to the invention has advantageously incorporated such microbolometric matrix, which includes an evaluation unit for the evaluation of the frequency of individual temperatures and their time-dependencies. It is also advantageous that the ambient environment parameter scanning unit incorporates an ambient environment temperature scanner.
The device according to the invention may have the microbolometric matrix linked to the evaluation unit by card or cable. The ambient environment parameter scanning unit may be linked to the evaluation unit either by Wi-Fi or cable.
The main advantage of the device, according to the invention, is given by the fact itself that the system is based upon the non-contact measurement of biological object temperatures. For this reason, neither damage to tissue when using a robe for measurements nor damage to the body due to movements while inserting the probe nor even the elision of criminological clues are caused; nor are there such great time-constraints as there are with the currently known invasive method, whose applications are severely limited after a certain time-period in view of the progressive rigor mortis process and therefore problematical.
A further advantage is the ease-of-application of the device according to the invention since it does not require the cooperation of a doctor. Moreover, there is no need to correct the impact of phenomena associated with the evolution of gas in the digestive tract on temperature since the temperature is measured in a non-contact manner in areas uninfluenced by such. Other essential correctional factors influencing the natural getting cold process of biological objects (e.g. clothing, underlying terrain, body position, etc.) are summarised in the data-entry system for correctional parameters.
A significant advantage of the device, according to the invention, is above all the rapidity and substantive increasing of the precision of the regressive establishment of the time of initiation of the getting-cool process of the biological object. In comparison with the previously mentioned precision of the method used to-date, i.e. cca. 55%, the device according to the invention enables one to establish the time of initiation of the getting-cold process with a precision of up to 98%; thereby significantly increasing the key data's reliability - which, in Criminology, influences the success of further investigations in a fundamental way.
List of Drawings
An example of the device for the non-contact scanning and subsequent regression of non-stationary temperature fields according to the invention is shown in the attached drawings, which show:
- Fig. 1 - Block schema of the device,
- Fig. 2 - Real physical embodiment of the device.
As is visible from Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawings, the non-contact scanning and subsequent regression of non-stationary temperature fields - concretely for biological objects - the human body - is composed of the microbolometric matrix i, the scanner unit 2, and the ambient environment parameter scanning and evaluation unit 3, which is linkted not only with the microbolometric matrix I , but also to the ambient environment scanner unit 2. The evaluation unit 3 is equipped with the measured object correctional parameter data-entry system 4.
The microbolometric matrix I contains equipment for evaluating the frequency of individual temperatures and their time-dependencies. The ambient environment scanner unit 2 contains an ambient environment temperature scanner 5.
The microbolometric matrix I is connected with the evaluation unit 3 by cable with a USB-port. The ambient environment scanner unit 2 is connected by Wi-Fi to the evaluation unit 3.
The above described device runs by such a way that the microbolometric matrix 1 - the herein presented device based on thermo-cameras - scans the temperature fields (radiated heat) of the human body abdominal cavity in the algor (rigor) mortis process and evaluates the frequency of individual temperatures and, subsequently, their local maximum and the actual time-course. In collaboration with the evaluation unit 3, the device then performs a regression of the temperature field and evaluates the time of iniciation of its non-stationary phase (i.e. the beginning of the temperature drop). In the course of this, the evaluation unit 3 takes into consideration not only which ambient environment parameter factors the scanner unit 2 registers, but also the factors supplied by means of the correctional parameter data-entry system 4 of the object being measured.
As is visible in Fig. 2, the device is composed of three main parts, which are easily storable and have small dimensions. It is possible to perform scans of the given investigated area from a distance of 20 to 90 cm away from the skin surface of the biological material without performing any locomotion of the body. The actual evaluation of the measured values and data, like determining the exact instant of death for instance, is performed within cca. 5 sec.
Possibility of Industrial Application
It is possible to use the device according to the invention for non-contact scanning and 'subsequent regression of non-stationary temperature fields, especially for biological objects, predominantly in Criminology, where the actual temperature of the dead person body within the time interval of the spontaneous getting cold process is the fundamental data for the retro- establishment of the, time of death of the given person.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US20040254472 *||25 May 2004||16 Dec 2004||Cardiowave, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for a remote, noninvasive technique to detect core body temperature in a subject via thermal imaging|
|US20080210872 *||3 Aug 2004||4 Sep 2008||Opgal Ltd.||Radiometry Using an Uncooled Microbolometer Detector|
|1||*||AMMER K ET AL: "Application of thermal imaging in forensic medicine", IMAGING SCIENCE JOURNAL, THE, MANEY PUBLISHING, LONDON, GB, vol. 53, no. 2, 1 September 2005 (2005-09-01), pages 125 - 131, XP009170128, ISSN: 1368-2199, DOI: 10.1179/136821905X50361|
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|International Classification||G01J5/00, A61B5/01, G01J5/20|
|Cooperative Classification||A61B5/015, G01J5/20, G01J5/0022, G01J2005/0048, G01J2005/0077|
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