Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS9057511 B2
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 13/034,501
Publication date16 Jun 2015
Filing date24 Feb 2011
Priority date3 Mar 2010
Also published asUS20120057327
Publication number034501, 13034501, US 9057511 B2, US 9057511B2, US-B2-9057511, US9057511 B2, US9057511B2
InventorsLong Larry Le, Ronan Letoquin, Bernd Keller, Eric Tarsa, Paul Pickard, James Michael Lay, Tao Tong, Mark Youmans, Theodore Lowes, Nicholas W. Medendorp, JR., Antony van de Ven, Gerald Negley
Original AssigneeCree, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
High efficiency solid state lamp and bulb
US 9057511 B2
Abstract
Solid state lamps and bulbs comprising different combinations and arrangements of a light source, one or more wavelength conversion materials, regions or layers which are positioned separately or remotely with respect to the light source, and a separate diffuser. These are arranged on a heat sink in a manner that allows for the fabrication of lamps and bulbs that are efficient, reliable and cost effective and can provide an essentially omni-directional emission pattern, even with a light source comprised of a co-planar arrangement of LEDs. Additionally, this arrangement allows aesthetic masking or concealment of the appearance of the conversion regions or layers when the lamp is not illuminated. Various embodiments of the invention may be used to address many of the difficulties associated with utilizing efficient solid state light sources such as LEDs in the fabrication of lamps or bulbs suitable for direct replacement of traditional incandescent bulbs. Embodiments of the invention can be arranged to fit recognized standard size profiles such as those ascribed to commonly used lamps such as incandescent light bulbs, while still providing emission patterns that comply with ENERGY STAR® standards.
Images(15)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(9)
We claim:
1. A solid state lamp, comprising:
a heat sink with a plurality of heat fins;
a solid state light source mounted on a top surface of said heat sink;
a phosphor carrier on said heat sink, over and spaced apart from said light source, such that an optical cavity is formed by the space between said phosphor carrier and said heat sink top surface; and
a diffuser on said heat sink, over and spaced apart from said phosphor carrier, wherein said phosphor carrier and said diffuser are substantially frusto-spherical such that said phosphor carrier and diffuser provide a double-dome structure, wherein said lamp fits within a standard size profile, and emits a substantially uniform emission pattern, wherein said solid state light source is configured such that there are no surfaces within said optical cavity to block sideways emission from said solid state light source, wherein said diffuser extends below said top surface of said heat sink such that at least some light is emitted in a downward direction when said solid state lamp is in operation.
2. The solid state lamp of claim 1, wherein said standard size envelope includes one from the group A19, A21 and A23.
3. The solid state lamp of claim 1, wherein said substantially uniform emission pattern meets ENERGY STAR® emission requirements.
4. The solid state lamp of claim 1, providing a steady state output of 800 lumens at 10 watts or less.
5. The solid state lamp of claim 1, wherein said heat fins to not extend beyond the lateral edge of said diffuser.
6. A solid state lamp, comprising a solid state light source on a surface of said solid state lamp and at least one diffuser dome remote from said solid state light source such that an optical cavity is formed by the space between said diffuser dome and said surface of said solid state lamp, said solid state light source emitting light with an efficacy of 80 lumens per watt or more, comprising a color rendering index of greater than 80, and emitting omnidirectionally, wherein said solid state light source is configured such that there are no surfaces within said optical cavity to block sideways emission from said solid state light source, wherein said diffuser dome extends below said surface of said solid state lamp with said solid state light source thereon, such that at least some light is emitted in a downward direction when said solid state lamp is in operation; and
a phosphor remote from said solid state light source.
7. The lamp of claim 6, emitting light comprising a color rendering index at or greater than 90.
8. The lamp of claim 6, further comprising a phosphor carrier.
9. A solid state lamp, comprising a solid state light source on a surface of said solid state lamp and at least one diffuser dome remote from said solid state light source such that an optical cavity is formed by the space between said diffuser dome and said surface of said solid state lamp, said solid state light source emitting light with an efficacy of 80 lumens per watt or more, comprising a double dome diffuser and conversion material arrangement, and emitting omnidirectionally, wherein said solid state light source is configured such that there are no device side surfaces to block sideways light emission to said diffuser, wherein said diffuser dome extends below said surface of said solid state lamp with said solid state light source thereon, such that at least some light is emitted in a downward direction when said solid state lamp is in operation.
Description

This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/339,516, filed on Mar. 3, 2010, U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/339,515, filed on Mar. 3, 2010, U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/386,437, filed on Sep. 24, 2010, U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/424,665, filed on Dec. 19, 2010, U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/424,670, filed on Dec. 19, 2010, U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/434,355, filed on Jan. 19, 2011, U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/435,326, filed on Jan. 23, 2011, and U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/435,759, filed on Jan. 24, 2011. This application is also a continuation-in-part from, and claims the benefit of, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/848,825, filed on Aug. 2, 2010 now U.S. Pat. No. 8,562,161 U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/889,719, filed on Sep. 24, 2010, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/975,820, filed on Dec. 22, 2010 and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/028,946, filed on Feb. 16, 2011.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

This invention relates to solid state lamps and bulbs and in particular to efficient and reliable light emitting diode (LED) based lamps and bulbs capable of producing omnidirectional emission patterns.

2. Description of the Related Art

Incandescent or filament-based lamps or bulbs are commonly used as light sources for both residential and commercial facilities. However, such lamps are highly inefficient light sources, with as much as 95% of the input energy lost, primarily in the form of heat or infrared energy. One common alternative to incandescent lamps, so-called compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), are more effective at converting electricity into light but require the use of toxic materials which, along with its various compounds, can cause both chronic and acute poisoning and can lead to environmental pollution. One solution for improving the efficiency of lamps or bulbs is to use solid state devices such as light emitting diodes (LED or LEDs), rather than metal filaments, to produce light.

Light emitting diodes generally comprise one or more active layers of semiconductor material sandwiched between oppositely doped layers. When a bias is applied across the doped layers, holes and electrons are injected into the active layer where they recombine to generate light. Light is emitted from the active layer and from various surfaces of the LED.

In order to use an LED chip in a circuit or other like arrangement, it is known to enclose an LED chip in a package to provide environmental and/or mechanical protection, color selection, light focusing and the like. An LED package also includes electrical leads, contacts or traces for electrically connecting the LED package to an external circuit. In a typical LED package 10 illustrated in FIG. 1, a single LED chip 12 is mounted on a reflective cup 13 by means of a solder bond or conductive epoxy. One or more wire bonds 11 connect the ohmic contacts of the LED chip 12 to leads 15A and/or 15B, which may be attached to or integral with the reflective cup 13. The reflective cup may be filled with an encapsulant material 16 which may contain a wavelength conversion material such as a phosphor. Light emitted by the LED at a first wavelength may be absorbed by the phosphor, which may responsively emit light at a second wavelength. The entire assembly is then encapsulated in a clear protective resin 14, which may be molded in the shape of a lens to collimate the light emitted from the LED chip 12.

FIG. 2 shows another embodiment of a conventional LED package comprising one or more LED chips 22 mounted onto a carrier such as a printed circuit board (PCB) carrier, substrate or submount 23. A metal reflector 24 mounted on the submount 23 surrounds the LED chip(s) 22 and reflects light emitted by the LED chips 22 away from the package 20. The reflector 24 also provides mechanical protection to the LED chips 22. One or more wire bond connections 27 are made between ohmic contacts on the LED chips 22 and electrical traces 25A, 25B on the submount 23. The mounted LED chips 22 are then covered with an encapsulant 26, which may provide environmental and mechanical protection to the chips while also acting as a lens. The metal reflector 24 is typically attached to the carrier by means of a solder or epoxy bond.

LED chips, such as those found in the LED package 20 of FIG. 2 can be coated by conversion material comprising one or more phosphors, with the phosphors absorbing at least some of the LED light. The LED chip can emit a different wavelength of light such that it emits a combination of light from the LED and the phosphor. The LED chip(s) can be coated with a phosphor using many different methods, with one suitable method being described in U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 11/656,759 and 11/899,790, both to Chitnis et al. and both entitled “Wafer Level Phosphor Coating Method and Devices Fabricated Utilizing Method”. Alternatively, the LEDs can be coated using other methods such as electrophoretic deposition (EPD), with a suitable EPD method described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/473,089 to Tarsa et al. entitled “Close Loop Electrophoretic Deposition of Semiconductor Devices”.

Lamps have also been developed utilizing solid state light sources, such as LEDs, in combination with a conversion material that is separated from or remote to the LEDs. Such arrangements are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,350,041 to Tarsa et al., entitled “High Output Radial Dispersing Lamp Using a Solid State Light Source.” The lamps described in this patent can comprise a solid state light source that transmits light through a separator to a disperser having a phosphor. The disperser can disperse the light in a desired pattern and/or changes its color by converting at least some of the light to a different wavelength through a phosphor or other conversion material. In some embodiments the separator spaces the light source a sufficient distance from the disperser such that heat from the light source will not transfer to the disperser when the light source is carrying elevated currents necessary for room illumination. Additional remote phosphor techniques are described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,614,759 to Negley et al., entitled “Lighting Device.”

One potential disadvantage of lamps incorporating remote phosphors is that they can have undesirable visual or aesthetic characteristics. For example, when a lamp is not generating light the lamp can have a surface color that is different from the typical white or clear appearance of the standard Edison bulb. In some instances the lamp can have a yellow or orange appearance, primarily resulting from the phosphor conversion material, such as yellow/green and red phosphors. This appearance can be considered undesirable for many applications where it can cause aesthetic issues with the surrounding architectural elements when the light is not illuminated. This can have a negative impact on the overall consumer acceptance of these types of lamps.

Further, compared to conformal or adjacent phosphor arrangements where heat generated in the phosphor layer during the conversion process may be conducted or dissipated via the nearby chip or substrate surfaces, remote phosphor arrangements can be subject to inadequate thermally conductive heat dissipation paths. Without an effective heat dissipation pathway, thermally isolated remote phosphors may suffer from elevated operating temperatures that in some instances can be even higher than the temperature in comparable conformal coated layers. This can offset some or all of the benefit achieved by placing the phosphor remotely with respect to the chip. Stated differently, remote phosphor placement relative to the LED chip can reduce or eliminate direct heating of the phosphor layer due to heat generated within the LED chip during operation, but the resulting phosphor temperature decrease may be offset in part or entirely due to heat generated in the phosphor layer itself during the light conversion process and lack of a suitable thermal path to dissipate this generated heat.

Another issue affecting the implementation and acceptance of lamps utilizing solid state light sources relates to the nature of the light emitted by the light source itself. Angular uniformity, also referred to as luminous intensity distribution, is also important for solid state light sources that are to replace standard incandescent bulbs. The geometric relationship between the filament of a standard incandescent bulb and the glass envelope, in combination with the fact that no electronics or heat sink is needed, allow light from an incandescent bulb to shine in a relatively omnidirectional pattern. That is, the luminous intensity of the bulb is distributed relatively evenly across angles in the vertical plane for a vertically oriented bulb from the top of the bulb to the screw base, with only the base itself presenting a significant light obstruction.

In order to fabricate efficient lamps or bulbs based on LED light sources (and associated conversion layers), it is typically desirable to place the LED chips or packages in a co-planar arrangement. This facilitates manufacture and can reduce manufacturing costs by allowing the use of conventional production equipment and processes. However, co-planar arrangements of LED chips typically produce a forward directed light intensity profile (e.g., a Lambertian profile). Such beam profiles are generally not desired in applications where the solid-state lamp or bulb is intended to replace a conventional lamp such as a traditional incandescent bulb, which has a much more omni-directional beam pattern. While it is possible to mount the LED light sources or packages in a three-dimensional arrangement, such arrangements are generally difficult and expensive to fabricate. Solid state light sources also typically include electronic circuitry and a heat sink, which may obstruct the light in some directions.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In certain embodiments, the present invention relates to a lighting unit using solid state light sources that conform to the shape of industry standard lighting units, such as A19 incandescent or fluorescent light sources, that provide certain improved performance characteristics for such lighting units, such as compliance with ENERGY STAR® performance requirements. These lighting units can be achieved by using various combinations of solid state light sources, such as light emitting diodes, a wavelength conversion material, such as a phosphor, a diffuser element and a thermal management element. In certain embodiments, the solid state light source comprises at least one light emitting diode emitting light of a first wavelength, e.g., blue light, and at least one light emitting diode emitting light of a second wavelength, e.g., red light. The wavelength conversion material comprises a remote wavelength conversion element over the solid state light source. The wavelength conversion element comprises at least one phosphor that interacts with the at least one of the first and second wavelengths of light to produce light of at least a third wavelength, e.g., yellow light. The diffuser element is remote from the wavelength conversion element and acts to produce more uniform light emission. The thermal management element comprises a heat sink unit that provides heat removal and comprises a shape that fits within an envelope of a standard incandescent or fluorescent light source, such as an A19 light bulb.

In certain embodiments, the present invention provides lamps and bulbs generally comprising different combinations and arrangement of a light source, one or more wavelength conversion materials, regions or layers which are positioned separately or remotely with respect to the light source, and a separate diffusing layer. This arrangement allows for the fabrication of lamps and bulbs that are efficient, reliable and cost effective and can provide an essentially omni-directional emission pattern, even with a light source comprised of a co-planar arrangement of LEDs. Additionally, this arrangement allows aesthetic masking or concealment of the appearance of the conversion regions or layers when the lamp is not illuminated. Various embodiments of the invention may be used to address many of the difficulties associated with utilizing efficient solid state light sources such as LEDs in the fabrication of lamps or bulbs suitable for direct replacement of traditional incandescent bulbs. Embodiments of the invention can be arranged to fit recognized standard size profiles such as those ascribed to commonly used lamps such as incandescent light bulbs, thereby facilitating direct replacement of such bulbs.

One embodiment of a lighting device according to the present invention comprises a light source on a heat sink. A diffuser is also included on the heat sink and spaced apart from the light source. A wavelength conversion material is included on the heat sink and disposed between the light source and the diffuser and spaced from the light source and the diffuser. The lamp is arranged to fit within the A19 envelope while emitting a substantially uniform emission pattern.

Another embodiment of a lighting device according to the present invention comprises a light source on a heat sink. Like the embodiment above, a diffuser is included on the heat sink and spaced apart from the light source. A wavelength conversion material is included on the heat sink and disposed between the light source and the diffuser and spaced from the light source and the diffuser. The heat sink comprises a plurality of heat fins each having a lower angled portion that angles out from the central axis of the lighting device, and an upper portion that angles back toward the central axis, wherein the lighting device emits a substantially uniform emission patter.

One embodiment of a solid state lamp according to the present invention comprises a heat sink with a plurality of heat fins and a solid state light source mounted on the heat sink. A phosphor carrier is included on the heat sink, over and spaced apart from the light source. A diffuser is also included on the heat sink, over and spaced apart from the phosphor carrier. The phosphor carrier and the diffuser are substantially frusto-spherical such that the phosphor carrier and diffuser provide a double-dome structure, wherein the lamp fits within a standard size profile, and emits a substantially uniform emission pattern.

These and other aspects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings which illustrate by way of example the features of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 shows a sectional view of one embodiment of a prior art LED package;

FIG. 2 shows a sectional view of another embodiment of a prior art LED package;

FIG. 3 shows the size specifications for an A19 replacement bulb;

FIG. 4 is a sectional view of one embodiment of a lamp according to the present invention;

FIG. 5 is a sectional view of one embodiment of a lamp according to the present invention;

FIG. 6 is a sectional view of one embodiment of a lamp according to the present invention;

FIG. 7-10 are sectional views of different embodiments of a phosphor carrier according to the present invention;

FIG. 11 is a perspective view of one embodiment of a lamp according to the present invention;

FIG. 12 is a sectional view of the lamp shown in FIG. 11;

FIG. 13 is an exploded view of the lamp shown in FIG. 11;

FIG. 14 is a perspective view of one embodiment of a lamp according to the present invention;

FIG. 15 is a perspective view of the lamp in FIG. 14 with a phosphor carrier;

FIG. 16 is exploded view of one embodiment of a lamp according to the present invention;

FIG. 17 is sectional view of the lamp shown in FIG. 16;

FIG. 18 is a side view of one embodiment of a heat sink according to the present invention;

FIG. 19 is a perspective view of one embodiment of a lamp according to the present invention;

FIG. 20 is a perspective exploded view of the embodiment shown in FIG. 19;

FIG. 21 is a sectional view of the embodiment shown in FIG. 19;

FIG. 22 is a side view of the embodiment shown in FIG. 19;

FIG. 23 is a sectional view of a portion of the lamp shown in FIG. 18;

FIG. 24 is another sectional view a portion of the lamp shown in FIG. 18, with a different heat sink fin arrangement;

FIGS. 25 through 28 are side views of a diffuser dome according to the present invention;

FIG. 29 is a side view of another embodiment of a diffuser dome according to the present invention;

FIG. 30 is a graph showing comparison emission profiles for a lamp according to the present invention;

FIG. 31 is a graph showing an emission profile for a lamp according to the present invention;

FIG. 32 is a table showing the emission characteristics for one embodiment of a lamp according to the present invention;

FIG. 33 is a graph showing emission profiles for certain lamp embodiments according to the present invention;

FIG. 34 is a table showing the emission characteristics for one embodiment of a lamp according to the present invention;

FIG. 35 is a graph showing one embodiment of diffuser layer thicknesses in a diffuser according to the present invention;

FIGS. 36 through 41 show different embodiments of diffuser domes according to the present invention; and

FIG. 42 is a sectional view of another embodiment of a lamp according to the present invention.

FIGS. 43-46 are sectional views of additional embodiments of a phosphor carrier according to the present invention;

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to different embodiments of lamp or bulb structures that are efficient, reliable and cost effective, and that in some embodiments can provide an essentially omnidirectional emission pattern from directional emitting light sources, such as forward emitting light sources. The present invention is also directed to lamp structures using solid state emitters with remote conversion materials (or phosphors) and remote diffusing elements or diffuser. In some embodiments, the diffuser not only serves to mask the phosphor from the view by the lamp user, but can also disperse or redistribute the light from the remote phosphor and/or the lamp's light source into a desired emission pattern. In some embodiments the diffuser dome can be arranged to disperse forward directed emission pattern into a more omnidirectional pattern useful for general lighting applications. The diffuser can be used in embodiments having two-dimensional as well as three-dimensional shaped remote conversion materials, with a combination of features capable of transforming forward directed emission from an LED light source into a beam profile comparable with standard incandescent bulbs.

Some embodiments of lamps can have a dome-shaped (or frusto-spherical shaped) three dimensional conversion material (phosphor carrier) over and spaced apart from the light source. A dome-shaped diffuser can also be included that is spaced apart from and over the conversion material, such that the lamp exhibits a double-dome structure. The spaces between the various structures can comprise light mixing chambers that can promote not only dispersion of, but also color uniformity of the lamp emission. The space between the light source and conversion material, as well as the space between the conversion material, can serve as light mixing chambers. Other embodiments can comprise additional conversion materials or diffusers that can form additional mixing chambers. The order of the dome conversion materials and dome shaped diffusers can be different such that some embodiments can have a diffuser inside a conversion material, with the spaces between forming light mixing chambers. These are only a few of the many different conversion material and diffuser arrangements according to the present invention.

Some lamp embodiments according to the present invention can comprise a light source having a co-planar arrangement of one or more LED chips or packages, with the emitters being mounted on a flat or planar surface. In other embodiments, the LED chips can be non co-planar, such as being on a pedestal or other three-dimensional structure. Co-planar light sources can reduce the complexity of the emitter arrangement, making them both easier and cheaper to manufacture. Co-planar light sources, however, tend to emit primarily in the forward direction such as in a Lambertian emission pattern. In different embodiments it can be desirable to emit a light pattern mimicking that of conventional incandescent light bulbs that can provide near uniform emission intensity and color uniformity at different emission angles. Different embodiments of the present invention can comprise features that can transform the emission pattern from the non-uniform to substantially uniform within a range of viewing angles.

In some embodiments, a conversion layer or region can comprise a phosphor carrier having a thermally conductive material that is at least partially transparent to light from the light source, and at least one phosphor material each of which absorbs light from the light source and emits a different wavelength of light. The diffuser can comprise a scattering film/particles and associated carrier such as a glass enclosure, and can serve to scatter or redirect at least some of the light emitted by the light source and/or phosphor carrier to provide a desired beam profile. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle. By masking the phosphor carrier and other internal lamp features the diffuser provides a desired overall lamp appearance when the lamp or bulb is not illuminated.

A heat sink structure can be included which can be in thermal contact with the light source and with the phosphor carrier, and other lamp elements to dissipate heat into the surrounding ambient. Electronic circuits may also be included to provide electrical power to the light source and other capabilities such as dimming, etc., and the circuits may include a means by which to apply power to the lamp, such as an Edison socket, etc.

Different embodiments of the lamps can have many different shapes and sizes, with some embodiments having dimensions to fit into standard size envelopes, such as the A19 size envelope 30 as shown in FIG. 3. This makes the lamps particularly useful as replacements for conventional incandescent and fluorescent lamps or bulbs, with lamps according to the present invention experiencing the reduced energy consumption and long life provided from their solid state light sources. The lamps according to the present invention can also fit other types of standard size profiles including but not limited to A21 and A23.

In some embodiments the light sources can comprise solid state light sources, such as different types of LEDs, LED chips or LED packages. In some embodiments a single LED chip or package can be used, while in others multiple LED chips or packages can be arranged in different types of arrays. By having the phosphor thermally isolated from LED chips and with good thermal dissipation, the LED chips can be driven by higher current levels without causing detrimental effects to the conversion efficiency of the phosphor and its long term reliability. This can allow for the flexibility to overdrive the LED chips to lower the number of LEDs needed to produce the desired luminous flux. This in turn can reduce the cost on complexity of the lamps. These LED packages can comprise LEDs encapsulated with a material that can withstand the elevated luminous flux or can comprise unencapsulated LEDs.

Some LED lamps according to the present invention can have a correlated color temperature (CCT) from about 1200K to 3500K, while others can emit light with a luminous intensity distribution that varies by not more than 10% from 0 to 150 degrees from the top of the lamp. In other embodiments, lamps can emit light with a luminous intensity distribution that varies by not more than 20% from 0 to 135 degrees. In some embodiments, at least 5% of the total flux from the lamps is in the 135-180 degree zone. Other embodiments can emit light having a luminous intensity distribution that varies by not more than 30% from 0 to 120 degrees. In some embodiments, the LED lamp has a color spatial uniformity of such that chromaticity with change in viewing angle varies by no more than 0.004 from a weighted average point. Other lamps can conform to the operational requirements for luminous efficacy, color spatial uniformity, light distribution, color rendering index, dimensions and base type for a 60-watt incandescent replacement bulb.

As described in more detail below, the LED lamps according to the present invention can have many different types of emitters that emit different wavelength spectrums of light. In some embodiments, a lighting unit according to the principles of the present invention emits light in at least three peak wavelengths, e.g., blue, yellow and red. At least a first wavelength is emitted by the solid state light source, such as blue light, and at least a second wavelength is emitted by the wavelength conversion element, e.g., green and/or yellow light. Depending on the embodiment, the third wavelength of light, such as green and/or red light can be emitted by the solid state light source and/or the wavelength conversion element. In some embodiments, the at least three wavelengths can be emitted by the wavelength conversion element or the solid state light source. In some embodiments, the solid state light source can emit overlapping, similar or the same wavelengths of light as the wavelength conversion material. For example, the solid state light source can comprise LEDs that emit a wavelength of light, e.g. red light, that overlaps or is substantially the same as light emitted by phosphors in the wavelength conversion material, e.g., red phosphor added to a yellow phosphor in the wavelength conversion material.

In some embodiments, the solid state light source comprises at least one additional LED that emits light having at least one different peak wavelength of light, and/or the wavelength conversion material comprises at least one additional phosphor or lumiphor emitting at least one different peak wavelength. Accordingly, the lighting unit emits light having at least four different peak wavelengths of light.

Depending on the embodiment, the solid state light source can comprise single or multiple strings of LEDs. The wavelength conversion element can include phosphors that are conformally coated on the solid state light source, dispensed over the solid state light source and/or positioned remote from the solid state light source as a distinct wavelength conversion element. For example a lighting unit using a wavelength conversion material that is coated or dispensed on individual LEDs in a solid state light source is described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/975,820 to van de Ven et al., entitled “LED Lamp with High Color Rendering Index,” assigned to Cree, Inc. and incorporated herein by reference. The wavelength conversion element can include phosphor particles coated on an inside and/or outside surface of a phosphor carrier and/or embedded or integral with a phosphor carrier. The diffuser element can include diffuser particles coated on an inside and/or outside surface of the diffuser and/or embedded within or integral with the diffuser. In some embodiments, the diffuser comprises structures or features, such as scouring or roughening.

Depending on the embodiment, different arrangements are possible relative to the relationship between the LED light sources and the wavelength conversion material. In some embodiments, a remote wavelength conversion element covers all of the LED light sources. In other embodiments, a remote wavelength conversion element covers some of the LED light sources but not all of the LED light sources. For example, a remote wavelength conversion element covers the LEDs emitting the same or similar wavelengths of light, e.g., blue light, but not other LEDs emitting another wavelength of light, e.g., red light. In some embodiments, at least a first remote wavelength conversion element covers a first set of LEDs, and at least a second wavelength converting element covers a second set of LEDs. Depending on the embodiment, the lighting unit can comprise LEDs that are optically coupled to a coated wavelength conversion material, a dispensed wavelength conversion material and/or a remote wavelength conversion material. Other arrangements are possible between the LEDs and the wavelength conversion material.

In some embodiments of the invention, the LED assembly includes LED packages emitting blue light and with others emitting red light. In some embodiments, the LED assembly of the LED lamp includes an LED array with at least two groups of LEDs, wherein one group, if illuminated, would emit light having dominant wavelength from 440 to 480 nm, and another group, if illuminated, would emit light having a dominant wavelength from 605 to 630 nm. The phosphor carrier can be arranged to absorb and re-emit light from one or both of the two wavelength spectrum and can have one or more phosphors, each of with can absorb light and re-emit a different wavelength of light (e.g. wavelength downconversion). Some lamp embodiments can comprise a plurality of LEDs emitting blue and red light, with the phosphor carrier comprising a yellow phosphor that absorbs blue light and re-emits yellow or green light, with a portion of the blue light passing through the phosphor carrier. The red light from the red LED(s) passes through the yellow/green phosphor while experiencing little or no absorption, such that the lamp emits a white light combination of blue, yellow/green and red. In still other embodiments, blue and red LED(s) the phosphor carrier can comprise yellow/green phosphor, and a red phosphor to contribute to the red component of the lamp lighting and to assist in dispersing the LED light.

In some embodiments, the LEDs can comprise two groups, with one group of LEDs being interconnected in a first serial string, and the other group of LEDs interconnected in a second serial string. This is only one of the many ways that the LEDs can be interconnected and it is understood that the LEDs can be arranged in many different parallel and serial interconnect combinations.

The lamps according to the present invention can emit light with a high color rendering index (CRI), such as or higher in some embodiments. In some other embodiments, the lamps can emit light with CRI of 90 or higher. The lamps can also produce light having a correlated color temperature (CCT) from 2500K to 3500K. In other embodiments, the light can have a CCT from 2700K to 3300K. In still other embodiments, the light can have a CCT from about 2725K to about 3045K. In some embodiments, the light can have a CCT of about 2700K or about 3000K. In still other embodiments, where the light is dimmable, the CCT may be reduced with dimming. In such a case, the CCT may be reduced to as low as 1500K or even 1200K. In some embodiments, the CCT can be increased with dimming. Depending on the embodiment, other output spectral characteristics can be changed based on dimming.

It should be noted that other arrangements of LEDs can be used with embodiments of the present invention. The same number of each type of LED can be used, and the LED packages can be arranged in varying patterns. A single LED of each type could be used. Additional LEDs, which produce additional colors of light, can be used. By using one or more LEDs emitting one or more additional colors and/or a wavelength conversion material comprising one or more additional phosphors or lumiphors, the CRI of the lighting unit can be increased. Lumiphors can be used with all the LED modules. A single lumiphor can be used with multiple LED chips and multiple LED chips can be included in one, some or all LED device packages. A further detailed example of using groups of LEDs emitting light of different wavelengths to produce substantially while light can be found in issued U.S. Pat. No. 7,213,940, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Some lamp embodiments according to the present invention can comprise a first group of solid state light emitters and a first group of lumiphors, with the first group of lumiphors including at least one lumiphor. The lamps also include a second group of solid state light emitters, with the second group of solid state light emitters including at least one solid state light emitter and at least a first power line. Each of the first group of solid state light emitters and each of the second group of solid state light emitters can be electrically connected to the first power line. Each of said first group of solid state light emitters, if illuminated, can emit light having a dominant wavelength in the range of from 430 nm to 480 nm. Each of said first group of lumiphors, if excited, can emit light having a dominant wavelength in the range of from about 555 nm to about 585 nm. Each of the second group of solid state light emitters, if illuminated, can emit light having a dominant wavelength in the range of from 600 nm to 630 nm.

If current is supplied to the first power line a combination of (1) light exiting the lighting device which was emitted by the first group of solid state light emitters, (2) light exiting the lighting device which was emitted by the first group of lumiphors, and (3) light exiting the lighting device which was emitted by the second group of solid state light emitters would, in an absence of any additional light, produce a mixture of light having x, y coordinates on a 1931 CIE Chromaticity Diagram. The coordinates define a point that is within ten MacAdam ellipses of at least one point on the blackbody locus on a 1931 CIE Chromaticity Diagram. This combination of light also produces a sub-mixture of light having x, y color coordinates which define a point which is within an area on a 1931 CIE Chromaticity Diagram enclosed by first, second, third, fourth and fifth connected line segments defined by first, second, third, fourth and fifth points. The first point can have x, y coordinates of 0.32, 0.40, the second point can have x, y coordinates of 0.36, 0.48, the third point can have x, y coordinates of 0.43, 0.45, the fourth point can have x, y coordinates of 0.42, 0.42, and the fifth point can have x, y coordinates of 0.36, 0.38.

The present invention also provides LED lamps with relative geometries of features such as the LED heat dissipation devices or heat sinks that allow for lamp emission patterns that meet the requirements of the ENERGY STAR® Program Requirements for Integral LED Lamps, amended Mar. 22, 2010, herein incorporated by reference. The relative geometries allow light to disperse within 20% of mean value from 0 to 135 degrees with greater that 5% of total luminous flux in the 135 to 180 degree zone (measurement at 0, 45 and 90 azimuth angles). The relative geometries include the LED assembly mounting width, height, head dissipation devices width and unique downward chamfered angle. Combined with a globe shaped phosphor carrier or a reflective umbrella and diffuser dome, the geometries will allow light to disperse within these stringent ENERGY STAR® requirements. The present invention can reduce the surface areas needed to dissipate LED and power electronics thermal energy and still allow the lamps to comply with ANSI A19 lamp profiles.

The present invention also provides for lamps with enhanced emission efficiencies, with some lamps according to the present invention emitting with an efficiency of 65 or more lumens per watt (LPW). In other embodiments the lamps can emit light at an efficiency of 80 or more LPW. In all these embodiments the lamp can emit light with a more desirable color temperature (e.g. 3000K or less or in some embodiments 2700K or less) and a more desirable color rendering index (e.g. 90 or greater CRI).

Some lamp embodiments according to the present invention can emit light of 700 lumens or greater, while others can emit light of 750 lumens or greater. Still other lamp embodiments can emit 800 lumens or greater, with some of these emitting this light from 10 watts or less. These emissions can provide the desired brightness while providing the additional advantage of being able to pass less stringent statutory (e.g. ENERGY STAR®) testing for lamps operating from less than 10 W. This can result in lamps that can be brought to market faster. This emission efficiency can be the result of many factors, such as the maximized fin area for the heat sink, optimized optics resulting in blocking of a minimal amount of light, and the use of a remote conversion material which can result in higher efficacy (80 lumens per watt or greater) than emitters having a conformal coated conversion material. Although embodiments can include emitters with conformal coated wavelength converter material. Accordingly, embodiments of the lighting unit according to aspects of the present invention can be used to provide LED-based replacement A-Lamp for standard incandescent 60 Watt incandescent light bulbs that can meet ENERGY STAR® performance requirements. Other embodiments can provide LED replacement A-Lamp lighting units for higher wattage incandescent bulbs, such as standard 75 Watt or 100 Watt incandescent A19 light bulbs. In other embodiments, the lighting unit could replace standard 40 Watt incandescent A19 bulbs. Other embodiments of the lighting unit according to aspects of the present invention can be used to replace other standard shaped incandescent or fluorescent lights.

Different lamp embodiments can also comprise components arranged such that the lamps exhibit a relatively long lifetime. In some embodiments the lifetime can be 25,000 hours or more, while in other embodiments it can be 40,000 hours or more. In still other embodiments the lifetime can be 50,000 hours or more. These extended lifetimes can be at operating efficiency of, for example, lumens per watt or more, and can be at different temperatures such as 25° C. and/or 45° C. This lifetime can be measured using a number of different methods. The first can be simply running the lamps for their lifetime until they fail. This can, however, often require extended periods of time that make this method impractical in certain circumstances. Another acceptable method is calculating the lamp lifetime by using the lifetime of each component used in lamp. This information is often provided by the component manufacturers, and often lists operating lifetime under different operating conditions, such as temperature. This data can then be utilized using known methods to calculate the lifetime of the lamp. A third acceptable method is to accelerate the lifetime of the lamp by operating it under elevated conditions such as higher temperature or elevated power or switching signals. This can cause early lamp failure, with this data then utilized in known methods to determine the operating lifetime of the lamp under normal operating conditions.

Different embodiments of the present invention can also comprise safety features that protect against the exposure of certain electrical features or elements in the event that one or both of the diffuser dome and phosphor globe are broken. These safety features can reduce and/or eliminate the danger of electrical shock from coming in contact with these electrical features, and in some embodiments these safety features can comprise different arrangements of electrically insulating materials covering the electrical features.

The present invention provides a unique combination of features and characteristics that allow for long lifetime and efficient operation in a simple and relatively inexpensive arrangement. The lamp can operate at an efficacy of 80 lumens per watt or better, while still producing a CRI of 80 and higher, or 90 and higher. In some embodiments, this efficacy can be achieved at less than 10 watts. This can be provided in a lamp having LEDs as its light source, and a double dome diffuser and conversion material arrangement, while still fitting in an A19 size envelope and emitting a uniform light distribution in compliance with ENERGY STAR® requirements. Lamps with this arrangement can also emit light having a temperature of 3000K and less, or 2700K or less.

The present invention is described herein with reference to certain embodiments, but it is understood that the invention can be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein. In particular, the present invention is described below in regards to certain lamps having one or multiple LEDs or LED chips or LED packages in different configurations, but it is understood that the present invention can be used for many other lamps having many different configurations. The embodiments below are described with reference to LED of LEDs, but it is understood that this is meant to encompass LED chips and LED packages. The components can have different shapes and sizes beyond those shown and different numbers of LEDs can be included. It is also understood that the embodiments described below utilize co-planar light sources, but it is understood that non co-planar light sources can also be used. It is also understood that the lamp's LED light source may be comprised of one or multiple LEDs, and in embodiments with more than one LED, the LEDs may have different emission wavelengths. Similarly, some LEDs may have adjacent or contacting phosphor layers or regions, while others may have either adjacent phosphor layers of different composition or no phosphor layer at all.

The present invention is described herein with reference to conversion materials, wavelength conversion materials, remote phosphors, phosphors, phosphor layers and related terms. The use of these terms should not be construed as limiting. It is understood that the use of the term remote phosphors, phosphor or phosphor layers is meant to encompass and be equally applicable to all wavelength conversion materials.

Some of the embodiments described herein comprise a remote phosphor and a separate remote diffuser arrangement, with some being in a double dome arrangement. It is understood that in other embodiments there can be a single dome like structure having both the conversion and diffusing properties, or there can be more than two domes with different combinations of conversion materials and diffusers. The conversion material and diffusers can be provided in respective domes, or the conversion material and diffusers can be together on one or more of the domes. The term dome should not be construed as limited to any particular shape. The term can encompass many different three dimensional shapes, including but not limited to bullet or globe shaped, or elongated.

The present invention is described herein with reference to conversion materials, phosphor layers and phosphor carriers and diffusers being remote to one another. Remote in this context refers to being spaced apart from and/or to not being on or in direct thermal contact. It is further understood that when discussing dominant wavelengths, there is range or width of wavelengths surrounding a dominant wavelength, so that when discussing a dominant wavelength the present invention is meant to cover a range of wavelengths around that wavelength.

It is also understood that when an element such as a layer, region or substrate is referred to as being “on” another element, it can be directly on the other element or intervening elements may also be present. Furthermore, relative terms such as “inner”, “outer”, “upper”, “above”, “lower”, “beneath”, and “below”, and similar terms, may be used herein to describe a relationship of one layer or another region. It is understood that these terms are intended to encompass different orientations of the device in addition to the orientation depicted in the figures.

Although the terms first, second, etc. may be used herein to describe various elements, components, regions, layers and/or sections, these elements, components, regions, layers and/or sections should not be limited by these terms. These terms are only used to distinguish one element, component, region, layer or section from another region, layer or section. Thus, a first element, component, region, layer or section discussed below could be termed a second element, component, region, layer or section without departing from the teachings of the present invention.

Embodiments of the invention are described herein with reference to cross-sectional view illustrations that are schematic illustrations of embodiments of the invention. As such, the actual thickness of the layers can be different, and variations from the shapes of the illustrations as a result, for example, of manufacturing techniques and/or tolerances are expected. Embodiments of the invention should not be construed as limited to the particular shapes of the regions illustrated herein but are to include deviations in shapes that result, for example, from manufacturing. A region illustrated or described as square or rectangular will typically have rounded or curved features due to normal manufacturing tolerances. Thus, the regions illustrated in the figures are schematic in nature and their shapes are not intended to illustrate the precise shape of a region of a device and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.

FIG. 4 shows one embodiment of a lamp 50 according to the present invention that comprises a heat sink structure 52 having an optical cavity 54 with a platform 56 for holding a light source 58. Although this embodiment and some embodiments below are described with reference to an optical cavity, it is understood that many other embodiments can be provided without optical cavities. These can include, but are not limited to, light sources being on a planar surface of the lamp structure or on a pedestal. The light source 58 can comprise many different emitters with the embodiment shown comprising an LED. Many different commercially available LED chips or LED packages can be used including but not limited to those commercially available from Cree, Inc. located in Durham, N.C. It is understood that lamp embodiments can be provided without an optical cavity, with the LEDs mounted in different ways in these other embodiments. By way of example, the light source can be mounted to a planar surface in the lamp or a pedestal can be provided for holding the LEDs.

The light source 58 can be mounted to the platform using many different known mounting methods and materials with light from the light source 58 emitting out the top opening of the cavity 54. In some embodiments light source 58 can be mounted directly to the platform 56, while in other embodiments the light source can be included on a submount or printed circuit board (PCB) that is then mounted to the platform 56. The platform 56 and the heat sink structure 52 can comprise electrically conductive paths for applying an electrical signal to the light source 58, with some of the conductive paths being conductive traces or wires. Portions of the platform 56 can also be made of a thermally conductive material and in some embodiments heat generated during operation can spread to the platform and then to the heat sink structure.

The heat sink structure 52 can at least partially comprise a thermally conductive material, and many different thermally conductive materials can be used including different metals such as copper or aluminum, or metal alloys. Copper can have a thermal conductivity of up to 400 W/m-k or more. In some embodiments the heat sink can comprise high purity aluminum that can have a thermal conductivity at room temperature of approximately 210 W/m-k. In other embodiments the heat sink structure can comprise die cast aluminum having a thermal conductivity of approximately 200 W/m-k. The heat sink structure 52 can also comprise other heat dissipation features such as heat fins 60 that increase the surface area of the heat sink to facilitate more efficient dissipation into the ambient. In some embodiments, the heat fins 60 can be made of material with higher thermal conductivity than the remainder of the heat sink. In the embodiment shown the fins 60 are shown in a generally horizontal orientation, but it is understood that in other embodiments the fins can have a vertical or angled orientation. In still other embodiments, the heat sink can comprise active cooling elements, such as fans, to lower the convective thermal resistance within the lamp. In some embodiments, heat dissipation from the phosphor carrier is achieved through a combination of convection thermal dissipation and conduction through the heat sink structure 52. Different heat dissipation arrangements and structures are described in U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 61/339,516, to Tong et al., entitled “LED Lamp Incorporating Remote Phosphor with Heat Dissipation Features and Diffuser Element,” also assigned to Cree, Inc. application and is incorporated herein by reference.

Reflective layers 53 can also be included on the heat sink structure 52, such as on the surface of the optical cavity 54. In those embodiments not having an optical cavity the reflective layers can be included around the light source. In some embodiments the surfaces can be coated with a material having a reflectivity of approximately 75% or more to the lamp visible wavelengths of light emitted by the light source 58 and/or wavelength conversion material (“the lamp light”), while in other embodiments the material can have a reflectivity of approximately 85% or more to the lamp light. In still other embodiments the material can have a reflectivity to the lamp light of approximately 95% or more.

The heat sink structure 52 can also comprise features for connecting to a source of electricity such as to different electrical receptacles. In some embodiments the heat sink structure can comprise a feature of the type to fit in conventional electrical receptacles. For example, it can include a feature for mounting to a standard Edison socket, which can comprise a screw-threaded portion which can be screwed into an Edison socket. In other embodiments, it can include a standard plug and the electrical receptacle can be a standard outlet, or can comprise a GU24 base unit, or it can be a clip and the electrical receptacle can be a receptacle which receives and retains the clip (e.g., as used in many fluorescent lights). These are only a few of the options for heat sink structures and receptacles, and other arrangements can also be used that safely deliver electricity from the receptacle to the lamp 50.

The lamps according to the present invention can comprise a power supply or power conversion unit that can comprise a driver to allow the bulb to run from an AC line voltage/current and to provide light source dimming capabilities. In some embodiments, the power supply can be housed in a cavity/housing within the lamps heat sink (one embodiment shown below in FIG. 42) can comprise an offline constant-current LED driver using a non-isolated quasi-resonant flyback topology. The LED driver can fit within the lamp and in some embodiments can comprise a 25 cubic centimeter volume or less, while in other embodiments it can comprise an approximately 22 cubic centimeter volume or less and still in other embodiments 20 cubic centimeters or less. In some embodiments the power supply can be non-dimmable but is low cost. It is understood that the power supply used can have different topology or geometry and can be dimmable as well. Embodiments having a dimmer can exhibit many different dimming characteristics such as phase cut dimmable down to 5% (both leading and trailing edge). In some dimming circuits according to the present invention, the dimming is realized by decreasing the output current to the LEDs.

The power supply unit can comprise many different components arranged on printed circuit boards in many different ways. The power supply can operate from many different power sources and can exhibit may different operating characteristics. In some embodiments the power supply can be arranged to operate from a 120 volts alternating current (VAC) ±10% signal while providing a light source drive signal of greater than 200 milliamps (mA) and/or greater than 10 volts (V). In other embodiments the drive signal can be greater than 300 mA generate power and/or greater than 15V. In some embodiments the drive signal can be approximately 400 mA and/or approximately 22V.

The power supply can also comprise components that allow it to operate with a relatively high level of efficiency. One measure of efficiency can be the percentage of input energy to the power supply that is actually output as light from the lamp light source. Much of the energy can be lost through the operation of the power supply. In some lamp embodiments, the power supply can operate such that more than 10% of the input energy to the power supply is radiated or output as light from the LEDs. In other embodiments more than 15% of the input energy is output as LED light. In still other embodiments, approximately 17.5% of input energy is output as LED light, and in others approximately 18% or greater input energy is output as LED light.

A thermal potting material or other suitable thermally conductive material can be included around the power supply for protection and to assist in radiating heat away from the power supply components. In the embodiment where the power supply is in the heat sink cavity, the thermal potting material can fill all or part of the cavity such that it surrounds the power supply. Many different thermally conductive materials can be used that exhibit some or all of the characteristics of being safe, electrically insulating, thermally conductive, having low thermal expansion, and viscous enough that it would not run out of cracks in the heat sink cavity prior to being cured. Some embodiments can use potting compounds comprising epoxy and fiberglass such as those available from Dow Corning, Inc.

A phosphor carrier 62 is included over the top opening of the cavity 54 and a dome shaped diffuser 76 is included over the phosphor carrier 62. In the embodiment shown, the phosphor carrier covers the entire opening and the cavity opening is shown as circular and the phosphor carrier 62 is a circular disk. It is understood that the cavity opening and the phosphor carrier can be many different shapes and sizes. It is also understood that the phosphor carrier 62 can cover less than the entire cavity opening. As further described below, the diffuser 76 is arranged to disperse the light from the phosphor carrier and/or LED into the desired lamp emission pattern and can comprise many different shapes and sizes depending on the light it receives from and the desired lamp emission pattern.

Embodiments of phosphor carriers according to the present invention can be characterized as comprising a conversion material and thermally conductive light transmitting material, but it is understood that phosphor carriers can also be provided that are not thermally conductive. The light transmitting material can be transparent to the light emitted from the light source 58 and the conversion material should be of the type that absorbs the wavelength of light from the light source and re-emits a different wavelength of light. In the embodiment shown, the thermally conductive light transmitting material comprises a carrier layer 64 and the conversion material comprises a phosphor layer 66 on the phosphor carrier. As further described below, different embodiments can comprise many different arrangements of the thermally conductive light transmitting material and conversion material.

When light from the light source 58 is absorbed by the phosphor in the phosphor layer 66 it is re-emitted in isotropic directions with approximately 50% of the light emitting forward and 50% emitting backward into the cavity 54. In prior LEDs having conformal phosphor layers, a significant portion of the light emitted backwards can be directed back into the LED and its likelihood of escaping is limited by the extraction efficiency of the LED structure. For some LEDs the extraction efficiency can be approximately 70%, so a percentage of the light directed from the conversion material back into the LED can be lost. In the lamps according to the present invention having the remote phosphor configuration with LEDs on the platform 56 at the bottom of the cavity 54 a higher percentage of the backward phosphor light strikes a surface of the cavity instead of the LED. Coating these surfaces with a reflective layer 53 increases the percentage of light that reflects back into the phosphor layer 66 where it can emit from the lamp. These reflective layers 53 allow for the optical cavity to effectively recycle photons, and increase the emission efficiency of the lamp. It is understood that the reflective layer can comprise many different materials and structures including but not limited to reflective metals or multiple layer reflective structures such as distributed Bragg reflectors. Reflective layers can also be included around the LEDs in those embodiments not having an optical cavity.

The carrier layer 64 can be made of many different materials having a thermal conductivity of 0.5 W/m-k or more, such as quartz, silicon carbide (SiC) (thermal conductivity ˜120 W/m-k), glass (thermal conductivity of 1.0-1.4 W/m-k) or sapphire (thermal conductivity of ˜40 W/m-k). In other embodiments, the carrier layer 64 can have thermal conductivity greater than 1.0 W/m-k, while in other embodiments it can have thermal conductivity of greater than 5.0 W/m-k. In still other embodiments it can have a thermal conductivity of greater that 10 W/m-k. In some embodiments the carrier layer can have thermal conductivity ranging from 1.4 to 10 W/m-k. The phosphor carrier can also have different thicknesses depending on the material being used, with a suitable range of thicknesses being 0.1 mm to 10 mm or more. It is understood that other thicknesses can also be used depending on the characteristics of the material for the carrier layer. The material should be thick enough to provide sufficient lateral heat spreading for the particular operating conditions. Generally, the higher the thermal conductivity of the material, the thinner the material can be while still providing the necessary thermal dissipation. Different factors can impact which carrier layer material is used including but not limited to cost and transparency to the light source light. Some materials may also be more suitable for larger diameters, such as glass or quartz. These can provide reduced manufacturing costs by formation of the phosphor layer on the larger diameter carrier layers and then singulation into the smaller carrier layers. In some embodiments, the phosphor carrier can comprise a polymer or plastic material with the phosphor coated on the inside surface and/or outside surface of the phosphor carrier and/or embedded or mixed in with the polymer or plastic.

Many different phosphors can be used in the phosphor layer 66 with the present invention being particularly adapted to lamps emitting white light. As described above, in some embodiments the light source 58 can be LED based and can emit light in the blue wavelength spectrum. The phosphor layer can absorb some of the blue light and re-emit yellow. This allows the lamp to emit a white light combination of blue and yellow light. In some embodiments, the blue LED light can be converted by a yellow conversion material using a commercially available YAG:Ce phosphor, although a full range of broad yellow spectral emission is possible using conversion particles made of phosphors based on the (Gd,Y)3(Al,Ga)5O12:Ce system, such as the Y3Al5O12:Ce (YAG). Other yellow phosphors that can be used for creating white light when used with a blue emitting LED based emitter include but not limited to:

Tb3-xRExO12:Ce(TAG); RE=Y, Gd, La, Lu; or

Sr2-x-yBaxCaySiO4:Eu.

The phosphor layer can also be arranged with more than one phosphor either mixed in with the phosphor layer 66 or as a second phosphor layer on the carrier layer 64. In some embodiments, each of the two phosphors can absorb the LED light and can re-emit different colors of light. In these embodiments, the colors from the two phosphor layers can be combined for higher CRI white of different white hue (warm white). This can include light from yellow phosphors above that can be combined with light from red phosphors. Different red phosphors can be used including:

SrxCa1-xS:Eu, Y; Y=halide;

CaSiAlN3:Eu; or

Sr2-yCaySiO4:Eu

Other phosphors can be used to create color emission by converting substantially all light to a particular color. For example, the following phosphors can be used to generate green light:

SrGa2S4:Eu;

Sr2-yBaySiO4:Eu; or

SrSi2O2N2:Eu.

The following lists some additional suitable phosphors used as conversion particles phosphor layer 66, although others can be used. Each exhibits excitation in the blue and/or UV emission spectrum, provides a desirable peak emission, has efficient light conversion, and has acceptable Stokes shift:

Yellow/Green

(Sr,Ca,Ba)(Al,Ga)2S4:Eu2+

Ba2(Mg,Zn)Si2O7:Eu2+

Gd0.46Sr0.31Al1.23OxF1.38:Eu2+ 0.06

(Ba1-x-ySrxCay)SiO4:Eu

Ba2SiO4:Eu2+

Lu3Al5O12 doped with Ce3+

(Ca,Sr,Ba)Si2O2N2 doped with Eu2+

CaSc2O4:Ce3+

(Sr,Ba)2SiO4:Eu2+

Red

Lu2O3:Eu3+

(Sr2-xLax)(Ce1-xEux) O4

Sr2Ce1-xEuxO4

Sr2-xEuxCeO4

SrTiO3:Pr3+,Ga3+

CaAlSiN3:Eu2+

Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+

Different sized phosphor particles can be used including but not limited to particles in the range of 10 nanometers (nm) to 30 micrometers (μm), or larger. Smaller particle sizes typically scatter and mix colors better than larger sized particles to provide a more uniform light. Larger particles are typically more efficient at converting light compared to smaller particles, but emit a less uniform light. In some embodiments, the phosphor can be provided in the phosphor layer 66 in a binder, and the phosphor can also have different concentrations or loading of phosphor materials in the binder. A typical concentration being in a range of 30-70% by weight. In one embodiment, the phosphor concentration is approximately 65% by weight, and is preferably uniformly dispersed throughout the remote phosphor. The phosphor layer 66 can also have different regions with different conversion materials and different concentrations of conversion material.

Different materials can be used for the binder, with materials preferably being robust after curing and substantially transparent in the visible wavelength spectrum. Suitable materials include silicones, epoxies, glass, inorganic glass, dielectrics, BCB, polymides, polymers, ethyl cellulose, sol get glass, and hybrids thereof, with the preferred material being silicone because of its high transparency and reliability in high power LEDs. Suitable phenyl- and methyl-based silicones are commercially available from Dow® Chemical. The binder can be cured using many different curing methods depending on different factors such as the type of binder used. Different curing methods include but are not limited to heat, ultraviolet (UV), infrared (IR) or air curing. In some embodiments, the binder can comprise a polymeric material or plastic.

Phosphor layer 66 can be applied using different processes including but not limited to spraying, immersion (dipping), spin coating, sputtering, printing, powder coating, electrophoretic deposition (EPD), electrostatic deposition, among others. As mentioned above, the phosphor layer 66 can be applied along with a binder material, but it is understood that a binder is not required. In still other embodiments, the phosphor layer 66 can be separately fabricated and then mounted to the carrier layer 64.

In one embodiment, a phosphor-binder mixture can be sprayed or dispersed over the carrier layer 64 with the binder then being cured to form the phosphor layer 66. In some of these embodiments the phosphor-binder mixture can be sprayed, poured or dispersed onto or over the a heated carrier layer 64 so that when the phosphor binder mixture contacts the carrier layer 64, heat from the carrier layer 64 spreads into and cures the binder. These processes can also include a solvent in the phosphor-binder mixture that can liquefy and lower the viscosity of the mixture making it more compatible with spraying. Many different solvents can be used including but not limited to toluene, benzene, zylene, or OS-20 commercially available from Dow Corning®, and different concentration of the solvent can be used. When the solvent-phosphor-binder mixture is sprayed or dispersed on the heated carrier layer 64 the heat from the carrier layer 64 evaporates the solvent, with the temperature of the carrier layer impacting how quickly the solvent is evaporated. The heat from the carrier layer 64 can also cure the binder in the mixture leaving a fixed phosphor layer on the carrier layer. The carrier layer 64 can be heated to many different temperatures depending on the materials being used and the desired solvent evaporation and binder curing speed. A suitable range of temperature is 90 to 150° C., but it is understood that other temperatures can also be used.

In still other embodiments, the phosphor layer 66 can be coated with layer of conversion particles only, without a binder. Deposition of this particle layer only can be achieved by electrostatic or electrophoretic deposition methods, or by using a volatile binder or solvent with the phosphor particles mixed in. The binder or solvent can then be selectively removed by thermal burn off or selective dissolving. It still other embodiments, the phosphor particles can be embedded in the carrier material. In these embodiments, the carrier can comprise a glass material such as soda lime or boro silicate, or a plastic material such as a poly carbonate. Various deposition methods and systems are described in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2010/0155763, to Donofrio et al, entitled “Systems and Methods for Application of Optical Materials to Optical Elements,” and also assigned to Cree, Inc., and incorporated herein by reference

The phosphor layer 66 can have many different thicknesses depending at least partially on the concentration of phosphor material and the desired amount of light to be converted by the phosphor layer 66. The phosphor layer 66 can have substantially the same thickness or varying thicknesses that in some embodiments can adjust or vary to the desired light color or emission pattern in the far field. The converter can comprise on or multiple layers of different phosphor materials, with some multiple layer arrangements described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/029,063, to Hussell et al. entitled “High Efficiency LED Lamp With Remote Phosphor and Diffuser Configuration,” also assigned to Cree, Inc., and incorporated herein by reference.

It is understood that various additives can be included in the phosphor layer 66 and the carrier layer 64, or both, to uniformly or selectively adjust or vary the emission color or intensity in the far field to produce the desired emission properties. Many different additives can be used, including but not limited to titania (TiO2), alumina (Al2O3), barium sulfate (BaSO4).

Phosphor layers according to the present invention can be applied with concentration levels (phosphor loading) above 30%. Other embodiments can have concentration levels above 50%, while in still others the concentration level can be above 60%. In some embodiments the phosphor layer can have thicknesses in the range of 10-100 microns, while in other embodiments it can have thicknesses in the range of 40-50 microns. In still other embodiments, the phosphor layers can have regions with different concentrations of phosphors, different amounts of phosphors or different properties that result in differing conversion characteristics.

The methods described above can be used to apply multiple layers of the same of different phosphor materials and different phosphor materials can be applied in different areas of the carrier layer using known techniques, such as masking processes. Other embodiments can comprise uniform and/or non-uniform distribution of phosphors in the phosphor carrier, such as with different phosphor layer thicknesses and/or different phosphor material concentrations along the carrier. There can be multiple areas of different types of phosphors that can emit the same or different colors of light, such as by having distinct regions of different phosphors. Some of these arrangements can give the phosphor carrier a patterned appearance, with some of the patterns including but not limited to striped, dotted, crisscrossed, zigzagged or any combination of these. In still other embodiments, there can be multiple remotely separated phosphors (e.g. domes) that can have different types of phosphor materials. Each of these remote phosphors can have one or multiple phosphors that can be arranged in the many different ways described above.

The methods described above provide some thickness control for the phosphor layer 66, but for even greater thickness control the phosphor layer can be ground using known methods to reduce the thickness of the phosphor layer 66 or to even out the thickness over the entire layer. This grinding feature provides the added advantage of being able to produce lamps emitting within a single bin on the CIE chromaticity graph. Binning is generally known in the art and is intended to ensure that the LEDs or lamps provided in groups that emit light within an acceptable color range. The LEDs or lamps can be tested and sorted by color or brightness into different bins, generally referred to in the art as binning. Each bin typically contains LEDs or lamps from one color and brightness group and is typically identified by a bin code. White emitting LEDs or lamps can be sorted by chromaticity (color) and luminous flux (brightness). The thickness control of the phosphor layer provides greater control in producing lamps that emit light within a target bin by controlling the amount of light source light converted by the phosphor layer. Multiple phosphor carriers 62 with the same thickness of phosphor layer 66 can be provided. By using a light source 58 with substantially the same emission characteristics, lamps can be manufactured having nearly the same emission characteristics that in some instances can fall within a single bin. In some embodiments, the lamp emissions fall within a standard deviation from a point on a CIE diagram, and in some embodiments the standard deviation comprises less than a 10-step McAdams ellipse. In some embodiments the emission of the lamps falls within a 4-step McAdams ellipse centered at CIExy (0.313, 0.323).

In still other embodiments, the phosphor carrier 62 can comprise reflective or diffusive materials or elements to control the emission intensity distribution. These materials or elements can be integrated in the phosphor carrier, such as by molding or coating using one the methods described above. In still other embodiments, the reflective or diffusive elements can be separately constructed and attached to the phosphor carrier. Some of these materials and elements can be opaque or partially opaque, while others can be specular or diffusive (lambertian) in nature.

The phosphor carrier 62 can be mounted and bonded over the opening in the cavity 54 using different known methods or materials such as thermally conductive bonding materials or a thermal grease. Conventional thermally conductive grease can contain ceramic materials such as beryllium oxide and aluminum nitride or metal particles such colloidal silver. In other embodiments the phosphor carrier can be mounted over the opening using thermal conductive devices such as clamping mechanisms, screws, or thermal adhesive hold phosphor carrier 62 tightly to the heat sink structure to maximize thermal conductivity. In one embodiment a thermal grease layer is used having a thickness of approximately 100 μm and thermal conductivity of k=0.2 W/m-k. This arrangement provides an efficient thermally conductive path for dissipating heat from the phosphor layer 66. As mentioned above, different lamp embodiments can be provided without cavity and the phosphor carrier can be mounted in many different ways beyond over an opening to the cavity.

During operation of the lamp 50 phosphor conversion heating is concentrated in the phosphor layer 66, such as in the center of the phosphor layer 66 where the majority of LED light strikes and passes through the phosphor carrier 62. The thermally conductive properties of the carrier layer 64 spreads this heat laterally toward the edges of the phosphor carrier 62 as shown by first heat flow 70. There the heat passes through the thermal grease layer and into the heat sink structure 52 as shown by second heat flow 72 where it can efficiently dissipate into the ambient.

As discussed above, in the lamp 50 the platform 56 and the heat sink structure 52 can be thermally connected or coupled. This coupled arrangement results in the phosphor carrier 62 and that light source 58 at least partially sharing a thermally conductive path for dissipating heat. Heat passing through the platform 56 from the light source 58 as shown by third heat flow 74 can also spread to the heat sink structure 52. Heat from the phosphor carrier 62 flowing into the heat sink structure 52 can also flow into the platform 56. In other embodiments, the phosphor carrier 62 and the light source 58 can have separate thermally conductive paths for dissipating heat, with these separate paths being referred to as “decoupled”.

It is understood that the phosphor carriers can be arranged in many different ways beyond the embodiment shown in FIG. 4. The phosphor layer can be on any surface of the carrier layer or can be mixed in with the carrier layer. The phosphor carriers can also comprise scattering layers that can be included on or mixed in with the phosphor layer or carrier layer. It is also understood that the phosphor and scattering layers can cover less than a surface of the carrier layer and in some embodiments the conversion layer and scattering layer can have different concentrations in different areas. It is also understood that the phosphor carrier can have different roughened or shaped surfaces to enhance emission through the phosphor carrier.

As mentioned above, the diffuser 75 is arranged to disperse light from the phosphor carrier and LED into the desired lamp emission pattern, and can have many different shapes and sizes. In some embodiments, the diffuser also can be arranged over the phosphor carrier to mask the phosphor carrier when the lamp is not emitting. The diffuser can have materials to give a substantially white appearance to give the bulb a white appearance when the lamp is not emitting.

Many different diffusers with different shapes and attributes can be used with lamp 50 as well as the lamps described below, such as those described in U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/339,515, titled “LED Lamp With Remote Phosphor and Diffuser Configuration”, file on Mar. 3, 2010, which is incorporated herein by reference. Diffuser can also take different shapes, including but not limited to generally asymmetric “squat” as in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/901,405, titled “Non-uniform Diffuser to Scatter Light Into Uniform Emission Pattern,” filed on Oct. 8, 2010, incorporated herein by reference

The lamps according to the present invention can comprise many different features beyond those described above. Referring again to FIG. 4, in those lamp embodiments having a cavity 54 can be filled with a transparent heat conductive material to further enhance heat dissipation for the lamp. The cavity conductive material could provide a secondary path for dissipating heat from the light source 58. Heat from the light source would still conduct through the platform 56, but could also pass through the cavity material to the heat sink structure 52. This would allow for lower operating temperature for the light source 58, but presents the danger of elevated operating temperature for the phosphor carrier 62. This arrangement can be used in many different embodiments, but is particularly applicable to lamps having higher light source operating temperatures compared to that of the phosphor carrier. This arrangement allows for the heat to be more efficiently spread from the light source in applications where additional heating of the phosphor carrier layer can be tolerated.

As discussed above, different lamp embodiments according to the present invention can be arranged with many different types of light sources. In one embodiment eight or nine LEDs can be used that are connected in series with two wires to a circuit board. The wires can then be connected to the power supply unit described above. In other embodiments, more or less than eight or nine LEDs can be used and as mentioned above, commercially available LEDs from Cree, Inc. can used including eight XLamp® XP-E LEDs or four XLamp® XP-G LEDs. Different single string LED circuits are described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/566,195, to van de Ven et al., entitled “Color Control of Single String Light Emitting Devices Having Single String Color Control, and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/704,730 to van de Ven et al., entitled “Solid State Lighting Apparatus with Compensation Bypass Circuits and Methods of Operation Thereof”, both of which are incorporated herein by reference.

FIG. 5 shows still another embodiment of lamp 100 according to the present invention that comprises an optical cavity 102 within a heat sink structure 105. Like the embodiments above, the lamp 100 can also be provided without a lamp cavity, with the LEDs mounted on a surface of the heat sink 105 or on a three dimensional or pedestal structures having different shapes. A planar LED based light source 104 is mounted to the platform 106, and a phosphor carrier 108 is mounted to the top opening of the cavity 102, with the phosphor carrier 108 having any of the features of those described above. In the embodiment shown, the phosphor carrier 108 can be in a flat disk shape (e.g., a remote two dimensional wavelength conversion element) and comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and a phosphor layer. It can be mounted to the cavity with a thermally conductive material or device as described above. The cavity 102 can have reflective surfaces to enhance the emission efficiency as described above.

Light from the light source 104 passes through the phosphor carrier 108 where a portion of it is converted to a different wavelength of light by the phosphor in the phosphor carrier 108. In one embodiment the light source 104 can comprise blue emitting LEDs and the phosphor carrier 108 can comprise a yellow phosphor as described above that absorbs a portion of the blue light and re-emits yellow light. The lamp 100 emits a white light combination of LED light and yellow phosphor light. Like above, the light source 104 can also comprise many different LEDs emitting different colors of light and the phosphor carrier can comprise other phosphors to generate light with the desired color temperature and rendering.

The lamp 100 also comprises a shaped diffuser dome 110 mounted over the cavity 102 that includes diffusing or scattering particles such as those listed above. The scattering particles can be provided in a curable binder that is formed in the general shape of dome. In the embodiment shown, the dome 110 is mounted to the heat sink structure 105 and has an enlarged portion at the end opposite the heat sink structure 105. Different binder materials can be used as discussed above such as silicones, epoxies, glass, inorganic glass, dielectrics, BCB, polymides, plastics, polymers and hybrids thereof. In some embodiments white scattering particles can be used with the dome having a white color that hides the color of the phosphor in the phosphor carrier 108 in the optical cavity. This gives the overall lamp 100 a white appearance that is generally more visually acceptable or appealing to consumers than the color of the phosphor. In one embodiment the diffuser can include white titanium dioxide particles that can give the diffuser dome 110 its overall white appearance.

The diffuser dome 110 can provide the added advantage of distributing the light emitting from the optical cavity in a more uniform pattern. As discussed above, light from the light source in the optical cavity can be emitted in a generally Lambertian pattern and the shape of the dome 110 along with the scattering properties of the scattering particles causes light to emit from the dome in a more omnidirectional emission pattern. An engineered dome can have scattering particles in different concentrations in different regions or can be shaped to a specific emission pattern.

In the United States, the ENERGY STAR® program, run jointly by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy promulgates a standard for integrated LED lamps, the measurement techniques for both color and angular uniformity are described in the ENERGY STAR® Program Requirements, which is incorporated above by reference. For a vertically oriented lamp, luminous intensity is measured in vertical planes 45 and 90 degrees from an initial plane. It shall not differ from the mean intensity by more than 20% for the entire 0-135 degree zone for the lamp, with zero defined as the top of the envelope. Additionally, 5% of the total flux from the lamp shall be in the 135-180 degree zone.

In some embodiments, including those described below, the dome can be engineered so that the emission pattern from the lamp complies with the omnidirectional emission criteria of the ENERGY STAR® Program Requirements for Integral LED Lamps, amended Mar. 22, 2010, which is incorporated herein by reference. One requirement of this standard met by the lamps herein is that the emission uniformity must be within 20% of mean value from 0 to 135° viewing. Another is that greater than 5% of total flux from the lamp must be emitted in the 135-180° emission zone, with the measurements taken at 0, 45, 90° azimuthal angles. As mentioned above, the different lamp embodiments described herein can also comprise A-type (e.g. A19) retrofit LED bulbs that meet the ENERGY STAR® standards. The present invention provides lamps that are efficient, reliable and cost effective. In some embodiments, the entire lamp can comprise five components that can be quickly and easily assembled.

Like the embodiments above, the lamp 100 can comprise a mounting mechanism 112 connected to the heat sink 105, of the type to fit in conventional electrical receptacles. In the embodiment shown, the lamp 100 includes a screw-threaded portion 112 for mounting to a standard Edison socket. Like the embodiments above, the lamp 100 can include standard plug and the electrical receptacle can be a standard outlet, or can comprise a GU24 base unit, or it can be a clip and the electrical receptacle can be a receptacle which receives and retains the clip (e.g., as used in many fluorescent lights). The heat sink structure can also comprise an internal cavity or housing holding power supply or power conversion unit components as described above.

As mentioned above, the space between some of the features of the lamp 100 can be considered mixing chambers, with the space between the light source 106 and the phosphor carrier 108 comprising a first light mixing chamber. The space between the phosphor carrier 108 and the diffuser 110 can comprise a second light mixing chamber, with the mixing chamber promoting uniform color and intensity emission for the lamp. The same can apply to the embodiments below having different shaped phosphor carriers and diffusers. In other embodiments, additional diffusers and/or phosphor carriers can be included forming additional mixing chambers, and the diffusers and/or phosphor carriers can be arranged in different orders.

Different lamp embodiments according to the present invention can have many different shapes and sizes. FIG. 6 shows another embodiment of a lamp 120 according to the present invention that is similar to the lamp 100 and similarly comprises an optical cavity 122 in a heat sink structure 125 with a light source 124 mounted to the platform 126 in the optical cavity 122. Like above, the heat sink structure need not have an optical cavity, and the light sources can be provided on other structures beyond a heat sink structure. These can include planar surfaces or pedestals having the light source. A phosphor carrier 128 is mounted over the cavity opening with a thermal connection. The lamp 120 also comprises a diffuser dome 130 mounted to the heat sink structure 125, over the optical cavity. The diffuser dome 130 can be made of the same materials as diffusers described above, but in this embodiment the dome 130 is globe, oval or egg shaped to provide a different lamp emission pattern while still masking the color from the phosphor in the phosphor carrier 128.

It is understood that in other lamp embodiments the phosphor carriers can take many different shapes including different three-dimensional shapes. The term three-dimensional is meant to mean any shape other than planar as shown in the above embodiments. FIGS. 7 through 10 show different embodiments of three-dimensional phosphor carriers according to the present invention, but it is understood that they can also take many other shapes. As discussed above, when the phosphor absorbs and re-emits light, it is re-emitted in an isotropic fashion, such that the 3-dimensional phosphor carrier serves to convert and also disperse light from the light source. Like the diffusers described above, the different shapes of the 3-dimensional carrier layers can emit light in emission patterns having different characteristics that depends partially on the emission pattern of the light source. The diffuser can then be matched with the emission of the phosphor carrier to provide the desired lamp emission pattern.

FIG. 7 shows a hemispheric shaped phosphor carrier 154 comprising a hemispheric carrier 155 and phosphor layer 156. The hemispheric carrier 155 can be made of the same materials as the carrier layers described above, and the phosphor layer can be made of the same materials as the phosphor layer described above, and scattering particles can be included in the carrier and phosphor layer as described above.

In this embodiment the phosphor layer 156 is shown on the outside surface of the carrier 155 although it is understood that the phosphor layer can be on the carrier's inside layer, mixed in with the carrier, or any combination of the three. In some embodiments, having the phosphor layer on the outside surface may minimize emission losses. When emitter light is absorbed by the phosphor layer 156 it is emitted omnidirectionally and some of the light can emit backwards and be absorbed by the lamp elements such as the LEDs. The phosphor layer 156 can also have an index of refraction that is different from the hemispheric carrier 155 such that light emitting forward from the phosphor layer can be reflected back from the inside surface of the carrier 155. This light can also be lost due to absorption by the lamp elements. With the phosphor layer 156 on the outside surface of the carrier 155, light emitted forward does not need to pass through the carrier 155 and will not be lost to reflection. Light that is emitted back will encounter the top of the carrier where at least some of it will reflect back. This arrangement results in a reduction of light from the phosphor layer 156 that emits back into the carrier where it can be absorbed.

The phosphor layer 156 can be deposited using many of the same methods described above. In some instances the three-dimensional shape of the carrier 155 may require additional steps or other processes to provide the necessary coverage. In the embodiments where a solvent-phosphor-binder mixture is sprayed and the carrier can be heated as described above and multiple spray nozzles may be needed to provide the desired coverage over the carrier, such as approximate uniform coverage. In other embodiments, fewer spray nozzles can be used while spinning the carrier to provide the desired coverage. Like above, the heat from the carrier 155 can evaporate the solvent and helps cure the binder.

In still other embodiments, the phosphor layer can be formed through an emersion process whereby the phosphor layer can be formed on the inside or outside surface of the carrier 155, but is particularly applicable to forming on the inside surface. The carrier 155 can be at least partially filled with, or otherwise brought into contact with, a phosphor mixture that adheres to the surface of the carrier. The mixture can then be drained from the carrier leaving behind a layer of the phosphor mixture on the surface, which can then be cured. In one embodiment, the mixture can comprise polyethylen oxide (PEO) and a phosphor. The carrier can be filled and then drained, leaving behind a layer of the PEO-phosphor mixture, which can then be heat cured. The PEO evaporates or is driven off by the heat leaving behind a phosphor layer. In some embodiments, a binder can be applied to further fix the phosphor layer, while in other embodiments the phosphor can remain without a binder.

Like the processes used to coat the planar carrier layer, these processes can be utilized in three-dimensional carriers to apply multiple phosphor layers that can have the same or different phosphor materials. The phosphor layers can also be applied both on the inside and outside of the carrier, and can have different types having different thickness in different regions of the carrier. In still other embodiments different processes can be used such as coating the carrier with a sheet of phosphor material that can be thermally formed to the carrier.

In lamps utilizing the carrier 155, an emitter can be arranged at the base of the carrier so that light from the emitters emits up and passes through the carrier 155. In some embodiments the emitters can emit light in a generally Lambertian pattern, and the carrier can help disperse the light in a more uniform pattern.

FIG. 8 shows another embodiment of a three dimensional phosphor carrier 157 according to the present invention comprising a bullet-shaped carrier 158 and a phosphor layer 159 on the outside surface of the carrier. The carrier 158 and phosphor layer 159 can be formed of the same materials using the same methods as described above. The different shaped phosphor carrier can be used with a different emitter to provide the overall desired lamp emission pattern. FIG. 9 shows still another embodiment of a three dimensional phosphor carrier 160 according to the present invention comprising a globe-shaped carrier 161 and a phosphor layer 162 on the outside surface of the carrier. The carrier 161 and phosphor layer 162 can be formed of the same materials using the same methods as described above.

FIG. 10 shows still another embodiment phosphor carrier 163 according to the present invention having a generally globe shaped carrier 164 with a narrow neck portion 164. Like the embodiments above, the phosphor carrier 164 includes a phosphor layer 166 on the outside surface of the carrier 164 made of the same materials and formed using the same methods as those described above. In some embodiments, phosphor carriers having a shape similar to the carrier 164 can be more efficient in converting emitter light and re-emitting light from a Lambertian pattern from the light source, to a more uniform emission pattern.

FIGS. 11 through 13 show another embodiment of a lamp 170 according to the present invention having a heat sink structure 172, optical cavity 174, light source 176, diffuser dome 178 and a screw-threaded portion 180. These features can be made of the same materials using the same methods as the similar features described above. This embodiment also comprises a three-dimensional wavelength conversion element 182 (e.g., a phosphor carrier that includes a thermally conductive transparent material and at least one phosphor layer). Depending on the embodiment, the wavelength conversion element comprises a phosphor layer(s) on an inside, outside and/or embedded within the phosphor carrier. In this embodiment, the wavelength conversion element is on (e.g., mounted to the heat sink structure 172 and thermally coupled or connected to the heat sink structure 172. In other embodiments, an electrically insulating element (not shown) can be between the heat sink structure and the wavelength conversion element, and the wavelength conversion element can be retained by the electrically insulating element. The electrically insulating element can include opening(s) over the light source 176 (e.g., LEDs) to allow the light to pass through while covering the heat sink structure 172 to protect against electrical shock. In some embodiments, the electrically insulating element can also act as a reflector. In this embodiment, the phosphor carrier 182 is globe or sphere shaped and the emitters are arranged so that light from the light source passes through the phosphor carrier 182 where at least some of it is converted.

The three dimensional shape of the phosphor carrier 182 provides natural separation between it and the light source 176. Accordingly, the light source 176 is not mounted in a recess in the heat sink that forms the optical cavity. Instead, in this embodiment, the light source 176 is mounted on the top surface of the heat sink structure 172, with the optical cavity 174 formed by the space between the phosphor carrier 182 and the top of the heat sink structure 172. This arrangement can allow for a less Lambertian emission from the optical cavity 174 because there are no optical cavity side surfaces to block and redirect sideways emission. In other embodiments, the light source 176 is on a mounting element (not shown), such as a printed circuit board, metal core board or other element on which the light source is mounted. In some embodiments, the mounting element can include other electronics, such as compensation and/or control circuitry (not shown), and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure 172. The compensation and/or control circuitry can include a microprocessor, application specific integrated circuitry or other processing circuitry that is electrically coupled to the power supply unit and the light source 176. In some embodiments, the control circuitry or portions thereof can be located within the heat sink cavity/housing with the power supply unit and/or mounted on a surface of the mounting element opposite from the LEDs. The compensation and/or control circuitry can comprises circuitry as described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/566,195, to van de Ven et al., entitled “Color Control of Single String Light Emitting Devices Having Single String Color Control, and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/704,730 to van de Ven et al., entitled “Solid State Lighting Apparatus with Compensation Bypass Circuits and Methods of Operation Thereof”, both of which have been incorporated above by reference.

In embodiments of the lamp 170 utilizing blue emitting LEDs for the light source 176 and yellow and red phosphor combination in the phosphor carrier. This can cause the phosphor carrier 182 to appear yellow or orange, and the diffuser dome 178 masks this color while dispersing the lamp light into the desired emission pattern. In lamp 170, the conductive paths for the platform and heat sink structure are coupled, but it is understood that in other embodiments they can be de-coupled.

FIG. 14 shows one embodiment of a lamp 190 according to the present invention comprising an eight LED light source 192 mounted on a heat sink 194 as described above. The emitters can comprise many different types of LEDs that can be coupled together in many different ways and in the embodiment shown are serially connected. It is noted that in this embodiment the emitters are not mounted in an optical cavity, but are instead mounted on top planar surface of the heat sink 194. FIG. 15 shows the lamp 190 shown in FIG. 14 with a globe shaped phosphor carrier 196 mounted over the light source 192 shown in FIG. 14. The lamp 190 shown in FIG. 15 can be combined with the diffuser 198 as described above to form a lamp with dispersed light emission.

As mentioned above, the phosphor carriers can comprise multiple conversion materials, such as yellow/green and red phosphors. These phosphors can provide the yellow/green light components for the white light lamp emission. In different embodiments, however, these light components can be provided directly from LED chips instead of through phosphor conversion. These different arrangements can provide certain advantages, including but not limited to lamps that require lower operating power and can be less expensive by eliminating the need for certain phosphors. In other embodiments, certain of these color components can be provided directly from the different color LED chips. For example, the red component of the emission can be provided directly from red emitting LEDs as described in U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/424,670 to Yuan et at., titled “LED Lamp With Remote Phosphor and Diffuser Configuration Utilizing Red Emitters,” which is incorporated herein by reference.

FIGS. 16 and 17 show another embodiment of a lamp 250 according to the present invention similar to those shown and described in U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/339,515, filed on Mar. 3, 2010, and titled “Lamp With Remote Phosphor and Diffuser Configuration.” and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/901,405, filed on Oct. 8, 2010, and titled “Non-uniform Diffuser to Scatter Light Into Uniform Emission Pattern,” both of which are incorporated herein by reference.

The lamp 250 comprises a heat sink 252, with a dome shaped phosphor carrier 254 and dome shaped diffuser 256 that can be made of the same materials using the same methods described above. It also comprises LEDs 258 that in this embodiment are mounted on a planar surface 259 of the heat sink 252 with the phosphor carrier and diffuser over the LED chips 258. The LED chips 258 and phosphor carrier 254 can comprise any of the arrangements and characteristics described above, such as some embodiments having a red and blue emitting LED chips. The phosphor carrier can comprise one or more of the phosphor materials described above, but preferably comprises a phosphor that absorbs blue light and emits yellow light so that the lamp emits a white light combination of blue, red and yellow.

The lamp 250 can comprise a mounting mechanism 259 of the type to fit in conventional electrical receptacles. In the embodiment shown, the lamp 250 includes a screw-threaded portion 260 for mounting to a standard Edison socket. Like the embodiments above, the lamp 250 can include standard plug and the electrical receptacle can be a standard outlet, or can comprise a GU24 base unit, or it can be a clip and the electrical receptacle can be a receptacle which receives and retains the clip (e.g., as used in many fluorescent lights).

The lamps according to the present invention can comprise a power supply or power conversion unit as described above that can be arranged in a cavity or housing within the heat sink. As above, these can comprise a driver to allow the bulb to run from an AC line voltage/current and to provide light source dimming capabilities. In some embodiments, the power supply can comprise an offline constant-current LED driver using a non-isolated quasi-resonant flyback topology. The LED driver can fit within the lamp 250, such as in body portion 262. In some embodiments the power supply can be non-dimmable but is relatively low cost. It is understood that the power supply used can have many different topologies or geometries and can be arranged in many different ways.

The different lamp components can have many different shapes and can arranged in many different ways. In particular, the heat sinks can be arranged in many different ways to meet the desired size, thermal management characteristics, and desired emission characteristics. As shown in FIG. 3, the relatively specific and constrained envelope available for A19 standard sizes can result in limited options for different shapes and sizes of heat sinks. This is particularly true for LED lamps having features to allow them to meet certain emission characteristics, such as the ENERGY STAR® program as described above.

FIG. 18 shows one embodiment of a heat sink 300 according to a heat sink according to the present invention that is capable of having LEDs, phosphor carrier and diffuser dome being mounted on it to form a lamp. The heat sink 300 can be made of the same thermally conductive materials discussed above. The heat sink 300 can be used in many different lamps, but is particularly sized to fit within A19 envelope requirements, while having angled surfaces that allow for the lamp to emit light within the ENERGY STAR® emission requirements.

The heat sink 300 can have a cylindrical shaped core/housing 302 to house a power control unit as discussed above. It can also have heat fins 304 designed to conduct heat away from the lamps heat generating components, such as the LEDs, power electronics, etc. The heat fins 304 can have many different shapes and sizes and can be made of many of the thermally conductive materials described above. There can also be many different numbers of heat sink fins 304 in different embodiments, with some embodiments having between 20 and 60 heat fins. Other embodiments can have 30 to 50 heat fins, while other embodiments can have 35 to 40 heat fins. In one embodiment, the heat sink 452 can have approximately 38 heat fins. The number of heat sink fins 304 can be reduced, but this can result in a corresponding reduction in surface area to dissipate heat. When fewer fins are used, larger fins can be used, but this can result in an unacceptable amount of light being blocked by the fins or can result in fins that fall outside of the A19 envelope.

The heat fins 304 can each have substantially the same shape, although in other embodiments they can have different shapes. Each of the heat fins 304 can have a lower portion 306 that is sized and angled away from the center of the heat sink 304 in a manner that allows the heat sink to fit in the middle angled portion of the A19 envelope. In the embodiment shown, the lower portion 306 is angled at approximately 150 degrees from vertical (or 60 degrees from horizontal), but it is understood that the fins can have many other angles. In particular, the lower portion can have fins that at angles greater than 150° to vertical. The top portion 308 of the heat sink can be angled back toward the center of the heat sink 300, with this angle being chosen depending on desired emission characteristics. In some embodiments, a lamp utilizing this heat sink can emit be arranged to emit light meeting the ENERGY STAR® emission characteristics as described above. In particular and as further described below, the top portion 308 can be angled so as not to block too much light emitted from the lamp in the downward direction, while still providing the desired surface area for heat dissipation.

FIGS. 19 through 22 show one embodiment of a lamp 450 according to the present invention utilizing a heat sink 452 with heat sink fins 453 similar to the ones shown in FIG. 18. The internal components of the lamp 450 are best shown in FIGS. 20 and 21. Like the embodiments above the lamp 450 comprises a dome shaped phosphor carrier 454 and dome shaped diffuser 456. It also comprises LEDs 458 that in this embodiment are mounted on a planar surface of the heat sink 452 with the phosphor carrier and diffuser 454. 456 over the LED 458. As with the other LED lamps described herein, the LED chips 458, diffuser 456, and phosphor carrier 454 can comprise any of the shapes, arrangements and characteristics described above, such as some embodiments having a red and blue emitting LED chips. The phosphor carrier 454 can comprise one or more of the phosphor materials described above, some embodiments comprising a phosphor that absorbs blue light and emits yellow light so that the lamp emits a white light combination of blue, red and yellow.

The lamp 450 can comprise a mounting mechanism of the type to fit in conventional electrical receptacles, such as a threaded portion 460 for turning into to a standard Edison socket, as well as the alternative mounting mechanisms mentioned above. The dome shaped diffuser can be many different shapes and sizes and in the embodiment shown is “squat shaped” and can have different amounts of diffuser in different section, both as described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/901,405, incorporated above.

The LEDs 458 are mounted on a printed circuit board 462 using conventional mounting methods, with the PCB 462 mounted to the heat sink platform 464 using mounting screws 466 that pass through the PCB 462 and turn into screw holes 467 in the head sink platform 464. It is understood that many other embodiments can utilize different mounting methods and mechanisms. The phosphor carrier 454 is also mounted to the platform 464 and over the LEDs 458 such that light from the LEDs passes through the phosphor carrier 454. A channel 468 is provided around the platform 464, with lower edge of the diffuser dome 456 resting in the channel 468. The phosphor carrier 454 and diffuser dome 456 can be mounted in place using known mounting materials and methods. In this embodiment, the diffuser dome rests in the channel 468 below the LEDs 458 and the wavelength conversion element 454 rests in the channel 473 above the LEDs 458. Depending on the embodiment, the relative mounting positions of the wavelength conversion element 454, the diffuser dome 458, the LEDs 458 and/or the top surfaces of the heat sink 452 can vary.

By providing a channel 468, the diffuser dome 456 can be arranged lower in the heat sink 452. This can provide a number of advantages. This can result in overlap between the diffuser dome 456 and the heat sink fins 453 to promote heat dissipation. This arrangement can allow the diffuser dome 456 to be lower also to assist in allowing the lamp 450 to fit within the desired length, such as those provided in A19 envelope. This also results in the lower edge of the diffuser dome 456 being below the lower edge of the phosphor carrier 454, such that the phosphor carrier is essentially raised within this diffuser dome 456. This places the phosphor carrier 454 closer to the center of the diffuser dome 456, which can promote uniform distribution from the lamp 450. There can be factors that present a practical limit the distance the phosphor carrier 454 can be raised in relation to the diffuser dome 456. For example, if the phosphor carrier 454 is raised too close to the diffuser dome 456, the yellow from the phosphor carrier 454 may be visible through the diffuser dome 456. This can be esthetically unpleasing to some lamp users. In different embodiments the phosphor carrier 454 can be raised different amounts in relation to the diffuser dome 456. In some embodiments, the lower edge of the phosphor globe can be raised between 0 and 30 mm, while in other embodiments it can be raised in the range of 5 to 15 mm. In still other embodiments it can be raised approximately 10 mm.

The lamp 450 is also arranged to pass certain industry drop and break tests. The PCB 462 can comprise electrical conductors, traces or components that if exposed could present a danger of electrical shock. To meet these break tests, the lamp 450 can be arranged such that if one or both of the diffuser dome 456 and phosphor carrier 454 are broken, such as from dropping, there are no exposed components that present a danger of electrical shock. To reduce and/or prevent this danger, the lamp 450 comprises an electrically insulating layer 470 covering portions of the PCB 462. The insulating layer can be arranged to cover electrical conductors, traces or electrical components that carry electrical signals. Many different insulating materials can be used, including but not limited to different plastics such as polycarbonates. The insulating layer can be formed separately from the lamp and mounted in place, or it can be formed directly on the lamp once the PCB 462 is mounted in place.

A window 472 can be provided on the insulating layer 470, with the LEDs 458 arranged in the window 472 so that the layer 470 does not block emission from the LEDs. The edges of the window 472 can be angled, which provides the additional advantage of a surface arranged to reflect sideways emitted LED light up towards the phosphor carrier where it can contribute to useful lamp emission.

The insulating layer 470 further comprises an insulating layer ledge or channel 473 sized to hold the lower edge of the phosphor carrier 454. The phosphor carrier 454 can be quickly and easily arranged in its desired location by being placed and mounted to the insulating layer and within the ledge 470, with the ledge aligning the phosphor carrier 454 in the proper location. The insulating layer 470 extends into the heat sink channel 468 where it is aligned and held in place in the channel 468 between the diffuser dome 456 and the surface of the channel 468. The insulating layer 470 can also comprise a second insulating layer ledge or channel 473 to hold the lower end of the diffuser dome 456, with the ledge or channel 473 allowing for the diffuser dome 456 to be quickly and easily placed and mounted to the insulating layer 470 in the proper location over the phosphor carrier 454 and LEDs 458.

Different embodiments of insulating layers according to the present invention can be arranged to provide for efficient lamp manufacturing. In some embodiments, the insulating layer 470 can be formed separate from the lamp 450, and the insulating layer, phosphor carrier 454, and diffuser dome 456 can be assembled separately into a double dome unit 475 (shown in FIG. 20). The double dome unit can be quickly and easily mounded and aligned to the heat sink, with the second insulating layer ledge or channel 473 in the heat sink ledge 468. The unit 475 can then be mounted in place using known methods and materials. By providing a separate double dome unit 475, lamps according to the present invention can also be arranged such that the units 475 can be removable and replaceable. This can be particularly desirable in case of failure or damage to the unit 475, or to allow access to other portions of the lamp for repair or replacement, such as the PCB 462. It is understood that other embodiments can comprise a separate unit having the phosphor carrier 454 and insulating layer separately formed, and then mounted to the heat sink 452. The diffuser dome 456 can then be mounted to the insulating layer 470, over the phosphor carrier 454. These arrangements can also allow for the units to be binned by emission characteristics, much in the same way that LEDs are binned.

In some embodiments, the electrically insulating element 470, the wavelength conversion element 454 and/or the diffuser dome 456 comprise mechanical coupling or retention mechanisms, such as snaps or mating protrusions and notches, such that the double dome unit 475 can be readily put together as a single unit, for example snap fit. As such, units with different optical characteristics can be readily replaced and/or installed when manufacturing different LED bulbs with different optical characteristics. Additionally, consumers could replace the double dome unit 475 on an existing LED bulb if different characteristics are desired by the consumer. In some embodiments, the electrically insulating element 470 can comprise mechanical coupling mechanisms that enable the double dome unit 475 to be easily and mechanically mounted by hand, e.g. with snaps or mating protrusions, to the heat sink or housing of the LED bulb. In these embodiments, these mechanical mounting or retention features are described relative to the electrically insulating element 470, but these features can be provided by a separate element or along with the electrically insulating element that are not electrically insulating. Having the wavelength conversion element 454 and/or the diffuser dome 456 as an integral arrangement or connected together as a unit could provide manufacturing advantages. For example, the optical characteristics of the unit could be measured, and the unit can be binned such as in regions of a 1931 CIE diagram. Accordingly, the units can be selected and mated with a solid state light source to achieve a lighting unit with desired optical characteristics and can allow for consistent manufacturing of lamps and/or bulbs with the same or similar emission characteristics. This can help accelerate consumer satisfaction with lamps according to the present invention.

Referring now to FIG. 22, the lamp 450 is shown with the A19 envelope/profile 476 around it, with the lamp 450 being sized and shaped to fit within the A19 envelope 476. In particular the lower portion 478 of the head sink 452 is located, sized and shaped to fit in the angled middle portion 480 of the envelope. The shape and mounting of the diffuser dome, heat sink and Edison connector allows for the lamp to be sized so that its overall length is within the A19 envelope.

The upper portion 482 of the heat sink 452 is can have many different angles, with the angle shown providing the desired heat management, while still allowing for uniform emission compliant with ENERGY STAR® performance requirements. That is, the heat sink should provide the desired surface area to dissipate heat, while at the same time not blocking an excess of light emitting from the diffuser dome 456. In the embodiment shown, the angle can be measured from intersection point 485 above the heat sink where the lines 486 coincident with the angled surfaces intersect. The angle between the two lines 486 can be one way to measure the angle of the heat fin surfaces in the upper portion. In the embodiment shown, the intersection point 485 is 139 mm above the lowest point of the lamp 450. This corresponds to a measured angle of approximately 42 degrees between the upper angled surfaces 480. It is understood that many other measured angle can be used, such as angles of 60 degrees or less, 50 degrees or less, and/or degrees or less. In these different embodiments, the coincident lines intersect at different points above the heat sink 450. In other embodiments, different angle measurement methods can be used.

Some embodiments can be further characterized by the heat sink 452 not being wider than the diffuser dome 456 as shown. This further helps the lamp 450 stay within the A19 envelope, while still not blocking light from the diffuser dome 456.

As discussed above, lamp embodiments according to the present invention can be provide emission distributions in compliance with ENERGY STAR® requirements. Heat sink structures that enable ENERGY STAR® light compliance rely on a balance between number of fins, fin thickness, distance the fins extend up the profile of the emission surface (e.g. the diffuser dome), and the angle of the fin with respect to the vertical axis of the lamp. For embodiments arranged to fit ANSI standard profiles of A-type lamps (A19, A21, A23) while still providing sufficient heat sink area required for specified L70 lifetime, these parameters can directly impact the size, shape, number and location for the heat sink fins. For example, in the present embodiment of heat sink fins 453, the greater the distance the fins 453 extend up the profile of the emission surface, the greater the angle of the fins with respect to the vertical axis, and potentially the less obstructed area is allowable by the fins (e.g. fewer fins or thinner fins), which can allow the lamp 450 to achieve the ENERGY STAR® light distribution. It is understood that the heat fin embodiments shown in the attacked figures and discussed above are only some embodiments of heat sink fin arrangements that can meet the desired lamp emission and size requirements.

FIGS. 23 and 24 illustrate the impact the relative geometries of the lamp can have on the lamp's emission characteristics. Referring first to FIG. 23 a lamp 500 is shown that is similar to lamp 450 shown in FIGS. 19 through 22, and for the same or similar features the same reference numbers from above will be used in describing this figure.

Referring first to FIG. 23, a central line 502 is included from the center of the phosphor carrier 454 to the tip of the heat fin 453. If the lamp had a light source that acted more as a conventional filament emitting from the center of the lamp the light would emit from the center of the lamp in all direction, with some of the light emitting along central line 502. For light emitting in this fashion, adding surface area to the top area of the heat sink fin 453 would have little impact on the lamps emission profile. However, the phosphor globes as described herein acts more as volumetric emitters, with the entire surface emitting light in a roughly Lambertian fashion. The first triangle 504 illustrates a certain globe surface area. For emissions at angles less than 67.5 degrees below horizontal the light can at least partially be blocked by the heat sink fins 453 and may have little impact on the downward light distribution. For emission areas in the first triangle 504 that emit above the 67.5 degree angle, the light contributes to the overall lamp emission.

The first, second and third arrows 506 a, 506 b and 506 c show different emission angles from different locations within the first triangle on the phosphor carrier 454 and can illustrate the impact more fin surface area can have on light emitting from these different locations. First arrow 506 a illustrates light emitting from areas high on the phosphor carrier 454, with these areas having the greatest potential contribution to downward light distribution because of the geometry of the lamp 500 components, including but not limited to the phosphor carrier 454, diffuser dome 456 and heat sink 452. As shown by second and third arrows 506 b and 506 c, emission areas lower on the globe provide increasingly less contribution to the downward distribution of from the lamp. Emission from the lower portion of the globe contributes very little to downward emission from the lamp, while emission from higher on the globe contributes significantly to downward emission from the lamp 500.

Referring now to FIG. 24, the lamp 500 is shown with a second triangle 508 represents additional surface area added to the heat sink fins. For emission from the lower portion of the globe added surface area has little impact on the amount of light blocked by the heat fins 453, but emission from these areas contributes little to downward emission from the lamp. By contrast light emitted from higher on the glove is great impacted. As can be seen from arrow 510, the angles at which light can emit unimpeded is raised compared to first arrow 508 a, which shows the upper angle from FIG. 23. This in turn reduces the amount of light that emits downward unimpeded. This can cause the lamp to miss the ENERGY STAR® emission characteristics. As an alternative, greater fin surface area can be added lower on the fins, but this can cause the size of the heat sink to exceed the A19 envelope. The angles provided in the different embodiments described above provide an angle to allow for the lamps to remain with the A19 envelope and with the desired uniform emission, while still allowing for heat sink fins with the necessary surface area to dissipate heat from the lamp.

It is understood that the diffuser dome can take many different shapes to provide the dynamic relationship between the phosphor carrier and the diffuser dome that result in the desired lamp emission characteristics. In some embodiments, the shape of the diffuser dome can be at least partially dependent on the shape of the phosphor carrier to achieve the desired lamp size and emission characteristics. FIGS. 25 through 28 show the dimensions for one embodiment of a squat diffuser dome 560 according to the present invention.

As discussed above and in the patent applications incorporated herein, diffuser domes according to the present invention can have different regions that scatter and transmit different amounts of light from the lamp light source to help produce the desired lamp emission pattern. In some embodiments, the different regions that scatter and transmit different amounts of light can be achieved by coating the diffuser dome with different amounts of diffusing materials at different regions. This can in turn modify the output beam intensity profile of a light source to provide improved emission characteristics as described above.

In some embodiments, the invention can rely on the combination of the diffuser element (i.e. diffuser dome) and diffuser coating scattering properties to produce the desired far-field intensity profile of the lamp. In different embodiments, the diffuser thickness and location may be dependent upon different factors such as the diffuser dome geometry, the light source arrangement, and the pattern of light emitting from the phosphor carrier.

In one embodiment, the diffuser dome can be arranged to convert the emission intensity profile of a two-dimensional LED, LED array, a flat phosphor conversion layer, or a three dimensional phosphor carrier, into a broader beam profile such as that associated with incandescent A19 lamp sizes and Department of Energy (DOE) ENERGY STAR® emission characteristics. This can enable the fabrication of LED-based efficient and cost effective replacements for conventional incandescent light bulbs.

Partial and/or non-uniform coatings have been found to produce broad beam intensity profiles which are desirable for incandescent replacement and satisfy ENERGY STAR® compliance for a uniform luminous intensity distribution. The non-uniform coatings can also offer the capability to achieve ENERGY STAR® compliance regardless of the heat sink and diffuser globe geometry. In general sense, the proper placement of a sufficient, partial coating on either a clear or uniformly-coated diffuser dome can manipulate the scattering and intensity profile of light photons passing through the diffuser dome to preferred angles. In the case of ENERGY STAR® compliance, one arrangement could be to redirect light photons such that the emission intensity at high angles is greater than 120°. These arrangements can provide for lamps using inexpensive two-dimensional light sources, while at the same time meeting the A19 size and ENERGY STAR® emission standards. The partial coatings of the embodiments can exist as coatings that cover a percentage of the diffuser and have only a singular lighter region, or the coatings can lie as a ring or band along a specific region of the diffuser.

FIG. 29 shows one embodiment of a diffuser dome 580 having a uniform coating 582 covering the majority of its surface and a thicker band coating 584 having more diffusing material. In the embodiment shown, the thicker band coating 584 spans around the diffuser dome 580 at a particular range of viewing angles, with the band coating 584 preventing more light from escaping in that specific region, causing it to depart at either higher or lower angles.

FIG. 30 is a graph 590 showing emission intensity profiles for a typical incandescent lamp 592, LED lamps with diffuser domes having uniform diffusion properties 594, and LED lamps with diffuser domes having bands (or areas) with more diffusing material 596. Profile 594 shows that the low viewing angle or axial light intensity of the uniform coating is lower than the intensities at angles between 45 to 105°. Referring now to profile 596, the intensities between 45 and 105° are less than that of the axial light. As a result of this intensity shift, the light is more intense at angles greater than 105°. The profile 596 shows that the lamps with non-uniform coatings can provide a luminous distribution that is equivalent to, and in some cases better than, an incandescent lamp.

FIG. 31 shows a closer view emission profile 596 shown in FIG. 30, showing the emission intensity versus viewing angle curves for LED lamp having a diffuser with a non-uniform coating (i.e. bands or areas of greater diffusers). FIG. 32 is a table listing the ENERGY STAR® compliance data in comparison to the performance of the lamp emitting the profile shown in FIG. 31. One of the factors relevant to ENERGY STAR® compliance is the minimum-to-average ratio. Some lamps with uniform coating can reach values near up to 26%. By comparison emission profile shown in FIG. 30 is able to achieve a value around 17% and complies with the “less than 20%” requirement. Placement of the band coating with additional diffusing material in the correct position on or within the diffuser dome, which is between 45 and 105°, in this case, provides the desired broadened emission profile.

As mentioned above, the additional diffusers can be provided in many different bands or areas on the diffuser dome. Another embodiment of the invention comprises a non-uniform coating that can include multiple partial coats. The partial coats can be applied using any methods described in the present application, with one method being spray-coating onto a diffuser dome. One coat of an additional diffuser can be deposited near the middle of the diffuser globe, such as in a viewing angle range of approximately 45 to 105°. A second coat of an additional diffuser can then be deposited at the top of the diffuser dome to cover viewing angles of 0 to approximately 45°. These combined coatings block most of the light photons between 0 and 105°, allowing more light to pass through the diffuser dome at higher angles. Referring now to FIG. 33, the emission intensity profile 600 of a lamp having a diffuser dome with this two part coating compared to that of a profile 602 from a typical incandescent lamp. The profiles are very similar and as shown in the table 610 in FIG. 34 this two part non-uniform configuration achieves ENERGY STAR® compliance.

It is noted that experiments of some embodiments have shown that application of a thin first band offered some decrease in the minimum-to-average ratio (for example, 30% to 27%). By thickening the first band further the ratio was lowered more from 27% to 24%. It was also determined through experimentation that once the additional diffuser was applied at the top of the diffuser dome (in the range of approximately 0 to 45°), minimum-to-average ratios of 13 to 19% were achieved. This is only one of a number of different diffuser band arrangements that can be utilized according to the present invention to produce the desired lamp emission characteristics.

Different embodiments of diffusers according to the present invention can comprise varying scattering properties along any direction of the interior and exterior surfaces. In some embodiments the diffuser can comprise a transparent material (substrate) comprising a scattering film on it's inside surface having varying scattering properties. Others can comprise a transparent globe having a scattering film on its interior and/or exterior surface and/or embedded within the diffuser element 580. The scattering films can have many different thicknesses depending at least partially on the film/binder material used, type of scattering material, and the density of scattering material in the film. In some embodiments, the transparent globe can have a scattering film thickness ranging from 0.1 to 1000 microns, with the film being on the interior and/or exterior of the globe. In embodiments using a cellulose-based binder, the film thicknesses can range from 0.1 to 100 microns, with the film being on the interior and/or exterior of the globe. In some embodiments using cellulose based binders, alumina based scattering particles can be used with some particles having a diameter of 0.1 to 4.0 microns.

In still other embodiments, the diffuser can comprise a transparent globe and the scattering films can comprise a methyl silicone based binder, with the films being on the interior and/or the exterior of the globe. The films in these embodiments can range in thickness from 0.1 to 700 microns, and can comprise scattering particles made of different materials. Some embodiments can comprise alumina scattering particles, with these embodiments having particle thicknesses in the range of 0.1 to 4.0 microns.

The thicknesses of the films can be greater than those described above and can utilize different binder and particle materials. As discussed, the diffuser dome and diffusers can comprise any materials described above and can be applied using any of the methods described above. In some embodiments the binder material for the diffuser can be an organic polymer, such as ethyl cellulose, nitrocellulose or poly(ethylene oxide) or an inorganic polymeric system, such as, silicone or ethyl polysilicate. In still other embodiments the binder can comprise an enamel. In some embodiments the diffuser can comprise scattering particles of alumina, silica, titania, titanium dioxide, or combinations thereof, with some embodiments having particle sizes ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 microns. In some embodiments the diffuser globe material may be a borosilicate glass, a soda lime glass or polycarbonate thermoplastic. One embodiment can comprise alumina particles approximately 0.5 to 0.8 microns in diameter dispersed in an ethyl cellulose binder. The solvents for a solution containing the alumina particles and ethyl cellulose can be ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate and dibutyl phthalate. The ranges described above can be applicable to lamps with the desired emission efficiency, such as greater than 85%. Having thicker layers may result in lower lamp emission efficiency.

FIG. 35 is a graph 620 showing the thickness variations for one embodiment of a non-uniform scattering film 622 on the inside surface of a squat diffuser 624 as described above. The thicknesses of the film 622 are measured at different heights and range from approximately microns and a height of 10 mm, to a thickness of approximately 200 microns and a height of 30 mm. The thickness of the film is approximately 44 microns at the top of the diffuser. It is understood that these thicknesses can vary depending on many factors as discussed above, such as diffuser shape, binder material, type of scattering particle, etc.

FIGS. 36 through 41 show different embodiments of diffuser domes having different diffuser layers arranged in different ways according to the present invention. These are only provided as examples and it is understood that many different arrangements can be provided pursuant to the present invention.

FIG. 36 shows a diffuser dome 630 having a uniform external diffuser coating 632, and an external partial coating 634 on the uniform coating 632. The partial coating 634 can be applied using many different methods such as by spraying or dip-coating. FIG. 37 shows a diffuser dome 640 with a uniform internal diffusing coating 642 and a partial external coating 644 that can be applied using different methods such as spraying or dip-coating. FIG. 38 shows a diffuser dome 650 having a uniform external coating 652, and a partial internal coating 654. FIG. 39 shows a diffuser dome 660 with a uniform external coating 662 and a partial internal coating 664 with varying thicknesses. FIG. 40 shows a clear or transparent diffuser dome 670 having a partial internal coating 672 having varying thicknesses. FIG. 41 also shows a clear or transparent diffuser dome 680 having multiple internal coatings 682,684 all or some of which can have varying thicknesses.

Although much of the discussion above is directed to varying the diffusing characteristics in areas of the diffuser dome, it is understood that the remote phosphor (phosphor carrier) can have areas of differing concentrations of conversion material. This can also assist in producing the desired emission profile as well as the desired light characteristics. In some embodiments, the phosphor carrier can have increased conversion material at or around the top, although the increase can be in other areas. It is also understood that like the diffuser coating, the conversion material can be applied in on the phosphor carrier in any of the different internal and external coating combinations described above.

For both the diffuser dome and the phosphor carrier, the coating material can be mixed in to the material that forms the dome. This can allow for fabrication of the diffuser dome or phosphor carrier without the stops of depositing a diffuser or phosphor material. Both can be formed to the desired shape with the desired material integral to the dome. This can be particularly applicable to forming a diffuser dome and/or phosphor carrier from readily available and easy to use materials such as plastics. This diffusing material and/or conversion material can also be arranged in different concentrations in different areas the dome material, and can also comprise different diffusing or conversion materials in different regions.

It is understood that the arrangements described above are equally applicable to lighting applications beyond the bulb-type described above. All or some of the features above are also applicable to area and tube-type lighting. That is, these different types of light can utilize remote conversion materials of different shape and remote diffusers of different shapes. As with the embodiments above, the remote diffusers can have areas with increased diffusing characteristics, or can have shapes that help produce the desire emission profile.

It is understood that lamps or bulbs according to the present invention can be arranged in many different ways beyond the embodiments described above. The embodiments above are discussed with reference to a remote phosphor but it is understood that alternative embodiments can comprise at least some LEDs with a conformal phosphor layer. This can be particularly applicable to lamps having light sources emitting different colors of light from different types of emitters. These embodiments can otherwise have some or all of the features described above.

FIG. 42 shows another embodiment of a lamp 700 according to the present invention within an A19 size envelope 701. The lamp 700 utilizes a heat sink 702 with heat sink fins 703 similar to the ones shown above, but having a somewhat different shape. Like the embodiments above the lamp 700 comprises a dome shaped phosphor carrier 704 and dome shaped diffuser 706. Also like the embodiments above LEDs (not shown) can be mounted on a planar surface of the heat sink 702 with the phosphor carrier and diffuser 704, 706 over the LEDs. The LED chips, diffuser 706, and phosphor carrier 704 can comprise any of the shapes, arrangements and characteristics described above. The lamp 700 can also comprise a mounting mechanism 708 of the type to fit in conventional electrical receptacles, which in this embodiment can comprise a threaded portion for turning into to a standard Edison socket, as well as the alternative mounting mechanisms mentioned above. The dome shaped diffuser 706 can be many different shapes and sizes and in the embodiment shown is “squat shaped” and can have different amounts of diffuser in different sections as described above.

The heat sink 702 can comprise a cavity/housing 710 that houses the power supply unit 712. The power supply unit 710 can have any of the features, elements or characteristics of the power supply unit discussed above, including but not limited to a thermally conductive potting material. The power supply unit 712 comprises a PCB 714 holding a plurality of electronic elements 716 that convert the source power to an LED drive signal, and can also allow for dimming of light emitted by the lamp 700. The PCB 714 is shown in the lamp 700 as being mounted vertical within the cavity/housing 710, but it is understood that in other embodiments the PCB can be mounted in other ways and at different orientations, and the power supply unite 712 can comprise more than one PCB.

The embodiments above have been described with reference to phosphor layers or phosphor carrier of different shapes and sizes, but other embodiments can comprise different shapes and sizes beyond those described above. By way of example, FIGS. 43 through 46 show additional embodiments of phosphor carriers 718, 720, 722 and 724 that can be used in lamps or bulbs according to the present invention to achieve the desired lamp or bulb size or emission pattern. These are only some of the many different shapes contemplated by the present invention.

Although the present invention has been described in detail with reference to certain preferred configurations thereof, other versions are possible. For example, different features or aspects of LED bulbs of the present invention are described in relation to various embodiments, but it should be understood that each of those features or aspects could be incorporated and used analogously in relation to any of the embodiments described herein as would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the art. Therefore, the spirit and scope of the invention should not be limited to the versions described above.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US314359214 Nov 19614 Aug 1964Inland Electronics Products CoHeat dissipating mounting structure for semiconductor devices
US35811621 Jul 196925 May 1971Rca CorpOptical semiconductor device
US42042468 May 197820 May 1980Sony CorporationCooling assembly for cooling electrical parts wherein a heat pipe is attached to a heat conducting portion of a heat conductive block
US54632803 Mar 199431 Oct 1995National Service Industries, Inc.Light emitting diode retrofit lamp
US556134610 Aug 19941 Oct 1996Byrne; David J.LED lamp construction
US558578328 Jun 199417 Dec 1996Hall; Roger E.Marker light utilizing light emitting diodes disposed on a flexible circuit board
US565583017 Apr 199512 Aug 1997General Signal CorporationLighting device
US568804217 Nov 199518 Nov 1997Lumacell, Inc.LED lamp
US580696527 Jan 199715 Sep 1998R&M Deese, Inc.LED beacon light
US58907943 Apr 19966 Apr 1999Abtahi; HomayoonLighting units
US59475886 Oct 19977 Sep 1999Grand General Accessories Manufacturing Inc.Light fixture with an LED light bulb having a conventional connection post
US594934720 Aug 19977 Sep 1999Leotek Electronics CorporationLight emitting diode retrofitting lamps for illuminated signs
US622072216 Sep 199924 Apr 2001U.S. Philips CorporationLed lamp
US622767916 Sep 19998 May 2001Mule Lighting IncLed light bulb
US623464824 Sep 199922 May 2001U.S. Philips CorporationLighting system
US625077423 Jan 199826 Jun 2001U.S. Philips Corp.Luminaire
US627072231 Mar 19997 Aug 2001Nalco Chemical CompanyStabilized bromine solutions, method of manufacture and uses thereof for biofouling control
US627682228 Jan 199921 Aug 2001Yerchanik BedrosianMethod of replacing a conventional vehicle light bulb with a light-emitting diode array
US635004129 Mar 200026 Feb 2002Cree Lighting CompanyHigh output radial dispersing lamp using a solid state light source
US64041318 Aug 200011 Jun 2002Yoshichu Mannequin Co., Ltd.Light emitting display
US6465961 *24 Aug 200115 Oct 2002Cao Group, Inc.Semiconductor light source using a heat sink with a plurality of panels
US651722116 Jun 200011 Feb 2003Ciena CorporationHeat pipe heat sink for cooling a laser diode
US652397830 Oct 200025 Feb 2003Shining Blick Enterprises Co., Ltd.Lamp bulb with stretchable lamp beads therein
US655095318 Aug 200022 Apr 2003Toyoda Gosei Co. Ltd.Light emitting diode lamp device
US663477024 Aug 200121 Oct 2003Densen CaoLight source using semiconductor devices mounted on a heat sink
US66596321 Apr 20029 Dec 2003Solidlite CorporationLight emitting diode lamp
US670913216 May 200223 Mar 2004Atex Co., Ltd.LED bulb
US674688524 Aug 20018 Jun 2004Densen CaoMethod for making a semiconductor light source
US680360713 Jun 200312 Oct 2004Cotco Holdings LimitedSurface mountable light emitting device
US684881912 May 20001 Feb 2005Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbhLight-emitting diode arrangement
US68645137 May 20038 Mar 2005Kaylu Industrial CorporationLight emitting diode bulb having high heat dissipating efficiency
US691079425 Apr 200328 Jun 2005Guide CorporationAutomotive lighting assembly cooling system
US694882928 Jan 200427 Sep 2005Dialight CorporationLight emitting diode (LED) light bulbs
US698251816 Sep 20043 Jan 2006Enertron, Inc.Methods and apparatus for an LED light
US704841210 Jun 200223 May 2006Lumileds Lighting U.S., LlcAxial LED source
US70809242 Dec 200225 Jul 2006Harvatek CorporationLED light source with reflecting side wall
US70867569 Aug 20048 Aug 2006Lighting Science Group CorporationLighting element using electronically activated light emitting elements and method of making same
US708676712 May 20048 Aug 2006Osram Sylvania Inc.Thermally efficient LED bulb
US709436229 Oct 200322 Aug 2006General Electric CompanyGarnet phosphor materials having enhanced spectral characteristics
US714075311 Aug 200428 Nov 2006Harvatek CorporationWater-cooling heat dissipation device adopted for modulized LEDs
US714413526 Nov 20035 Dec 2006Philips Lumileds Lighting Company, LlcLED lamp heat sink
US71600123 Jan 20039 Jan 2007Patent-Treuhand-Gesellschaft für elektrische Glëhlapen mbHLamp
US71658661 Nov 200423 Jan 2007Chia Mao LiLight enhanced and heat dissipating bulb
US717231429 Jul 20046 Feb 2007Plastic Inventions & Patents, LlcSolid state electric light bulb
US72139404 Dec 20068 May 2007Led Lighting Fixtures, Inc.Lighting device and lighting method
US72704469 May 200518 Sep 2007Lighthouse Technology Co., LtdLight module with combined heat transferring plate and heat transferring pipes
US735093628 Aug 20061 Apr 2008Philips Solid-State Lighting Solutions, Inc.Conventionally-shaped light bulbs employing white LEDs
US73541745 Dec 20058 Apr 2008Technical Consumer Products, Inc.Energy efficient festive lamp
US737767430 Oct 200627 May 2008Advanced Accessory Systems, LlcLow profile light for article carrier system
US739614230 Jan 20068 Jul 2008Five Star Import Group, L.L.C.LED light bulb
US74058572 Sep 200529 Jul 20083M Innovative Properties CompanyLight emitting diode (LED) device and method of making same
US75471249 Mar 200716 Jun 2009Foxconn Technology Co., Ltd.LED lamp cooling apparatus with pulsating heat pipe
US754978211 May 200623 Jun 2009Avago Technologies Ecbu Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Semiconductor light source configured as a light tube
US7600882 *20 Jan 200913 Oct 2009Lednovation, Inc.High efficiency incandescent bulb replacement lamp
US760780223 Jul 200727 Oct 2009Tamkang UniversityLED lamp instantly dissipating heat as effected by multiple-layer substrates
US761475921 Dec 200610 Nov 2009Cree Led Lighting Solutions, Inc.Lighting device
US761815725 Jun 200817 Nov 2009Osram Sylvania Inc.Tubular blue LED lamp with remote phosphor
US766331527 Nov 200716 Feb 2010Ilight Technologies, Inc.Spherical bulb for light-emitting diode with spherical inner cavity
US768647814 May 200830 Mar 2010Ilight Technologies, Inc.Bulb for light-emitting diode with color-converting insert
US772683614 Jan 20081 Jun 2010Taiming ChenLight bulb with light emitting elements for use in conventional incandescent light bulb sockets
US77403654 Sep 200622 Jun 2010Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbhBacklighting arrangement with semiconductor light sources arranged in light groups and lighting device
US775356823 Jan 200713 Jul 2010Foxconn Technology Co., Ltd.Light-emitting diode assembly and method of fabrication
US78109543 Dec 200712 Oct 2010Lumination LlcLED-based changeable color light lamp
US78240659 Aug 20042 Nov 2010Lighting Science Group CorporationSystem and method for providing multi-functional lighting using high-efficiency lighting elements in an environment
US788453820 Jun 20088 Feb 2011Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaLight-emitting device
US797633522 Apr 200912 Jul 2011Tyco Electronics CorporationLED connector assembly with heat sink
US802102515 Jan 200920 Sep 2011Yeh-Chiang Technology Corp.LED lamp
US823557123 Jun 20057 Aug 2012Lg Display Co., Ltd.Backlight unit of liquid crystal display device and liquid crystal display device using the same
US825331612 May 201028 Aug 2012Light Prescriptions Innovators, LlcDimmable LED lamp
US827276228 Sep 201125 Sep 2012Lighting Science Group CorporationLED luminaire
US82742414 Feb 200925 Sep 2012C. Crane Company, Inc.Light emitting diode lighting device
US827708229 Jun 20112 Oct 2012Elumigen LlcSolid state light assembly having light redirection elements
US82822508 Jun 20129 Oct 2012Elumigen LlcSolid state lighting device using heat channels in a housing
US82924689 Jun 201023 Oct 2012Rensselaer Polytechnic InstituteSolid state light source light bulb
US830996920 Nov 200913 Nov 2012Toyoda Gosei Co., Ltd.Light emitting device and method of making same
US832289622 Oct 20104 Dec 2012Light Prescriptions Innovators, LlcSolid-state light bulb
US834847019 Oct 20098 Jan 2013Fu Zhun Precision Industry (Shen Zhen) Co., Ltd.LED illuminating device
US83717224 Nov 201012 Feb 2013Forever Bulb, LlcLED-based light bulb device with Kelvin corrective features
US840005113 Jan 200919 Mar 2013Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd.Light-emitting device and lighting apparatus incorporating same
US841051225 Nov 20092 Apr 2013Cree, Inc.Solid state light emitting apparatus with thermal management structures and methods of manufacturing
US84158658 Nov 20119 Apr 2013Silitek Electronic (Guangzhou) Co., Ltd.Light-guide type illumination device
US842132024 May 201116 Apr 2013Sheng-Yi CHUANGLED light bulb equipped with light transparent shell fastening structure
US842132131 May 201116 Apr 2013Sheng-Yi CHUANGLED light bulb
US84213226 Sep 201116 Apr 2013Forever Bulb, LlcLED-based light bulb device
US844915428 Sep 201028 May 2013Panasonic CorporationIllumination device including a light-emitting module fastened to mount member with a constant orientation
US850246826 Apr 20116 Aug 2013Lite-On Electronics (Guangzhou) LimitedLight emitting bulb, luminary and illumination device using LED
US85680098 Feb 201129 Oct 2013Dicon Fiberoptics Inc.Compact high brightness LED aquarium light apparatus, using an extended point source LED array with light emitting diodes
US86412379 Feb 20124 Feb 2014Sheng-Yi CHUANGLED light bulb providing high heat dissipation efficiency
US865372317 Feb 201018 Feb 2014Cao Group, Inc.LED light bulbs for space lighting
US869616816 Apr 201215 Apr 2014Lite-On Electronics (Guangzhou) LimitedIllumination device
US87404158 Jul 20113 Jun 2014Switch Bulb Company, Inc.Partitioned heatsink for improved cooling of an LED bulb
US875067129 Apr 201210 Jun 2014Fusion Optix, IncLight bulb with omnidirectional output
US875298415 Apr 201317 Jun 2014Switch Bulb Company, Inc.Glass LED light bulbs
US876004226 Feb 201024 Jun 2014Toshiba Lighting & Technology CorporationLighting device having a through-hole and a groove portion formed in the thermally conductive main body
US2002004751623 Oct 200125 Apr 2002Tadanobu IwasaFluorescent tube
US2003002111325 Sep 200230 Jan 2003U. S. Philips CorporationLED lamp
US2003003829124 Aug 200127 Feb 2003Densen CaoSemiconductor light source
US2004015984618 Feb 200319 Aug 2004Doxsee Daniel DarcyWhite light LED device
US200402019905 Mar 200414 Oct 2004Meyer William E.LED lamp
US200402233153 Mar 200411 Nov 2004Toyoda Gosei Co., Ltd.Light emitting apparatus and method of making same
US2005006877630 Dec 200231 Mar 2005Shichao GeLed and led lamp
US2005016899010 Jan 20054 Aug 2005Seiko Epson CorporationLight source apparatus and projection display apparatus
US200501747803 Feb 200511 Aug 2005Daejin Dmp Co., Ltd.LED light
US2005018463823 Feb 200425 Aug 2005Lumileds Lighting, U.S., LlcWavelength converted semiconductor light emitting devices
US2005024271130 Apr 20043 Nov 2005Joseph BloomfieldMulti-color solid state light emitting device
US2005027605313 Dec 200415 Dec 2005Color Kinetics, IncorporatedThermal management methods and apparatus for lighting devices
US20060097245 *20 Dec 200511 May 2006Aanegola Srinath KLight emitting diode component
US2006009738525 Oct 200411 May 2006Negley Gerald HSolid metal block semiconductor light emitting device mounting substrates and packages including cavities and heat sinks, and methods of packaging same
US200601054827 Dec 200518 May 2006Lumileds Lighting U.S., LlcArray of light emitting devices to produce a white light source
US200601384352 Feb 200629 Jun 2006Cree, Inc.Multiple component solid state white light
US2006015214010 Jan 200513 Jul 2006Brandes George RLight emission device
US2006018077410 Apr 200617 Aug 2006Canon Kabushiki KaishaPhotoelectric conversion device, radiation detection apparatus, image processing system and driving method thereof
US20060227558 *7 Apr 200612 Oct 2006Toshiba Lighting & Technology CorporationLamp having outer shell to radiate heat of light source
US2007009073720 Jul 200626 Apr 2007Foxconn Technology Co., Ltd.Light-emitting diode assembly and method of fabrication
US2007013993820 Feb 200721 Jun 2007Lumination, LlcLed light with active cooling
US2007013994914 Dec 200621 Jun 2007Nichia CorporationLight emitting device
US2007015866821 Jun 200612 Jul 2007Cree, Inc.Close loop electrophoretic deposition of semiconductor devices
US2007020637522 Dec 20066 Sep 2007Color Kinetics IncorporatedLight emitting diode based products
US2007021589017 Mar 200620 Sep 2007Philips Lumileds Lighting Company, LlcWhite LED for backlight with phosphor plates
US200702232192 May 200727 Sep 2007Cree, Inc.Multi-chip light emitting device lamps for providing high-cri warm white light and light fixtures including the same
US2007026340511 May 200615 Nov 2007Ng Kee YSemiconductor light source configured as a light tube
US200702679765 May 200422 Nov 2007Bohler Christopher LLed-Based Light Bulb
US2007027408022 May 200729 Nov 2007Led Lighting Fixtures, Inc.Lighting device
US2007028592420 Aug 200713 Dec 2007General Electric CompanyIntegral ballast lamp thermal management method and apparatus
US2007029718321 Jun 200627 Dec 2007Coushaine Charles MHeat sink
US2008003725718 May 200714 Feb 2008Charles BoltaLight emitting diode (L.E.D.) lighting fixtures with emergency back-up and scotopic enhancement
US2008005590830 Aug 20066 Mar 2008Chung WuAssembled structure of large-sized led lamp
US200800626947 Sep 200613 Mar 2008Foxconn Technology Co., Ltd.Heat dissipation device for light emitting diode module
US200800801656 Sep 20073 Apr 2008Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co. Ltd.Surface light source device using light emitting diodes
US2008009361523 Oct 200624 Apr 2008Chang Gung UniversityMethod for obtaining a better color rendering with a photoluminescence plate
US20080106893 *18 Jun 20078 May 2008S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc.Lamp and bulb for illumination and ambiance lighting
US2008011762018 Jan 200822 May 2008Nichia CorporationLight emitting device
US200801287355 Dec 20075 Jun 2008Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd.White light emitting device and white light source module using the same
US2008014916621 Dec 200626 Jun 2008Goldeneye, Inc.Compact light conversion device and light source with high thermal conductivity wavelength conversion material
US2008017388422 Jan 200724 Jul 2008Cree, Inc.Wafer level phosphor coating method and devices fabricated utilizing method
US200801796117 Sep 200731 Jul 2008Cree, Inc.Wafer level phosphor coating method and devices fabricated utilizing method
US2008023211921 Mar 200825 Sep 2008Thomas RibarichLed lamp assembly with temperature control and method of making the same
US200802852791 Apr 200820 Nov 2008Kai Kong NgLight emitting diode (LED) light bulb
US20080308825 *14 Jun 200718 Dec 2008Cree, Inc.Encapsulant with scatterer to tailor spatial emission pattern and color uniformity in light emitting diodes
US2009000139927 Jun 20081 Jan 2009The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaOptical designs for high-efficacy white-light emitting diodes
US200900151378 Feb 200815 Jan 2009Lite-On Technology CorporationLight emitting apparatus with open loop control
US200900407607 Aug 200812 Feb 2009Kuo-Hsin ChenIllumination device having unidirectional heat-dissipating route
US2009004647323 Oct 200719 Feb 2009Topco Technologies Corp.Light-emitting diode lamp
US2009005825620 Jun 20085 Mar 2009Iwao MitsuishiLight-emitting device
US2009005955927 Aug 20085 Mar 2009Wolfgang PabstLed lamp
US2009008649227 Sep 20072 Apr 2009Osram Sylvania IncLED lamp with heat sink optic
US2009009596012 Dec 200816 Apr 2009Nichia CorporationHeat dissipation member, semiconductor apparatus and semiconductor light emitting apparatus
US2009010193017 Oct 200723 Apr 2009Intematix CorporationLight emitting device with phosphor wavelength conversion
US2009010329310 Oct 200823 Apr 2009Xicato, Inc.Illumination Device with Light Emitting Diodes and Moveable Light Adjustment Member
US2009010329610 Oct 200823 Apr 2009Xicato, Inc.Illumination Device with Light Emitting Diodes
US200901162176 Feb 20087 May 2009Prodisc Technology Inc.LED lighting apparatus having separate wavelength conversion unit
US200901750416 Jan 20089 Jul 2009Pui Hang YuenHigh efficiency low cost safety light emitting diode illumination device
US2009018461813 Jan 200923 Jul 2009Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd.Light-emitting device and lighting apparatus incorporating same
US2009019035322 Mar 200630 Jul 2009Tom BarkerModular display system
US200901951864 Feb 20096 Aug 2009C. Crane Company, Inc.Light emitting diode lighting device
US2009020167919 Sep 200713 Aug 2009Daijiro KonakaLed lamp
US2009021797027 Feb 20093 Sep 2009Goldeneye, Inc.Fixtures for large area directional and isotropic solid state lighting panels
US2009026251616 Jan 200922 Oct 2009Intematix CorporationLight emitting device with phosphor wavelength conversion
US200902739248 Jul 20095 Nov 2009Liquidleds Lighting Corp.High power LED lamp with heat dissipation enhancement
US20090283779 *29 May 200919 Nov 2009Cree, Inc.Light source with near field mixing
US2009029638727 May 20093 Dec 2009Sea Gull Lighting Products, LlcLed retrofit light engine
US2009031607328 Aug 200924 Dec 2009Au Optronics CorporationLight Diffusion Module and a Back Light Module Using the Same
US2009031638318 Jun 200924 Dec 2009Seoul Semiconductor Co., Ltd.Lighting apparatus
US2009032219730 Jun 200831 Dec 2009Rene HelbingLight emitting device having a transparent thermally conductive layer
US2009032220830 Jun 200831 Dec 2009Alex ShaikevitchLight emitting device having a refractory phosphor layer
US2009032280025 Jun 200931 Dec 2009Dolby Laboratories Licensing CorporationMethod and apparatus in various embodiments for hdr implementation in display devices
US2009032333327 Apr 200931 Dec 2009Foxconn Technology Co., Ltd.Led lamp
US2010001483910 Sep 200721 Jan 2010Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Lighting assembly and method for providing cooling of a light source
US201000205475 Oct 200928 Jan 2010Deepsea Power & Light CompanyLed illumination device with cubic zirconia lens
US2010002570026 Nov 20084 Feb 2010Seoul Semiconductor Co., Ltd.Warm white light emitting apparatus and back light module comprising the same
US2010002618529 Jul 20094 Feb 2010Toshiba Lighting & Technology CorporationSelf-ballasted lamp
US2010002725831 Jul 20084 Feb 2010Maxik Fredric SIllumination apparatus for conducting and dissipating heat from a light source
US2010003866024 Oct 200818 Feb 2010Progressive Cooling Solutions, Inc.Two-phase cooling for light-emitting devices
US2010004623129 Feb 200825 Feb 2010Medinis David MLed cooling system
US2010006014418 Nov 200911 Mar 2010Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Tri-color white light led lamp
US2010009148713 Feb 200915 Apr 2010Hyundai Telecommunication Co., Ltd.Heat dissipation member having variable heat dissipation paths and led lighting flood lamp using the same
US2010009696719 Mar 200822 Apr 2010Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Lighting device
US2010010270727 Oct 200929 Apr 2010Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaRed fluorescent substance and light-emitting device employing the same
US2010013404715 May 20093 Jun 2010Ghulam HasnainModular LED Light Bulb
US2010014065526 Feb 200910 Jun 2010Wei ShiTransparent heat spreader for leds
US2010014978310 Dec 200917 Jun 2010Toshiba Lighting & Technology CorporationLight-emitting module and illumination apparatus
US2010014981417 Dec 200817 Jun 2010Lednovation, Inc.Semiconductor Lighting Device With Wavelength Conversion on Back-Transferred Light Path
US201001557633 Mar 201024 Jun 2010Cree, Inc.Systems and methods for application of optical materials to optical elements
US20100170075 *5 Jun 20088 Jul 2010I2Ic CorporationMethod of Manufacturing Multicolored Illuminator
US2010017752215 Jan 200915 Jul 2010Yeh-Chiang Technology Corp.Led lamp
US2010020128424 Sep 200812 Aug 2010Osram Gesellschaft Mit Beschraenkter HaftungIlluminating device with light buffer
US2010020750217 Feb 201019 Aug 2010Densen CaoLED Light Bulbs for Space Lighting
US2010021973526 Feb 20102 Sep 2010Toshiba Lighting & Technology CorporationLighting device and lighting fixture
US20100232134 *3 Aug 200916 Sep 2010Nepes Led, Inc.Light emitting device and lamp-cover structure containing luminescent material
US2010026479912 Aug 200921 Oct 2010Fu Zhun Precision Industry (Shen Zhen) Co., Ltd.Led lamp
US2010031498515 Jan 200916 Dec 2010Philip PremyslerOmnidirectional LED Light Bulb
US2010032774517 Jun 201030 Dec 2010Mahendra DassanayakeOpto-thermal solution for multi-utility solid state lighting device using conic section geometries
US2010032892519 Jan 200930 Dec 2010Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Illumination device with led and a transmissive support comprising a luminescent material
US2011003736810 Aug 201017 Feb 2011Risun Expanse Corp.Lamp structure
US2011007427123 Sep 201031 Mar 2011Toshiba Lighting & Technology CorporationLamp and lighting equipment
US2011007429627 Sep 201031 Mar 2011Yu-Nung ShenLight-Emitting Diode Illumination Apparatuses
US201100800962 Oct 20097 Apr 2011Lumination LlcLed lamp
US20110080740 *2 Oct 20097 Apr 2011Lumination LlcLed lamp with uniform omnidirectional light intensity output
US2011008980412 Oct 201021 Apr 2011Nuventix Inc.Thermal management of led-based illumination devices with synthetic jet ejectors
US201100898307 Jan 201021 Apr 2011Cree Led Lighting Solutions, Inc.Heat sinks and lamp incorporating same
US20110095686 *22 Oct 201028 Apr 2011Light Prescriptions Innovators, LlcSolid-state light bulb
US2011013322224 Jun 20099 Jun 2011Osram Sylvania Inc.Led lamp with remote phosphor coating and method of making the lamp
US201101755281 Feb 201021 Jul 2011Renaissance Lighting, Inc.Lamp using solid state source and doped semiconductor nanophosphor
US2011017631618 Mar 201121 Jul 2011Phipps J MichaelSemiconductor lamp with thermal handling system
US201102057333 Nov 200925 Aug 2011Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Illumination device
US201102156962 Aug 20108 Sep 2011Cree, Inc.Led based pedestal-type lighting structure
US201102165238 Oct 20108 Sep 2011Tao TongNon-uniform diffuser to scatter light into uniform emission pattern
US2011024281628 Dec 20106 Oct 2011GE Lighting Solutions, LLCLightweight heat sinks and led lamps employing same
US2011026783530 Nov 20093 Nov 2011Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Light source
US2011027307215 Oct 201010 Nov 2011Yadent Co., Ltd.Light bulb
US201102983718 Jun 20108 Dec 2011Cree, Inc.Led light bulbs
US2012004058510 Aug 201016 Feb 2012David HuangMethod of Assembling An Airtight LED Light Bulb
US2012015505923 Apr 201021 Jun 2012Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Light source comprising a light emitter arranged inside a translucent outer envelope
US2012016162622 Dec 201028 Jun 2012Cree, Inc.Led lamp with high color rendering index
US2012032059125 Sep 201120 Dec 2012Enlight CorporationLight bulb
US2013004901830 Aug 201128 Feb 2013Abl Ip Holding LlcOptical/electrical transducer using semiconductor nanowire wicking structure in a thermal conductivity and phase transition heat transfer mechanism
US2013006394512 Sep 201114 Mar 2013Chaun-Choung Technology Corp.Bulb-type led lamp having replaceable light source module
US2013024937426 Mar 201226 Sep 2013Cree, Inc.Passive phase change radiators for led lamps and fixtures
USD54698025 Oct 200617 Jul 2007Hsin-Chih Chung LeeLED bulb
USD5532679 Feb 200716 Oct 2007Wellion Asia LimitedLED light bulb
USD58155617 Apr 200825 Nov 2008Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Solid state lighting spot
USD6299285 Apr 201028 Dec 2010Foxconn Technology Co., Ltd.LED lamp
CN1425117A8 Nov 200018 Jun 2003美商克立光学公司Solid state lamp
CN1465106A26 Jul 200231 Dec 2003松下电工株式会社Light emitting device using led
CN1802533B5 May 200424 Nov 2010吉尔科有限公司LED-based light bulb
CN101262032A7 Mar 200710 Sep 2008光宝科技股份有限公司White light LED
CN101641623A16 Jul 20073 Feb 2010英特曼帝克司公司Light emitting diode lighting system
CN1013388887A Title not available
DE10251955A18 Nov 200219 May 2004Hella Kg Hueck & Co.High-power LED insert module for motor vehicle, has dielectric in flat contact with heat sink and conductive track structure
DE102004051382A121 Oct 200427 Apr 2006Oec AgMikrolinsenarray
DE102006061164A122 Dec 200626 Jun 2008Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbhLichtemittierende Vorrichtung
DE102007037862A110 Aug 200730 Oct 2008Siemens AgHeating arrangement, used on LED arrays, improved cooling performances at high oscillation frequencies
DE102011004718A125 Feb 201130 Aug 2012Osram AgMethod for manufacturing transparent cover of incandescent lamp-retrofit lamp, involves inserting inner piston wall into outer piston wall so that hollow space is formed between walls, and introducing heat conducting filling into space
DE202008013667U115 Oct 200818 Dec 2008Li, Chia-MaoMehrschaliger Reflektorbecher
EP0876085A224 Apr 19984 Nov 1998Incerti & Simonini di Incerti Edda & C. S.n.c.A low tension lighting device
EP0876085B124 Apr 199825 Feb 2004Incerti & Simonini di Incerti Edda & C. S.n.c.A low tension lighting device
EP0890059A122 Jan 199813 Jan 1999Philips Electronics N.V.Luminaire
EP1058221A226 May 20006 Dec 2000Leotek Electronics CorporationMethod and apparatus for retro-fitting a traffic signal light with a light-emitting diode lamp module
EP1881259B13 Jul 20073 Mar 2010Liquidleds Lighting Co., Ltd.High power LED lamp with heat dissipation enhancement
EP1930959A1 *29 Aug 200311 Jun 2008Gelcore LLCPhosphor-coated led with improved efficiency
EP2146135A28 Jul 200920 Jan 2010Ushiodenki Kabushiki KaishaLight emitting device and method for producing the light emitting device
EP2154420A111 Aug 200917 Feb 2010GE Investment Co., Ltd.Light-emitting diode illumination apparatus
EP2469154A112 Jan 201127 Jun 2012Toshiba Lighting&Technology CorporationLight bulb-shaped lamp and lighting fixture
FR2941346A1 Title not available
GB2345954A Title not available
GB2366610A Title not available
JP3138653B2 Title not available
JP2000022222A Title not available
JP2000173304A Title not available
JP2001118403A Title not available
JP2003515899T5 Title not available
JP2004146225A Title not available
JP2004241318A Title not available
JP2005021635A Title not available
JP2005093097A Title not available
JP2005244226A Title not available
JP2005277127A Title not available
JP2005286267A Title not available
JP2006019676A Title not available
JP2006040850A Title not available
JP2006108661A Title not available
JP2006148147A Title not available
JP2006156187A Title not available
JP2006331683A Title not available
JP2006525648T5 Title not available
JP2007059911A Title not available
JP2007059930A Title not available
JP2008028183A Title not available
JP2008091140A Title not available
JP2008108835A Title not available
JP2008187195A Title not available
JP2008262765A Title not available
JP2008288409A Title not available
JP2008300117A Title not available
JP2008300203A Title not available
JP2008300570A Title not available
JP2008505448A Title not available
JP2008523639A Title not available
JP2009016058A Title not available
JP2009016153A Title not available
JP2009021264A Title not available
JP2009117346A Title not available
JP2009266780A Title not available
JP2009277586A Title not available
JP2009295299A Title not available
JP2010016223A Title not available
JP2010040494A Title not available
JP2010050473A Title not available
JP2010129300A Title not available
JP2010267826A Title not available
JPH0381903U Title not available
JPH06283006A Title not available
JPH09265807A Title not available
JPH11177149A Title not available
JPH11213730A Title not available
JPH11260125A Title not available
KR100944181B1 Title not available
KR100980588B1 Title not available
KR20100037353A Title not available
KR20110008445U Title not available
WO2000017569A113 Sep 199930 Mar 2000Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Led lamp
WO2001024583A114 Jul 20005 Apr 2001Transportation And Environment Research Institute Ltd.Light emitting diode (led) lamp
WO2001040702A18 Nov 20007 Jun 2001Cree Lighting CompanySolid state lamp
WO2001060119A29 Feb 200116 Aug 2001Gerhard AblerLighting body
WO2004100213A25 May 200418 Nov 2004Gelcore LlcLed-based light bulb
WO2005107420A25 May 200517 Nov 2005Rensselaer Polytechnic InstituteHigh efficiency light source using solid-state emitter and down-conversion material
WO2006065558A35 Dec 20053 Aug 2006Cree IncSemiconductor light emitting device mounting substrates and packages including cavities and cover plates, and methods of packaging same
WO2007130358A227 Apr 200715 Nov 2007Superbulbs, Inc.Plastic led bulb
WO2007146566A223 May 200721 Dec 2007Lighting Science Group CorporationApparatus with a packed circuitry within a lightbulb
WO2008018002A26 Aug 200714 Feb 2008Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Illumination device with wavelength converting element side holding heat sink
WO2008052318A126 Oct 20078 May 2008Tir Technology LpLight source comprising a light-excitable medium
WO2008117211A119 Mar 20082 Oct 2008Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Lighting device
WO2008134056A128 Apr 20086 Nov 2008Deak-Lam Inc.Photon energy coversion structure
WO2008146229A226 May 20084 Dec 2008Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Illumination system, luminaire and backlighting unit
WO2009024952A222 Aug 200826 Feb 2009Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Light source including reflective wavelength-converting layer
WO2009052099A114 Oct 200823 Apr 2009Xicato, Inc.Illumination device with light emitting diodes and movable light adjustment member
WO2009091562A215 Jan 200923 Jul 2009Philip PremyslerOmnidirectional led light bulb
WO2009093163A219 Jan 200930 Jul 2009Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Illumination device with led and a transmissive support comprising a luminescent material
WO2009093163A319 Jan 200917 Sep 2009Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Illumination device with led and a transmissive support comprising a luminescent material
WO2009107052A123 Feb 20093 Sep 2009Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Illumination device with led and one or more transmissive windows
WO2009119038A217 Mar 20091 Oct 2009Panasonic CorporationMolded resin product, semiconductor light-emitting source, lighting device, and method for manufacturing molded resin product
WO2009125314A21 Apr 200915 Oct 2009Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Illumination device with led and a transmissive support comprising a luminescent material
WO2009128004A110 Apr 200922 Oct 2009Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Led based light source
WO2009131627A18 Apr 200929 Oct 2009Cree, Inc.Semiconductor light emitting devices with separated wavelength conversion materials and methods of forming the same
WO2009143047A218 May 200926 Nov 2009Altair Engineering, Inc.Electric shock resistant l.e.d. based light
WO2009158422A124 Jun 200930 Dec 2009Osram Sylvania, Inc.Led lamp with remote phosphor coating and method of making the lamp
WO2010012999A230 Jul 20094 Feb 2010Photonstar Led LimitedTunable colour led module
WO2010013893A116 Jun 20094 Feb 2010Seoul Semiconductor Co., Ltd.Warm white light emitting apparatus and back light module comprising the same
WO2010052640A13 Nov 200914 May 2010Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Illumination device
WO2010119618A117 Mar 201021 Oct 2010Nittoh Kogaku K.KLight emitting device and bulb-type led lamp
WO2010128419A123 Apr 201011 Nov 2010Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Light source comprising a light emitter arranged inside a translucent outer envelope
WO2011100193A17 Feb 201118 Aug 2011Cree, Inc.Lighting device with heat dissipation elements
WO2011109091A12 Mar 20119 Sep 2011Cree, Inc.Led based pedestal-type lighting structure
WO2011109098A22 Mar 20119 Sep 2011Cree, Inc.Solid state lamp and bulb
WO2012011279A120 Jul 201126 Jan 2012パナソニック株式会社Lightbulb shaped lamp
WO2012031533A11 Sep 201115 Mar 2012浙江锐迪生光电有限公司Led lamp bulb and led lighting bar capable of emitting light over 4π
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1Appeal Decision from Japanese Appl. No. 2011-231319, dated Jan. 13. 2015.
2Comments on the Written Opinion and Amendment of the Application from European Patent appl. No. 12740244.4. dated Feb. 20, 2014.
3Decision for Final Rejection for Japanese Patent Application No. 2001-542133 mailed Jun. 28, 2011.
4Decision of Dismissal of Amendment, Decision of Rejection from Japanese Patent Appl. No. 2011-231319, dated Oct. 15, 2013.
5Decision of Rejection from Japanese Patent Appl. No 2012-556064, dated Jun. 6, 2014.
6Decision to Grant from Japanese Appl. No. 2012-556062, dated Nov. 27, 2014.
7Decision to Grant from Japanese Patent Appl. No. 2012-556066, dated Jul. 4, 2014.
8Decision to Refuse a European Patent Application for EP 09 152 962.8 dated Jul. 6, 2011.
9Examination Report from European Patent Appl. No. 11 710 348.1-1757, dated Feb. 18, 2015.
10Examination Report from European Patent Appl. No. 11 710 906.6-1757. dated Feb. 18, 2015.
11Examination Report from European Patent Appl. No. 12 740 244.4-1757, dated Feb. 9, 2015.
12First Office Action and Search Report from Chinese Patent Appl. No. 201180022620X, dated Jul. 1, 2014.
13First Office Action from Chinese Appl. No. 201180022626.7, dated Nov. 15, 2014.
14First Office Action from Chinese Patent Appl. No 2011800225832, dated Jan. 20, 2015.
15First Office Action from Chinese Patent Appl. No. 201060062056.X, dated Feb. 12, 2014.
16First Office Action from Chinese Patent Appl. No. 201180020709.2, dated May 4, 2014.
17First Office Action from Chinese Patent Appl. No. 2011800223837, dated Jul. 24, 2014.
18First Office Action from Chinese Patent Appl. No. 2011800223856, dated Aug. 1, 2014.
19First Office Action from Chinese Patent Appl. No. 2011800226214, dated Dec. 25, 2014.
20First Office Action from Chinese Patent Appl. No. 2011800226248, dated Aug. 25, 2014.
21First Office Action from Chinese Patent Application No. 2011800207069, dated May 5, 2014.
22First Office Action from Chinese Patent Application No. 201180022606, dated May 4, 2014.
23International Preliminary Report on Patentability and Written Opinion from PCT/US2012/044705 dated Jan, 7, 2014.
24International Preliminary Report on Patentability from PCT/US2011/000390, dated May 8, 2013.
25International Preliminary Report on Patentability from PCT/US2011/00389, dated May 8, 2013.
26International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT Application No. PCT/US2010/003146 mailed Jun. 7, 2011.
27International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT Application No. PCT/US2011/000391 mailed Oct. 6, 2011.
28International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT Application No. PCT/US2011/000397 mailed May 24, 2011.
29International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT Application No. PCT/US2011/000399 mailed Jul. 12, 2011.
30International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT Application No. PCT/US2011/000402 mailed Sep. 30, 2011.
31International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT Patent Application No. PCT/US2011/000405 mailed Nov. 2, 2011.
32International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT/US2011/000398 mailed Aug. 30, 2011.
33International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT/US2011/000400 mailed May 2, 2011.
34International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT/US2011/000403 mailed Aug. 23, 2011.
35International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT/US2011/000404 mailed Aug. 25, 2011.
36International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT/US2011/000406 mailed Sep. 15, 2011.
37International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT/US2011/000407 mailed Nov. 16, 2011.
38International Search Report and Written Opinion from PCT Application No. PCT/US2011/000389, dated May 6, 2013.
39International Search Report and Written Opinion from PCT Application No. PCT/US2011/000390, dated May 6, 2013.
40International Search Report and Written Opinion from PCT Application No. PCT/US2012/044705 dated Oct. 9, 2012.
41International Search Report and Written Opinion from PCT/US2013/057712 dated Feb. 4, 2014.
42International Search Report and Written Opinion, PCT/US2009/063804, Mailed on Feb. 26, 2010.
43Notice of Reasons for Rejection from Japanese Patent Appl. No. 2012-543086, dated Aug. 27, 2013.
44Notice of Reasons for Rejection from Japanese Patent Appl. No. 2012-543086, dated Dec. 24, 2013.
45Notice to Submit a Response from Korean Design Patent Application No. 30-2011-0024961, dated Sep. 10, 2012.
46Notice to Submit a Response from Korean Patent Application No. 30-2011-0008445, dated Apr. 16, 2012.
47Notice to Submit a Response from Korean Patent Application No. 30-2011-0008446, dated Apr. 16, 2012.
48Notice to Submit a Response from Korean Patent Application No. 30-2011-0008446, dated Oct. 22, 2012.
49Notice to Submit a Response from Korean Patent Application No. 30-2011-0008448, dated Apr. 16, 2012.
50Office Action for Taiwanese Patent Application No. 100300961, dated May 7, 2012.
51Office Action from European Patent Appl. No. 11710906.6-1757, dated Sep. 10, 2014.
52Office Action from Japanese Patent Appl No. 2012-556062, dated Dec. 20, 2013.
53Office Action from Japanese Patent Appl. No. 2012-556062, dated Aug. 5, 2014.
54Office Action from Japanese Patent appl. No. 2012-556063, dated Jan. 28, 2014.
55Office Action from Japanese Patent Appl. No. 2012-556063, dated Oct 11, 2013.
56Office Action from Japanese Patent Appl. No. 2012-556064, dated Oct. 29, 2013.
57Office Action from Japanese Patent Appl. No. 2012-556065, dated Aug. 5, 2014.
58Office Action from Japanese Patent Appl. No. 2012-556065, dated Oct. 25, 2013.
59Office Action from Japanese Patent Appl. No. 2012-556066, dated Mar. 14, 2014.
60Office Action from Japanese Patent Appl. No. 2012-556066, dated Oct. 25, 2013.
61Office Action from Taiwanese Patent Application No. 100300960, dated May 7, 2012.
62Office Action from U.S Appl. No. 13/358.901, dated Oct. 31, 2014.
63Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 11/149,999, dated Jan. 15, 2014.
64Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 11/149,999, dated May 13, 2013.
65Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 12/636,958, dated Jul. 19, 2012.
66Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 12/848,825, dated Nov. 5, 2012.
67Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 12/901,405, dated Aug. 7, 2014.
68Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 12/901,405, dated Feb. 4, 2015.
69Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 12/901,405, dated Jan. 9, 2013.
70Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 12/901,405, dated Jul. 1, 2013.
71Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 12/985,275, dated Apr. 10, 2014.
72Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 12/985,275, dated Aug. 27, 2013.
73Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 12/985,275, dated Aug. 7, 2014.
74Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 12/985,275, dated Dec. 29, 2014.
75Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 12/985,275, dated Feb. 28, 2013.
76Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/018,245, dated Dec. 11, 2014.
77Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/018,245, dated Jun. 10, 2014.
78Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/018,291, dated Mar. 20, 2013.
79Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/018,291, dated Mar. 7, 2014.
80Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/018,291, dated May 31, 2013.
81Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/018,291, dated Oct. 10, 2012.
82Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/022,490, dated Apr. 2, 2013.
83Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/022,490, dated May 6, 2014.
84Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/022,490, dated Nov. 7, 2012.
85Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/022,490, dated Oct. 17, 2013.
86Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/028,863, dated Jul. 30, 2013.
87Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/028,863, dated Mar. 4, 2014.
88Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/028,863, dated May 9, 2014.
89Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/028,863, dated Nov. 10, 2014.
90Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/028,913, dated Apr. 29, 2013.
91Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/028,913, dated Feb. 19, 2014.
92Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/028,913, dated May 22, 2014.
93Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/028,913, dated Nov. 4, 2013.
94Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/028,946, dated Dec. 4, 2012.
95Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/028,946, dated Jul. 16, 2012.
96Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/028,946, dated May 27, 2014.
97Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/028,946, dated Oct. 31, 2013.
98Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/028,946, filed Apr. 11, 2013.
99Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,005, dated Jan. 24, 2013.
100Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,005, dated Jan. 4, 2013.
101Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,005, dated Jun. 11, 2013.
102Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,025, dated Aug. 6, 2014.
103Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,025, dated Dec. 11, 2014.
104Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,025, dated Dec. 6, 2013.
105Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,025, dated Jul. 16, 2013.
106Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,025, dated Mar. 19, 2014.
107Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,063, dated Apr. 1, 2014.
108Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,063, dated Jan. 13, 2015.
109Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,063, dated Oct. 23, 2013.
110Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,068, dated Apr. 24, 2014.
111Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,068, dated Dec. 23, 2014.
112Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,068, dated Jun. 13, 2014.
113Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,068, dated Nov. 15, 2013.
114Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/340,478, dated Jul. 23, 2014.
115Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/358,901, dated Jul. 15, 2014.
116Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/358,901, dated Mar. 6, 2014.
117Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/358,901, dated Oct. 9, 2013.
118Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/430,478, dated Feb. 21, 2014.
119Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/430,478, dated Jun. 18, 2013.
120Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/430.478, dated Nov. 5, 2014.
121Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 13/607,300, dated Nov. 19, 2014.
122Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 14/014,272, dated Jan. 14, 2015.
123Office Action from U.S. Appl. No. 14/014,272, dated Jul. 29, 2014.
124Office Action of the IPO for Taiwan Patent Application No. TW 100300960 issued Nov. 15, 2011.
125Office Action of the IPO for Taiwan Patent Application No. TW 100300961 issued Nov. 16, 2011.
126Office Action of the IPO for Taiwan Patent Application No. TW 100300962 issued Nov. 21, 2011.
127Office Action of the IPO for Taiwan Patent Application No. TW 100302770 issued Jan. 13, 2012.
128Official Action from European Patent Appl. No. 11710348.1-1757. dated Oct. 9, 2014.
129Reasons for Rejection from Japanese Patent Appl. No. 2011-198454, dated Mar. 7, 2013.
130Response to OA from U.S. Appl. No. 11/149,999, filed Sep. 13, 2013.
131Response to OA from U.S. Appl. No. 12/636,958, filed Nov. 19, 2012.
132Response to OA from U.S. Appl. No. 12/848,825, filed Feb. 5, 2013.
133Response to OA from U.S. Appl. No. 12/901,405, filed Apr. 29, 2013.
134Response to OA from U.S. Appl. No. 12/985,275, filed May 28, 2013.
135Response to OA from U.S. Appl. No. 13/018,291, filed Jan. 7, 2013.
136Response to OA from U.S. Appl. No. 13/018,291, filed May 20, 2013.
137Response to OA from U.S. Appl. No. 13/022,490, filed Feb. 1, 2013.
138Response to OA from U.S. Appl. No. 13/028,946, filed Jan. 29, 2013.
139Response to OA from U.S. Appl. No. 13/028,946, filed Oct. 8, 2012.
140Response to OA from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,005, filed Apr. 17, 2013.
141Response to OA from U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,068, filed Nov. 18, 2014.
142Response to OA from U.S. Appl. No. 13/358,901, filed Aug. 21, 2014.
143Response to OA from U.S. Appl. No. 14/014,272, filed Mar. 3, 2015.
144Search Report and Written Opinion from PCT Application No. PCT/US2012/072108, dated Feb. 27, 2013.
145Second Office Action and Search Report from Chinese Patent Appl. No. 2011800207092, dated Jan. 22, 2015.
146Second Office Action from Chinese Appl. No. 201180022606X. dated Dec. 23. 2014.
147Second Office Action from Chinese Patent Appl. No. 2011800207069, dated Dec. 5, 2014.
148Summons to Oral Proceedings from European Patent Appl. No 09152962/2166580, dated Jan. 29, 2015.
149U.S. Appl. No. 11/473,089, filed Jun. 21, 2006 Tarsa.
150U.S. Appl. No. 11/656,759, filed Jan. 22, 2007 Chitnis.
151U.S. Appl. No. 11/899,790, filed Sep. 7, 2007 Chitnis.
152U.S. Appl. No. 12/566,195, Van De Ven, filed Sep. 24, 2009.
153U.S. Appl. No. 12/704,730, Van De Ven, filed Feb. 12, 2010.
154U.S. Appl. No. 12/848,825, filed Aug. 2, 2010, Tong.
155U.S. Appl. No. 12/901,405, filed Oct. 8, 2010, Tong.
156U.S. Appl. No. 12/975,820, Van De Ven.
157U.S. Appl. No. 13/029,063, filed Feb. 16, 2011, Hussell.
158U.S. Appl. No. 61/339,515, filed Mar. 3, 2010, Tong.
159U.S. Appl. No. 61/339,516, filed Mar. 3, 2010 Tong.
160U.S. Appl. No. 61/424,670, filed Dec. 19, 2010, Zongjie Yuan
161U.S. Appl. No. 61/435,759, filed Jan. 24, 2011 Le.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US20150228867 *14 Nov 201413 Aug 2015Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Light emitting diode package and light emitting device using the same
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
14 Jun 2011ASAssignment
Owner name: CREE, INC., NORTH CAROLINA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LE, LONG LARRY;PICKARD, PAUL;LAY, JAMES MICHAEL;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20110309 TO 20110603;REEL/FRAME:026444/0588