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Publication numberUS20120081800 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 13/318,864
PCT numberPCT/US2010/031799
Publication date5 Apr 2012
Filing date20 Apr 2010
Priority date20 Apr 2009
Also published asUS9239453, US20140009845, US20160085075, WO2010123934A1
Publication number13318864, 318864, PCT/2010/31799, PCT/US/10/031799, PCT/US/10/31799, PCT/US/2010/031799, PCT/US/2010/31799, PCT/US10/031799, PCT/US10/31799, PCT/US10031799, PCT/US1031799, PCT/US2010/031799, PCT/US2010/31799, PCT/US2010031799, PCT/US201031799, US 2012/0081800 A1, US 2012/081800 A1, US 20120081800 A1, US 20120081800A1, US 2012081800 A1, US 2012081800A1, US-A1-20120081800, US-A1-2012081800, US2012/0081800A1, US2012/081800A1, US20120081800 A1, US20120081800A1, US2012081800 A1, US2012081800A1
InventorsDewen Cheng, Hong Hua, Yongtian Wang
Original AssigneeDewen Cheng, Hong Hua, Yongtian Wang
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Optical see-through free-form head-mounted display
US 20120081800 A1
Abstract
A see-through free-form head-mounted display including a wedge-shaped prism-lens having free-form surfaces and low F-number is provided.
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Claims(14)
1. A free-form prism-lens for use in an optical see-through head-mounted display, comprising:
a first free-form surface configured to receive light from a micro-display and configured to transmit the received light into the body of the prism-lens;
a second free-form surface configured to receive the light transmitted into the body of the prism-lens from the first free-form surface and configured to totally internally reflect the received light at the second surface; and
a third free-form surface configured to receive the light reflected by the second free-form surface and configured to reflect the light out of the prism-lens,
wherein the prism-lens has an f-number less than 3.5.
2. The free-form prism-lens according to claim 1, wherein the first free-form surface is described by
z = c ( x 2 + y 2 ) 1 + sqrt ( 1 - ( 1 + k ) c 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) ) + j = 2 66 C j x m y n , j = [ ( m + n ) 2 + m + 3 n ] / 2 + 1 ,
where the z is the sag of the first free-form surface measured along the z-axis of a local x, y, z coordinate system, c is the vertex curvature (CUY), k is the conic constant, and Cj is the coefficient for xmyn.
3. The free-form prism-lens according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the second free-form surface is described by
z = c ( x 2 + y 2 ) 1 + sqrt ( 1 - ( 1 + k ) c 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) ) + j = 2 66 C j x m y n , j = [ ( m + n ) 2 + m + 3 n ] / 2 + 1 ,
where the z is the sag of the first free-form surface measured along the z-axis of a local x, y, z coordinate system, c is the vertex curvature (CUY), k is the conic constant, and Cj is the coefficient for xmyn.
4. The free-form prism-lens according to claim 3, wherein the third free-form surface is described by
z = c ( x 2 + y 2 ) 1 + sqrt ( 1 - ( 1 + k ) c 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) ) + j = 2 66 C j x m y n , j = [ ( m + n ) 2 + m + 3 n ] / 2 + 1 ,
where the z is the sag of the first free-form surface measured along the z-axis of a local x, y, z coordinate system, c is the vertex curvature (CUY), k is the conic constant, and Cj is the coefficient for xmyn.
5. The free-form prism-lens according to claim 1, wherein the third free-form surface is partially mirrored to permit the internally reflected light to be reflected by the second free-form surface and to permit light from a real-world view to be transmitted through the third free-form surface to the exit pupil.
6. The free-form prism-lens according to claim 1, wherein second and third free-form surfaces are configured to provide a wedge-shaped prism lens.
7. The free-form prism-lens according to claim 1, wherein the z-axis is parallel to the optical axis at the exit pupil, and the prism lens is symmetric about the y-z plane and asymmetric about the x-z plane.
8. The free-form prism-lens according to claim 1, wherein the diagonal field of view is at least 40 degrees.
9. The free-form prism-lens according to claim 1, wherein the exit pupil diameter is at least 6 mm.
10. The free-form prism-lens according to claim 1, wherein the modulation transfer function is at least 10%30 lps/mm.
11. The free-form prism-lens according to claim 1, wherein the eye clearance is at least 16 mm.
12. The free-form prism-lens according to claim 1, comprising an auxiliary lens disposed proximate the third free-form surface, the auxiliary lens configured to minimize the shift and distortion of rays from a real-world scene by the second and third surfaces of the prism-lens.
13. The free-form prism-lens according to claim 12, wherein the auxiliary lens has a surface with the same shape as the third free-form surface of the prism-lens and is disposed in optical contact with the third free-form surface of the prism-lens.
14. The free-form prism-lens according to claim 12 or 13, wherein at least one surface of the auxiliary lens is described by
z = c ( x 2 + y 2 ) 1 + sqrt ( 1 - ( 1 + k ) c 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) ) + j = 2 66 C j x m y n , j = [ ( m + n ) 2 + m + 3 n ] / 2 + 1 ,
where the z is the sag of the first free-form surface measured along the z-axis of a local x, y, z coordinate system, c is the vertex curvature (CUY), k is the conic constant, and Cj is the coefficient for xmyn.
Description
    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application claims the benefit of priority of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/214,117, filed on Apr. 20, 2009, the entire contents of which application are incorporated herein by reference.
  • GOVERNMENT RIGHTS
  • [0002]
    This invention was made with government supports under contract numbers 0644446 awarded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, 60827003 awarded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and 2009AA01Z308 awarded by the Hi-Tech Research and Development Program of China. The U.S. and Chinese governments have certain rights in the invention.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    The present invention relates generally to a see-through free-form head-mounted display, and more particularly, but not exclusively to a wedge-shaped prism-lens having free-form surfaces configured to provide a low F-number heretofore unachieved.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0004]
    Optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST-HMD) find myriads of applications from scientific visualization to defense applications, from medical visualization to engineering processes, and from training to entertainment. In mixed or augmented reality systems, OST-HMDs have been one of the basic vehicles for combining computer-generated virtual scene with the views of a real-world scene. Typically through an optical combiner, an OST-HMD maintains a direct view of the physical world and optically superimposes computer-generated images onto the real scene. Compared with a video see-though approach where the real-world views are captured through cameras, it has the advantage of introducing minimal degradation to the real world scene. Therefore an OST-HMD is preferred for applications where a non-blocked real-world view is critical.
  • [0005]
    On the other hand, designing a wide field of view (FOV), low F-number, compact, and nonintrusive OST-HMD has been a great challenge, especially difficult for a non-pupil forming system. The typical eyepiece structure using rotationally symmetric components has limitations in achieving low F-number, large eye relief, and wide FOV. Many methods have been explored to achieve an HMD optical system which fulfills the above mentioned requirements. These methods include applying catadioptric techniques, introducing new elements such as aspherical surfaces, holographic and diffractive optical components, exploring new design principles such as using projection optics to replace an eyepiece or microscope type lens system in a conventional HMD design, and introducing tilt and decenter or even free-form surfaces. (H. Hoshi, et .al, “Off-axial HMD optical system consisting of aspherical surfaces without rotational symmetry,” SPIE Vol. 2653, 234 (1996). S. Yamazaki, et al., “Thin wide-field-of-view HMD with free-form-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE, Vol. 3639, 453 (1999).)
  • [0006]
    Among the different methods mentioned above, free-form surfaces demonstrate great promise in designing compact HMD systems. In particular, a wedge-shaped free-form prism, introduced by Morishima et al. (Morishima et al., “The design of off-axial optical system consisting of aspherical mirrors without rotational symmetry,” 20th Optical Symposium, Extended Abstracts, 21, pp. 53-56 (1995)), takes the advantage of total internal reflection (TIR), which helps minimize light loss and improve the brightness and contrast of the displayed images when compared with designs using half mirrors. It is challenging, however, to design a free-form prism based OST-HMD offering a wide FOV, low F-number, and sufficient eye relief.
  • [0007]
    The concept of free-form HMD designs with a wedge-shaped prism was first presented by Morishima et al. in 1995, and the fabrication and evaluation method were explored by Inoguchi et al. (“Fabrication and evaluation of HMD optical system consisting of aspherical mirrors without rotation symmetry,” Japan Optics '95, Extended Abstracts, 20pB06, pp. 19-20, 1995). Following these pioneering efforts, many attempts have been made to design HMDs using free-form surfaces, particularly designs based on a wedge-shaped prism (U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,699,194, 5,701,202, 5,706,136. D. Cheng, et al., “Design of a lightweight and wide field-of-view HMD system with free form surface prism,” Infrared and Laser Engineering, Vol. 36, 3 (2007).). For instance, Hoshi et al. presented an FFS prism offering an FOV of 34 and a thickness of 15 mm; Yamazaki et al. described a 51 OST-HMD design consisting of a FFS prism and an auxiliary lens attached to the FFS prism; and more recently Cakmakci et al. designed a 20 HMD system with one free-form reflecting surface which was based on rational radial basis function and a diffractive lens. (“Optimal local shape description for rotationally non-symmetric optical surface design and analysis,” Opt. Express 16, 1583-1589 (2008)). There are also several commercially available HMD products based on the FFS prism concept. For instance, Olympus released their Eye-Trek series of HMDs based on free-form prisms. Emagin carried Z800 with the optical module WFO5, Daeyang carried i-Visor FX series (GEOMC module, A3 prism) products; Rockwell Collins announced the ProView SL40 using the prism technology of OEM display optics.
  • [0008]
    Existing FFS-based designs have an exit pupil diameter that is typically from 4 to 8 mm with a FOV typically around 40 degrees or less. In most of the existing designs, the size of the microdisplays is in the range of 1 to 1.3 inches, which affords a focal length of 35˜45 mm for a typical 40-degree FOV. Even with an exit pupil up to 8 mm, the F/# remains fairly high (greater than 4) and eases the optical design challenge. A large size microdisplay, however, offsets the advantage of compactness using a free-form prism. In the more recent designs, smaller microdisplays, typically around 0.6″, were adopted, which requires a focal length of ˜21 mm to achieve a 40-degree FOV. The reduced focal length makes it very challenging to design a system with a large exit pupil. As a result, most of the designs compromise the exit pupil diameter. Thus, commercially available products on average reduce the pupil diameter to about 3˜5 mm to maintain an F/# greater than 4. There are a few designs that achieve a larger pupil by introducing additional free-form elements or diffractive optical elements. For instance, Droessler and Fritz described the design of a high brightness see-through head-mounted system with an F/# as low as 1.7 by using two extra decentered lenses and applying one diffractive surface. (U.S. Pat. No. 6,147,807). The existing work shows that it is extremely difficult to achieve a very fast (low F/#) and wide field of view HMD design with a single wedge-shaped free-form surface prism.
  • [0009]
    Accordingly, it would be an advance in the field of optical see-through head-mounted displays to provide a head-mounted display which has a wide field of view and low F/#, while also providing a compact, light-weight, and nonintrusive form factor.
  • SUMMARY OF THE DISCLOSURE
  • [0010]
    In one of its aspects, the present invention provides a free-form prism-lens for use in an optical see-through head-mounted display. The prism-lens may include a first free-form surface configured to receive light from a micro-display and configured to transmit the received light into the body of the prism-lens, and a second free-form surface configured to receive the light transmitted into the body of the prism-lens from the first free-form surface and configured to totally internally reflect the received light at the second surface. In addition, prism-lens may also include a third free-form surface configured to receive the light reflected by the second free-form surface and configured to reflect the light out of the prism-lens and may have an f-number less than 3.5. The prism-lens may optionally include an auxiliary lens disposed proximate the third free-form surface. The auxiliary lens may be configured to minimize the shift and distortion of rays from a real-world scene by the second and third surfaces of the prism-lens.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0011]
    The foregoing summary and the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments of the present invention will be best understood when read in conjunction with the appended drawings, in which:
  • [0012]
    FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a layout of an exemplary optical see-through head-mounted display system in accordance with the present invention;
  • [0013]
    FIG. 2 schematically illustrates the layout of FIG. 1 showing the local coordinate system at each optical surface;
  • [0014]
    FIG. 3 schematically illustrates the optical paths of the rays of different object fields and different pupil positions in an exemplary free-form-surface prism-lens see-through head-mounted display, with the incident angles of the rays on surfaces 1 and 1′ depending on their field and pupil positions and controlled to satisfy TIR conditions and avoid stray light;
  • [0015]
    FIGS. 4A-4D schematically illustrate a starting point for an exemplary design of the present invention, with FIG. 4A showing the optical layout in the YZ plane, FIG. 4B showing MTF plots, FIG. 4C showing ray fan plots of center fields, and FIG. 4D showing ray fan plots of marginal fields;
  • [0016]
    FIG. 5 schematically illustrates the system layout and sampled fields definition during different design stages of an exemplary optical see-through head-mounted display;
  • [0017]
    FIG. 6 schematically illustrates the layout of an exemplary free-form surface prism-lens system of the present invention having three free-form surfaces;
  • [0018]
    FIG. 7 illustrates a distortion plot of the free-form surface prism-lens system of FIG. 6;
  • [0019]
    FIGS. 8A-8D illustrate the performance of the free-form surface prism-lens system of FIG. 6, with FIG. 8A showing the polychromatic MTF plot of the center field of the virtual imaging system, FIG. 8B showing the polychromatic MTF plot of marginal fields of the virtual imaging system, FIG. 8C showing the ray fan plots of the center fields, and FIG. 8D showing the ray fan plots of the marginal fields;
  • [0020]
    FIGS. 9A-9D illustrate the incident angle on the TIR surface, with FIG. 9A showing the incident angle on surface 1′ as the ray pupil position varies from the bottom to the top, FIG. 9B showing the incident angle on surface 1′ as the field of the ray changes from the lowermost to the uppermost in the meridian plane, FIG. 9C showing the incident angle on surface 1 as the ray pupil position varies from the bottom to the top, and FIG. 9D showing the incident angle on surface 1 as the field of the ray changes from the lowermost to the uppermost position in the tangential plane;
  • [0021]
    FIGS. 10A-10D schematically illustrates the design of an auxiliary lens to be used with the free-form surface prism-lens system of FIG. 6, with FIG. 10A showing see-through by the FFS prism-lens, FIG. 10B showing distortion caused by the FFS prism-lens, and FIG. 10C showing the design layout of the see-through system;
  • [0022]
    FIG. 11 illustrates a distortion plot of the optical see-through system of FIG. 10;
  • [0023]
    FIGS. 12A-12B illustrate polychromatic MTF plots of the optical see-through system of FIG. 10 with an ideal lens;
  • [0024]
    FIG. 13 schematically illustrates the layout of the see-through HMD by coupling the FFS prism-lens system and auxiliary FFS lens of FIG. 10; and
  • [0025]
    FIG. 14A illustrates a photo without pre-warping the input image, and FIG. 14B a photo after pre-warping the input image taken through a fabricated prototype of the FFS prism-lens of FIG. 6.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0026]
    The desire to achieve an optical see-through head-mounted display having a compact, light-weight, and nonintrusive form factor argues for a design having as few optical elements as possible. Accordingly, exemplary designs of the present invention provide a single-element prism-lens 110, 710 which has sufficient optical power on its own to deliver light from a micro-display 130 to a user, FIGS. 1, 6. However, providing a single optical element, such as the prism-lens 710, in which all the optical power resides can lead to greatly increased aberrations with accompanying loss in resolution and image quality, especially for low F/# systems. Despite these challenges, as a result of the lens design procedures and work described below, the present invention provides a single-element prism-lens 710 based on a 0.61″ microdisplay 130, which offers a diagonal FOV of 53.5, an F/# of 1.875, an exit pupil diameter of 8 mm, and an eye relief of 18.25 mm. In addition, in order to maintain a non-distorted see-through view of a real-world scene, a cemented auxiliary lens 120, 720 may be provided for use in conjunction with the prism-lens 110, 710.
  • Display System Specifications
  • [0027]
    Turning first to the design of the wedge-shaped free-form prism-lens 110, design began with development of the display system specifications. An optical see-through HMD 100 typically consists of an optical path for viewing a displayed virtual image and a path for viewing a real-world scene directly. As shown in FIG. 1, the optical system 100 of our OST-HMD design may include a wedge-shaped free-form prism-lens 110 cemented to an auxiliary free-form lens 120. The prism-lens 110 serves as the near-eye viewing optics that magnifies the image displayed through a microdisplay 130 while the auxiliary free-form lens 120 is an auxiliary element attached to the prism-lens 110 in order to maintain a non-distorted see-through view of a real-world scene.
  • [0028]
    As shown in FIG. 1, the wedge shaped free-form prism-lens 110 may include three surfaces labeled as 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For the sake of convenience, the surface adjacent to the exit pupil is labeled as 1 in the refraction path and as 1′ in the reflection path. We set the center of the exit pupil as the origin of the global coordinate system and the rest of the surfaces were specified with respect to this global reference. We further adopted the convention of tracing the system backward, namely from the eye position to the microdisplay 130.
  • [0029]
    The overall system was set to be symmetric about the YOZ plane, but not the XOZ plane. A ray emitted from a point on the microdisplay 130 is first refracted by the surface 3 next to the microdisplay 130. After two consecutive reflections by the surfaces 1′ and 2, the ray is transmitted through the surface 1 and reaches the exit pupil of the system 100. The first surface (i.e., 1 and 1′) of the prism-lens 110 is required to satisfy the condition of total internal reflection for rays reflected by this surface 1′. The rear surface 2 of the prism-lens 110 is coated as a half mirror in order to facilitate the optical see-through capability. The rays from the microdisplay 130 will be reflected by the rear surface 2 while the rays from a real-world scene will be transmitted. An auxiliary lens 120 may be cemented to the wedge-shaped prism-lens 110 in order to counteract the ray shift and distortion caused by the prism-lens 110. The front surface of the auxiliary free-form lens 120 may match the shape of the rear surface 2 of the prism-lens 110. The back surface 4 of the auxiliary free-form lens 120 may be optimized to minimize the shift and distortion introduced to the rays from a real-world scene when the auxiliary free-form lens 120 is combined with the prism-lens 110.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 1
    Specifications of FFS Prism-lens HMD System
    Parameter Specification
    LCD
    Size 0.61 in (15.5 mm) diagonally
    Active display area 12.7 mm 9.0 mm
    Resolution 800 600 pixels
    Virtual imaging system
    Type folded FFS prism-lens
    Effective focal length 15 mm
    Exit pupil diameter 8 mm
    Eye relief >17 (18.25) mm
    F/# 1.875
    Number of free-form surfaces 3
    Augmented viewing system
    Type Free-form lens
    Number of free-form surfaces 2
    Other parameters
    Wavelength 656.3-486.1 nm
    Field of view 45 H 32 V
    Vignetting 0.15 for top and bottom fields
    Distortion <12% at the maximum field
    Image quality MTF > 10% at 30 lps/mm
  • [0030]
    The overall specifications of the system are summarized in Table 1. Our goal was to achieve a very compact, lightweight, and wide FOV design using a wedge-shaped free-form prism-lens 110. A small size microdisplay 130 with high resolution was thus preferred. Based on the size, resolution, availability and cost, a pair of 0.61-inch Emagin OLED displays were selected, with a resolution of 800600 pixels and a 15 μm pixel size. We further targeted an HMD system 100 with a diagonal full FOV of at least 50, which corresponds to a focal length no more than 16.6 mm. A 15 mm focal length was selected, which offers a reasonable balance between FOV (53.5 diagonally) and angular resolution (3.2 arc minutes per pixel). In the design of visual instruments, especially binocular HMDs, a large exit pupil is typically preferred to account for the swiveling of the eyes in their sockets without causing vignetting or loss of image. A large pupil offers better tolerance of the interpupilary distances (IPD) among different users without the need to mechanically adjust the IPD of the binocular optics. A large pupil, however, often not only compromises the compactness and weight of the optical system 100, but also imposes limitations on the FOV due to the dramatically increased challenge of designing low F/# systems. Taking into account these factors, we set the exit pupil diameter to be 8 mm, which leads to a system 100 with a F/# of 1.875. In designing HMD systems, a large eye relief is desired to accommodate users wearing eyeglasses, but it affects the compactness of the viewing optics. A minimum of a 18 mm eye relief was set to accommodate users wearing low-profile eyeglasses. Balancing between image uniformity and system compactness, we set the limit of the vignetting to be less than 15% at the top and bottom of the visual fields.
  • [0031]
    Among the aberrations of an optical system, distortion causes the warping of the displayed image without reducing image sharpness, which allows computational or electronic correction. In designing conventional HMDs it is common to optimize the system 100 to minimize the optical aberrations that reduce image quality and cannot be compensated electronically or computationally. In a free-form optical system 100, however, the distortion can be very large and irregular if it is left without any constraints. We thus set a distortion limit of 12% at the maximum field angle and planned to correct the residual distortion using computational methods. In terms of other types of aberrations, the modulation transfer function (MTF) was selected to evaluate the overall image sharpness and was set to be no less than 10% across the entire visual field at a spatial frequency of 30 lps/mm. With the specifications established, development continued with design of the free-form elements 110, 120.
  • Design of Free-Form Elements
  • [0032]
    Free-form optical surfaces offer more degrees of freedom to optical designers than conventional rotationally symmetric optical surfaces, such as a spherical or aspherical surface, and achieve usually lower wavefront errors and distortion than that achievable with the same number of rotationally symmetric surfaces. A significant benefit in our OST-HMD design lies in its ability to yield display optics with an eyeglass-like form factor. An optical design using free-form surfaces, however, may cause a dramatic increase in the complexity of the design and optimization process. An inadequate method of representing and optimizing a free-form surface may lead to discouraging and unpredictable results. Key issues in the process of designing a FFS HMD include 1) a free-form surface representation and design strategy; 2) total internal reflection condition; and 3) structure constraints to form a valid prism-lens 110.
  • [0033]
    Free-Form Surface Representation and Design Strategy
  • [0034]
    Selecting a suitable method for a free-form surface representation is very important. Different representation methods not only have different impacts on the ray tracing speed and the convergence of optimization, but also offer different degrees of design freedom. A suitable representation method shall 1) provide adequate degrees of freedom; 2) require a reasonable amount of ray tracing time; and 3) offer reliable convergence in the optimization process. Ray tracing speed is a particular concern in designing a free-form prism-lens 110, as a larger number of fields need to be sampled when optimizing a free-form optical system than need to be sampled in a rotationally symmetrical optical system. Speed becomes a more serious problem when a global optimization is necessary. Although most of the commercially available optical design software, such as CODE V (Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, Calif.), offers the ability to model free-form surfaces in user-defined methods, the ray tracing speed of user-defined representations typically is much slower than the standard methods available in the software packages.
  • [0035]
    By taking into account the speed and convergence factors, the following design strategy was adopted in our design process. In the case when we lacked a starting point for an FFS surface, we started to optimize the surface with a spherical type to obtain the correct first-order parameters. The spherical surface was then converted to an aspheric type by adding a conic constant and a 4th order or higher aspheric coefficients. Following an intermediate state of optimization, the ASP-type surface was then converted to an AAS-type surface for better correction by directly adding asymmetric coefficients up to the 10th order. To avoid loss of information, use of aspheric terms higher than the 10th order was not pursued, because the AAS surface has only up to the 10th order of rotationally symmetric coefficients in CODE V. Optimization with the AAS type surface helped to create a good starting point. The AAS surface was then converted to the XYP-type through a fitting algorithm (e.g., a least square fitting method) for final stage of optimization. High precision was required for the fitting algorithm to avoid a significant deviation from the starting design produced by the AAS surface type.
  • [0036]
    Total Internal Reflection Constraint
  • [0037]
    As mentioned above, all the rays striking the first surface 1′ of the prism-lens 110 from inside should be totally reflected off. The first surface 1′ cannot be coated with a reflective film, because it is shared by both a refractive and reflective path of the same rays. Therefore, the incident angles of all the rays striking the first surface 1′ from the microdisplay 130 should be larger than the critical angle, θc, set by the TIR condition
  • [0000]

    θc=arcsin(1/n)   (1)
  • [0000]
    where n is the refractive index of the material for the FFS prism-lens 110. For example, if the index of the material is equal to 1.5, all the incident angles should be larger than 41.82. Rays incident on the first surface 1′ of the prism-lens 110 at a smaller angle may be transmitted through the prism-lens 110 without the benefit of reflection off the rear surface 2 (and subsequent refraction at the first surface 1) and may directly enter the eye, which leads to stray light and a reduction in the image contrast observed by the user. If the TIR condition is met, however, after two consecutive reflections by the front and rear surfaces 1′ and 2, respectively, the same ray is returned back and to be transmitted through the front surface 1. To ensure transmission of the ray after the two consecutive reflections, the incident angle of the ray should be smaller than the critical angle set by Eqn. (1) to avoid the TIR effect.
  • [0038]
    It was impractical to constrain the incident angle of every ray incident on the surface of interest during the optimization process. An adequate and practical control method was required. Without loss of generality, we made two assumptions: (1) the local departure of the surface 1′ from a spherical surface was sufficiently small compared to the primary radius of curvature of the surface so that the surface normal of every point on surface 1′ could be adequately approximated by a line passing through to the center of the primary curvature of the surface (as shown in FIGS. 3); and (2) the primary curvature of the surface 1 is concave, as shown in FIG. 3. Under these assumptions, we could prove that the top marginal ray, R1u, which corresponds to the ray from the maximum object field in the positive Y-direction (i.e. P1) passing through the top edge of the pupil, had the smallest incident angle among all the rays striking the surface 1′ from the microdisplay 130 side. As shown in FIG. 3, the incident angle on surface 1′ increased gradually as the ray from the same object field shifted from the top to the bottom of the pupil (e.g. from R1u to R1b); the angle also increased as the ray intersecting the same pupil position shifted from the top to the bottom of the object fields (e.g., from R1u to R2u). Therefore, the constraint on the incident angle was written as
  • [0000]

    θ1b1′>arcsin(1/n)   (2)
  • [0000]
    where θ1b1′ is the incident angle of the top marginal ray, R1u, on surface 1′ from the maximum object field in tangential plane of the microdisplay 130.
  • [0039]
    We could further prove that after the two consecutive reflections the top marginal ray, R2u, of the maximum object field in the negative Y-direction (i.e. P2) had the largest incident angle on the surface 1 when the surface 1 was tilted counterclockwise about the X-axis (i.e., the tilt angle, θ1>0); otherwise the bottom marginal ray R1b, of the maximum object field in the positive Y-direction (P1) has the largest incident angle when the surface 1 was tilted clockwise. Therefore, the constraint used to avoid TIR condition on surface 1 was written as:
  • [0000]
    θ 1 b = { θ 1 b 1 < arcsin ( 1 / n ) , θ 1 0 θ 2 u 1 < arcsin ( 1 / n ) , θ 1 0 ( 3 )
  • [0000]
    where θ1b1 is the incident angle of the bottom marginal ray, R1b, striking the surface 1; and θ2u1 is the incident angle of the top marginal ray, R2u, on surface 1, and θ1 is the tilt angle of surface 1 about the X-axis.
  • [0040]
    The simplified constraints in Eqns. (2) and (3) were important in making the optimization practical in designing the FFS prism-lens 110. Increasing the refractive index of the material could help to relax the ray angle constraints and ease the design task. However, high refractive index materials can increase the color aberrations (due to lower Abbe number) and fabrication cost. Furthermore, our goal in this design was to achieve light weight by using plastic materials, which usually have a moderately low range of refractive indices.
  • [0041]
    Structure Constraints
  • [0042]
    Designing the wedge-shaped free-form prism-lens 110 required optimizing the shapes of individual surfaces to minimize wavefront errors under the ray angle constraints set by Eqns. 2 and 3. It further required additional structure constraints in order to ensure that the three surfaces together formed a valid prism-lens shape, that all the rays across the fields could be traced without obstruction or early escaping from a surface, and that the prism-lens 110 maintained desirable center and edge thickness. FIG. 3 illustrates the structure control method we employed. During each step of the optimization, we traced two rays: the top marginal ray, R1u, of the maximum field in the positive Y-direction and the bottom marginal ray, R2b, of the maximum field in the negative Y-direction. As shown in FIG. 3, Pa, Pa′, Pa″ and Pb′ denote the intersection points of the ray R2b with surfaces 1, 2, 1′ and 3, respectively; and Pb, Pc and Pc′ label the intersection points of the ray R1u with surfaces 2, 1′ and 3, respectively. The coordinates of these ray-surface intersections were then used to define the constraints for optimizing the FFS HMD prism-lens 110. Based on the requirements of the physical structure, the constraints were defined as
  • [0000]
    { Y P a - Y P a < 0 Y P a ′′ - Y P a > 0 0.5 < Z P a - Z P a < 2 ( 4 ) { Y Pb - Y Pb > 0 - 1.5 < Z Pb - Z Pb < - 0.2 ( 5 ) { - 2 < Y Pc - Y Pc 0 0 < Z Pc - Z Pc < 1 ( 6 ) { Z pa the eye clearance distance , i . e . , 17 Z pc the eye clearance distance , i . e . , 17 ( 7 )
  • [0000]
    where all the Y, Z coordinates in the equations are referenced to the global coordinate system with the origin located at the center of the exit pupil.
  • [0043]
    Here by constraining the Y coordinates of the points Pa, Pa′, and Pa″, Eqn. (4) ensured that the surfaces 1 and 2 intersected properly so that the bottom marginal ray could be traced through the prism-lens 110 without obstruction. Equation 4 further set the upper and lower limits (e.g. 2 and 0.5 mm, respectively) on the edge thickness of the prism-lens 110 by constraining the Z coordinates of the points Pa and Pa′. By constraining the Y and Z coordinates of the points Pb and Pb′, Eqn. (5) avoided the escape of the top marginal ray after reflection by the surface 1 and helped to control the thickness of the prism-lens 110. By controlling the Y and Z coordinates of the points Pc and Pc′, Eqn. (6) ensured that the surfaces 1 and 3 intersected properly so that the top marginal ray could be traced through the prism-lens 110 without obstruction or escaping from the prism-lens 110. It further helped control the height of the prism-lens 110. Eqns. 4 through 6 together ensured the three surfaces formed a valid prism-lens shape. These relationships further set limits on the tilt angles of the surfaces 1 and 2, which helped to limit the off axis aberrations. By limiting the Z coordinates of the points Pa and Pc, Eqn. (7) set the minimal value for the eye clearance distance.
  • Optimization of the Free-Form Prism
  • [0044]
    We selected a patented design by Takahashi (U.S. Pat. No. 5,959,780) as a starting point. The original prism design of Takahashi included two free-form surfaces 501, 502 and one planar surface 503. Based on a 1.3 inch microdisplay 530, the Takahashi design offered a full FOV of the system 500 of 57.834.6, with an exit pupil diameter of 4 mm and effective focal length of about 27.4 mm. The F/# of the system 500 was only 6.85. To meet our specifications, we scaled the effective focal length to 15 mm, reduced the horizontal FOV to 45, and increased the exit pupil diameter from 4 mm to 8 mm, yielding a system 500 with an F/# of 1.875. In the scaled system 500, the eye relief was reduced to 15.5 mm. The significantly reduced F/# imposed a critical challenge on system performance and invalidated several critical conditions of the prism-lens structure.
  • [0045]
    For instance, the incident angles of the rays on the TIR surface 501 were far smaller than the critical angle and a part of the rays from the top and bottom fields escaped from the prism 510 before completing their paths. We thus had to set considerably large vignetting for the top and bottom fields to obtain a valid starting design. FIGS. 4A and 4B show the layout and the polychromatic MTF plots of the scaled starting system 500, respectively. The MTF of the starting design was evaluated at an exit pupil diameter of 8 mm with vignetting, was no higher than 0.1 at a spatial frequency of 10 lps/mm across the entire visual field. The rayfan plots were evaluated at a 3 mm pupil, shown in FIGS. 4C and 4D. We thus needed a better starting point that met our first-order specifications before performing a comprehensive optimization.
  • [0046]
    The system of FIGS. 4A-4D was optimized with rays traced from the eye position to the microdisplay 530 in CODE V. During the optimization process, four representative wavelengths, 486.1, 546.1, 587.6, and 656.3 nm, were set with the weights of 1, 1, 2, and 1, respectively. The TIR constraints and structural constraints as well as the basic optical definitions, such as the effective focal length, were always applied. The effective focal lengths in both tangential and sagittal planes were constrained to be 15 mm. We further set the following parameters as variables: all the primary curvatures of all surfaces 501, 502, 503 in both tangential and sagittal planes, aspherical coefficients, decenter in both Y and Z directions, and tilt about the X axis. Although we did not directly set a constraint on distortion, we limited the height of the rays striking the image plane to avoid large and irregular distortion.
  • [0047]
    Due to its single-plane symmetry, the free-form prism-lens design had to be optimized over half of the full FOV sampled in a rectangular grid, as opposed to a linear sample in the radial direction in a rotationally symmetric system. It was difficult, however, to start the optimization across the entire FOV in a densely-sampled grid given the low performance of the starting point. Instead, we adopted a progressive optimization strategy by gradually increasing field samples as the system performance improved during the optimization process. The weighting factors of the sampled fields were inversely proportional to their distance from the center of the field. The decenter and tilt parameters were set as variables during the entire optimization process. FIG. 5 illustrates the field sampling strategy during the different stages of optimization. In the initial stage, as illustrated in FIG. 5( a), we sampled five fields along the vertical direction with the sagittal field angle being zero. It was important to optimize the system to meet the physical requirements such as eye clearance and TIR condition in this stage. During the optimization, we set the curvatures of surfaces 601 and 602 and the aspherical coefficients on rear surface 602 of the prism-lens 610 as variables. We also added curvature to surface 603 (which was a flat surface 503 in the starting Takahashi system 500) as a variable, and this surface 603 was later turned into a free-form surface to help limit the ray heights of the marginal fields with respect to the center field and improve the overall optical performance. The surface layout of the optimized system 600 on the XZ plane is shown in FIG. 5( a). After the first stage of optimization, we expanded the field samples by adding a fraction of the field angles along the sagittal direction. This stage of optimization was done by converting the surface type to AAS-type from ASP-type, and then the curvatures of the three surfaces in XZ plane were set as variables. The layout of the optimized system on the XZ plane is shown in FIG. 5( b). We continued to expand the field horizontally until the maximum field met our specification, and optimized the system repetitively by gradually adding the asymmetric coefficients as variables. A good starting point was finally achieved after the re-optimization. FIG. 5( c) shows the layout of the system on the XZ plane. It is worth pointing out that this optimization strategy can reduce the dependence on the performance of the initial starting point.
  • [0048]
    Following the design strategy above, we optimized the free-form surfaces using aspherical-type representations during the above steps for obtaining a good starting point. We then furthered the optimization by converting the ASP-type surfaces to AAS-type of surfaces and adding asymmetric coefficients up to the 10th order as variables. To further optimize the system 600, we converted the AAS-type surfaces to XYP representations through a least-square fitting algorithm and carried out a global optimization. We found that this step of optimization was very effective in optimizing the FFS prism-lens system 700. The layout of the final FFS prism-lens design 700 is shown in FIG. 6. The distance from the bottom 712 to the top 714 of the left edge of the prism-lens 710 was 22 mm, the width along X-direction was 25 mm, the thickness along Z-axis was 12 mm, and the weight was 5 grams. The optical material of the prism-lens 710 was PMMA having a refractive index of 1.492 and Abbe number of 57.2. The locations, and effective areas, of the surfaces 701, 702, 703 relative to the global coordinate system having its origin at the exit pupil are given in Tables 2 and 3, respectively, below. The SPS XYP surfaces 701, 702, 703 were 10th-order polynomial surfaces added to a base conic. The polynomial was expanded into monomials of xmyn, where m+n≦10. The equation used was:
  • [0000]
    z = c ( x 2 + y 2 ) 1 + sqrt ( 1 - ( 1 + k ) c 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) ) + j = 2 66 C j x m y n , j = [ ( m + n ) 2 + m + 3 n ] / 2 + 1
  • [0000]
    where z is the sag of the surface along the local z-axis, x and y are the coordinates in the local coordinate system, c is the vertex curvature (CUY), k is the conic constant, and C, is the coefficient for xmyn. FIG. 2 illustrates the local, right-handed coordinate system at each surface 701, 702, 703 to show the local x-, y-, and z-axes and tilt, θ (the x-axis is perpendicular to the plane of the figure). The FFS polynomial coefficients are provided in Table 8 at the end of the Detailed Description.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 2
    Definition of the local surface references
    in the global coordinate system
    Orientation of the
    Origin of surface reference surface Rotation
    X (mm) Y (mm) Z (mm) about X-axis θ ()
    Surface 1 0 0.305 18.25 1.7942
    Origin: O1(x1, y1, z1)
    Orientation: θ1
    Surface 2 0 0 24.34 −23.08
    Origin: O2 (x2, y2, z2)
    Orientation: θ2
    Surface 3 0 15.534 19.403 53.4547
    Origin: O3 (x3, y3, z3)
    Orientation: θ3
    Microdisplay 0 17.101 24.272 54.1888
    Origin: OIm
    (xIm, yIm, zIm)
    Orientation: θIm
  • [0000]
    TABLE 3
    Effective area of each surface
    (mm)
    surface 1
    X −13 13
    Y −8.3 15.9
    surface 2
    X −13 13
    Y −9.25 12.25
    surface 3
    X −10 10
    Y −8.55 2.75
  • [0049]
    The optical performance of the optimized system 700 was assessed at the following representative field angles for the four design wavelengths: (0, 0), (0, 8), (7, 0), (14, 0), (016), (22.5, 0), (22.5, 16). FIGS. 7 through 8 demonstrate the optical performance of the microdisplay viewing path. As shown in FIG. 7, the distortion in the microdisplay path was up to 12% at the top left/right corners. Such large distortion was mainly due to the trapezoidal shape distortion caused by surface 702, which is very difficult to correct, as well as a small amount of barrel distortion. By fitting with the distortion grid, we chose to pre-warp the image displayed on the microdisplay 730 to balance the distortion of the virtual image. The polychromatic MTF plots shown in FIGS. 8A-8B were evaluated for a centered 3-mm pupil, at the spatial frequency of 30 cycles/mm, which corresponds to the threshold spatial frequency of the OLED microdisplay 730. The MTF was 0.7 for the central (0, 0) field, 0.2 for the (0, 16) field, and above 0.1 for the (22.5, 16) field. The rayfan plots of the system 100 were evaluated at a 3 mm pupil, shown in FIGS. 8C and 8D; the maximum error is the half of the starting system.
  • [0050]
    To demonstrate the effectiveness of the TIR constraints, FIGS. 9A and 9B plot the incident angle of rays on the surface 701′ as a function of the pupil position and field position of the rays, respectively. As the pupil position of the rays is shifted from bottom to top, the incident angle on surface 701′ decreased from 59.13 to 42.98 for the top field, from 61.66 to 42.2 for the center field and from 65.02 to 46.70 for the bottom field. Given the refractive index of the material in our final design was 1.492, all these angles were well controlled to satisfy the Eqn. (2). FIGS. 9C and 9D plot the incident angle of rays on the surface 701 as a function of the pupil position and field position of the rays, respectively. As the pupil position of the rays was shifted from bottom to top, the incident angle on surface 701 decreased from 7.8 to 7.0 for the top field, from 3.15 to 2.84 for the center field and from 13.7 to 13.6 for the bottom field. All these angles were far smaller than the critical angle, so they were well controlled to satisfy the Eqn. (3).
  • Design of the Auxiliary Free-Form Lens
  • [0051]
    The free-form prism-lens 710 with curved surfaces produced optical power in the optical see-through path, causing a significant viewing axis deviation and undesirable distortion as well as other off-axis aberrations to the view of the real world scene. FIGS. 10A and 10B demonstrate the optical path and distortion grid of the real-world view through the free-form prism-lens 710. An auxiliary lens 720 was desired, to not only cancel the optical power in the see-through path, but also to correct the deviation of the optical axis and the off-axis aberrations introduced by the FFS prism-lens 710.
  • [0052]
    We chose to trace rays from the real-world scene to the eye space, as shown in FIG. 10C. We flipped the optimized FFS prism-lens 710 (FIG. 6) along the X-axis so that the pupil was to the right of the prism-lens 710. The reflective mode of the concave mirror surface 702 was changed to refractive mode. We then inserted a plastic auxiliary lens 720 to the left of the prism-lens 710, and the lens surface adjacent to the prism-lens 710 was matched to the concave surface 702 of the prism-lens 710, which ensured that the auxiliary lens 720 and prism-lens 710 could be cemented accurately which simplified the design of the auxiliary free-form lens 720. As a result, the front surface 722 of the auxiliary lens 720 only needed to compensate for the optical power introduced by surface 701 of the prism-lens 710 of the FFS prism-lens 710. Although we could start the optimization of the lens with a planar front surface 722, a good approximation is to initialize the front surface 722 with the same shape as surface 701 of the prism-lens 710. The combination of the auxiliary lens and the prism-lens 710 should ideally form an afocal system 700 for a real-world scene at optical infinity as the object distance is considerably larger than the EFL of the system 700. Therefore, we inserted an ideal lens at the eye position with an effective focal length equivalent to the human eye to focus the collimated rays. During the optimization process, we only set the curvature and polynomial coefficients of the front surface 722 of the auxiliary lens 720 as variables. We set constraints on the distortion and aberrations. The specification for the front surface 722 of the auxiliary lens 720 is provided as “Surface 4” in Table 8 below.
  • [0053]
    FIGS. 11 through 12 demonstrate the optical performance of the optical see-through path. The polychromatic MTF plots were evaluated at a 3 mm pupil, shown in FIGS. 12A-12B. At the spatial frequency of 50 cycles/mm, the MTF was 0.6 for the central (0, 0) field, 0.4 for the (0, 8) field, and 0.2 for the marginal (22.5, 16) field, which suggested that the image quality of a real-world is well-balanced across the fields and well preserved. As shown in FIG. 11, the distortion in the see-through path is below 1.4% across the field, which is negligible. The distortion caused by the FFS prism-lens 710 is as high as 10%, as shown in FIG. 10B. The auxiliary free-form lens 720 effectively corrected the viewing axis deviation and the distortion.
  • [0054]
    The final design of the auxiliary lens 720 combined with the FFS prism-lens 710 is shown in FIG. 13, which demonstrates excellent correction to the deviation of the see-through optical path. The overall thickness of the combined prism-lens system 700 is approximately the same as the prism-lens 710 alone. The optical material of the auxiliary lens 720 was PMMA having a refractive index of 1.492 and Abbe number of 57.2. The locations, and effective areas, of the surfaces relative to the global coordinate system having its origin at the exit pupil are give in Tables 4 and 5, respectively, below.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 4
    Definition of the local surface references
    in the global coordinate system OXYZ.
    Orientation of the
    Origin of surface reference surface Rotation
    X (mm) Y (mm) Z (mm) about X-axis θ ()
    Surface 1 0 0.305 18.25 1.7942
    Origin: O1(x1, y1, z1)
    Orientation: θ1
    Surface 2 0 0 24.34 −23.08
    Origin: O2 (x2, y2, z2)
    Orientation: θ2
    Surface 3 0 15.534 19.403 53.4547
    Origin: O3 (x3, y3, z3)
    Orientation: θ3
    Surface 4 0 0 29 0
    Origin: O4 (x4, y4, z4)
    Orientation: θ4
    Microdisplay 0 17.101 24.272 54.1888
    Origin: OIm
    (xIm, yIm, zIm)
    Orientation: θIm
  • [0000]
    TABLE 5
    Effective area of each surface
    (mm)
    Surface 1
    X −13 13
    Y −8.3 15.9
    Surface 2
    X −13 13
    Y −9.25 12.25
    Surface 3
    X −10 10
    Y −8.55 2.75
    Surface 4
    X −13 13
    Y −10 12
  • Prototype and Experimental Results
  • [0055]
    The FFS prism-lens 710 was fabricated through a molding approach. FIG. 14A shows a photo taken at the exit pupil of the system 700 to demonstrate the image quality of the microdisplay viewing optics. The distortion was noticeable and irregular. The upper portion of the displayed image seems nearer than the lower portion of the image. The distortion correction method of a free-form surface system 700 is different from rotationally symmetric systems where distortion can be corrected with sufficient accuracy by 3 radial and 2 tangential coefficients. To correct the distortion in the free-form system 700, a more complex model with more coefficients would be required. Alternatively, we calculated the mapping from the undistorted image to a distorted image using the distortion plot in FIG. 7 and then applied the mapping matrix on the undistorted image to pre-warp the image. As shown in FIG. 7, 11 by 11 grids were sampled to calculate the distortion mapping. Similarly, we divided the effective image plane into 800600 grids, then calculated the corresponding fields on the eye side from the height of the grid corners and implemented ray tracing in CODE V to find the chief rays' intersection points with the image plane of all the fields. The one to one mapping matrix from the undistorted image to the distorted image was calculated between ideal points (grid corners) and the ray traced points on the image plane. We could then generate the pre-warped image by applying the one to one mapping matrix on the undistorted image and displayed the pre-warped image on the microdisplay 730. FIG. 15A is a photo taken at the exit pupil position without pre-warping the input image, while FIG. 15B is a photo after pre-warping the input image.
  • Further Design Example
  • [0056]
    The techniques described above where employed to provide a second exemplary design. Again, the optical material of the prism-lens was PMMA having a refractive index of 1.492 and Abbe number of 57.2. The locations, and effective areas, of the surfaces relative to the global coordinate system having its origin at the exit pupil are give in Tables 6 and 7, respectively, below. The FFS polynomial coefficients are provided in Table 9 below.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 6
    the local surface references in the global coordinate system OXYZ.
    Orientation of the
    Origin of surface reference surface Rotation
    X (mm) Y (mm) Z (mm) about X-axis θ ()
    Surface 1 0 −4 19.18 6.04937
    Origin: O1(x1, y1, z1)
    Orientation: θ1
    Surface 2 0 −3.2 23.65 −26.4722
    Origin: O2 (x2, y2, z2)
    Orientation: θ2
    Surface 3 0 16.044 23.35 53.2281
    Origin: O3 (x3, y3, z3)
    Orientation: θ3
    Surface 4 0 0.514 29.968 6
    Origin: O4 (x4, y4, z4)
    Orientation: θ4
    Microdisplay 0 17.978 25.011 49.247
    Origin: OIm
    (xIm, yIm, zIm)
    Orientation: θIm
  • [0000]
    TABLE 7
    Effective area of each surface
    (mm)
    Surface 1
    X −15 15
    Y −6 22
    Surface 2
    X −15 15
    Y −8 16
    Surface 3
    X −10 10
    Y −6.5 6.5
    Surface 4
    X −15 15
    Y −11.5 12.5
  • [0057]
    These and other advantages of the present invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing specification. Accordingly, it will be recognized by those skilled in the art that changes or modifications may be made to the above-described embodiments without departing from the broad inventive concepts of the invention. For instance, other shapes of free-form surfaces may be utilized in the designs of the present invention. By way of example, if one wanted to vary the surface curvature independently in the x and y directions, the surface could be represented by
  • [0000]
    z = c x x 2 + c y y 2 1 + sqrt ( 1 - ( 1 + k x ) c x x 2 - ( 1 + k y ) c y y 2 ) + j = 1 37 C j x 2 m y n 2 m + n 10 , m = 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , n = 0 , 1. , 10
  • [0000]
    where z is the sag along the local z-axis, x and y are the coordinates in the local coordinate system, k is the conic constant, cx is radius of curvature of surface in sagittal direction, cy is radius of curvature of surface in tangential direction, and Cj is the coefficient for x2myn. It should therefore be understood that this invention is not limited to the particular embodiments described herein, but is intended to include all changes and modifications that are within the scope and spirit of the invention as set forth in the claims.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 8
    Coeffi- com-
    cients ment Surface 1 Surface 2
    cuy c −0.000285105 −0.039092523
    c67 normal- 1 1
    ized
    radius
    c1 k 0 0
    c2 x 0 0
    c3 y −4.554727019060E−02 0.000000000000E+00
    c4 x2 −9.529768572360E−03 3.799883836350E−03
    c5 xy 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c6 y2 8.880680850880E−04 8.811637430275E−03
    c7 x3 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c8 x2y −2.274693243620E−04 −4.120156490413E−05
    c9 xy2 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c10 y3 −2.250128361500E−05 −1.162523138271E−04
    c11 x4 1.363374558440E−05 8.274939784188E−06
    c12 x3y 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c13 x2y2 −3.835587301810E−05 1.217474597638E−05
    c14 xy3 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c15 y4 −8.630487450540E−06 1.240101301250E−05
    c16 x5 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c17 x4y −1.985502857350E−07 −3.848552333625E−08
    c18 x3y2 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c19 x2y3 1.202547290150E−06 4.252351660938E−07
    c20 xy4 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c21 y5 −2.259740420160E−07 −1.854520775606E−08
    c22 x6 −2.190859953400E−08 −7.328932049703E−10
    c23 x5y 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c24 x4y2 −1.532516744660E−09 3.774337431125E−08
    c25 x3y3 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c26 x2y4 2.361733529370E−08 −9.746364392781E−08
    c27 xy5 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c28 y6 1.116521684700E−08 −2.777925130281E−08
    c29 x7 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c30 x6y 6.000609985730E−20 −9.790340156094E−10
    c31 x5y2 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c32 x4y3 −5.043712711540E−20 1.456155907344E−10
    c33 x3y4 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c34 x2y5 −5.117716418980E−20 6.072571241477E−09
    c35 xy6 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c36 y7 −8.492659970480E−18 9.635155206406E−10
    c37 x8 7.666995972280E−11 1.071711944156E−10
    c38 x7y 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c39 x6y2 −7.767376892480E−11 0.000000000000E+00
    c40 x5y3 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c41 x4y4 2.950846077350E−11 0.000000000000E+00
    c42 x3y5 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c43 x2y6 −4.982363079300E−12 0.000000000000E+00
    c44 xy7 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c45 y8 3.154691021580E−13 0.000000000000E+00
    c46 x9 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c47 x8y −1.654239598390E−22 0.000000000000E+00
    c48 x7y2 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c49 x6y3 1.373514352470E−22 0.000000000000E+00
    c50 x5y4 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c51 x4y5 3.089957605530E−22 0.000000000000E+00
    c52 x3y6 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c53 x2y7 7.625247748780E−22 0.000000000000E+00
    c54 xy8 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c55 y9 −3.658104101010E−20 0.000000000000E+00
    c56 x10 −5.304042934200E−14 0.000000000000E+00
    c57 x9y 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c58 x8y2 −2.253404112780E−13 0.000000000000E+00
    c59 x7y3 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c60 x6y4 −3.829417935900E−13 0.000000000000E+00
    c61 x5y5 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c62 x4y6 −3.253841807830E−13 0.000000000000E+00
    c63 x3y7 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c64 x2y8 −1.382388481590E−13 0.000000000000E+00
    c65 xy9 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c66 y10 −2.349220379980E−14 0.000000000000E+00
    Coeffi- com-
    cients ment Surface 3 Surface 4
    cuy c −0.047502239 4.62503916636415E−03
    c67 normal- 1 1
    ized
    radius
    c1 k 0 0
    c2 x 0 0
    c3 y −3.713820097050E−01 −7.889190949566E−02
    c4 x2 −7.602734138830E−03 9.061467713679E−03
    c5 xy 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c6 y2 −1.328060538820E−02 −7.440925962039E−04
    c7 x3 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c8 x2y −6.162600900670E−04 −1.334980089604E−04
    c9 xy2 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c10 y3 2.698297276700E−03 −1.082388324657E−05
    c11 x4 −1.036808360720E−05 −6.869154882657E−06
    c12 x3y 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c13 x2y2 6.395534320820E−04 2.537076127696E−05
    c14 xy3 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c15 y4 5.348289994560E−04 2.872950078172E−06
    c16 x5 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c17 x4y −7.243323994940E−06 3.579225277335E−07
    c18 x3y2 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c19 x2y3 −2.631914617550E−05 7.674060114164E−07
    c20 xy4 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c21 y5 −1.207571795570E−04 2.343303575169E−07
    c22 x6 6.925182707110E−08 3.531736575015E−08
    c23 x5y 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c24 x4y2 −4.354972387950E−06 −1.047604139930E−07
    c25 x3y3 0.000000000000E+00 0.000000000000E+00
    c26 x2y4 −5.469927852330E−06 −7.816094559917E−08
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  • [0000]
    TABLE 9
    Coeffi- com-
    cients ment Surface 1 Surface 2
    cuy c 5.05744188235277E−03 1.01290420358428E−02
    c67 normal- 1 1
    ized
    radius
    c1 k −1.00000000000000E+00 −1.00000000000000E+00
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    c6 y2 −1.68658939805653E−03 −1.19385116890299E−02
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    c47 x8y −6.76193659551364E−11 1.12952194048511E−11
    c48 x7y2 0.00000000000000E+00 0.00000000000000E+00
    c49 x6y3 2.52161603900163E−11 −7.04825907294106E−11
    c50 x5y4 0.00000000000000E+00 0.00000000000000E+00
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    Coeffi- com-
    cients ment Surface 3 Surface 4
    cuy c −1.36040070302022E−01 −3.57225273631067E−03
    c67 normal- 1 1
    ized
    radius
    c1 k −1.00000000000000E+00 −3.05442384082650E+02
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    c24 x4y2 −4.80012193062278E−05 4.02601860330999E−09
    c25 x3y3 0.00000000000000E+00 0.00000000000000E+00
    c26 x2y4 −1.26051539656191E−04 2.49939246096273E−08
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    c39 x6y2 2.78655613640253E−07 −2.53421606734412E−10
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    c48 x7y2 0.00000000000000E+00 0.00000000000000E+00
    c49 x6y3 −1.70606513975964E−08 7.11512617425205E−12
    c50 x5y4 0.00000000000000E+00 0.00000000000000E+00
    c51 x4y5 −1.33127271883197E−08 −1.18995002675616E−12
    c52 x3y6 0.00000000000000E+00 0.00000000000000E+00
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    c57 x9y 0.00000000000000E+00 0.00000000000000E+00
    c58 x8y2 −5.85068948593321E−10 1.03108702382589E−12
    c59 x7y3 0.00000000000000E+00 0.00000000000000E+00
    c60 x6y4 −3.00944950467783E−09 −2.49697011108537E−13
    c61 x5y5 0.00000000000000E+00 0.00000000000000E+00
    c62 x4y6 −5.78412894302924E−09 −5.08864307560358E−14
    c63 x3y7 0.00000000000000E+00 0.00000000000000E+00
    c64 x2y8 −2.34559082177138E−08 2.18880110409132E−13
    c65 xy9 0.00000000000000E+00 0.00000000000000E+00
    c66 y10 −1.17892981297852E−08 9.10176395465433E−13
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Classifications
U.S. Classification359/720
International ClassificationG02B17/08
Cooperative ClassificationG02B2027/013, G02B27/0172, G02B17/006, G02B17/086, G02B2027/0118, G02B17/08, G03B21/00
European ClassificationG03B21/00