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E. fl. PARKEE.
SLIPPEB FOE BATHEBS.
APPLICATION FILED JAH. 20, 1908.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
EMMA REATTA PARKER, OF CINCINNATI, OHIO.
SLIPPER FOB BATHERS.
Specification of Letters Patent. Patented Oct. 13, 1908.
Application filed January 20, 1908. Serial No. 411,577.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, Emma Parker, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Cincinnati, in the county of 5 Hamilton and State of Ohio, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Slippers for Bathers, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to foot wear, and has
jo for its object the provision of a dress for the foot of the greatest possible openness and lightness of construction combined with, as nearly as possible, a perfect support and protection for the foot, which, while suitable for
15 wear in various places and under various conditions, will be particularly suitable for the use of bathers, especially those resorting to 'the sea shore and other open air bathing places.
20 My invention consists in a shell composed of renitent material whereby it is adapted to preserve the form of the foot, at the same time yielding to the pressure of the foot in sufficient degree to insure comfort in the
25 wear of the slipper, and adapted to retain its renitency when exposed to water, in combination with a lining for the shell composed of material adapted to form a cushion and dry support for the sole of the foot and retain its
so softness and dryness when exposed to the water, and at the same time give bulk enough to the slipper to overcome the effect of the water which the renitent material must add, together with a woven inner lining for the
85 slipper adapted to further cushion the interior of the slipper, and to be removed therefrom and replaced therein or exchanged for a similar inner lining, so that a clean and dry intner lining may always be provided with the
. In the drawing: Figure 1 is a longitudinal section of a slipper embodying my invention, the section being taken from the toe to the heel of the slipper. Fig. 2 is a detail per
45 spective view of the woven inner lining. Fig. 3 is a partial section of-a slipper embodying a slight modification of my invention. Fig. 4 is a longitudinal section of a slipper embodying a further modification of my in
50 vention. Fig. 5 is a plan view of the slipper. Fig. 6 is a general perspective view from the rear showing the slipper on the foot and the preferred manner of lacing and tying the tape. Fig. 7 is a further perspective view
55 showing the slipper on the foot, this view being from the front. .
As I construct my invention to carry out the requirements above enumerated, 1 provide the shell 1, the most essential quality of which is its renitency, by virtue of which it 60 resists the pressure of the foot sufficiently to maintain the form thereof as desired, while at the same time affording the comfort necessary to an article of wearing apparel. In order that it may be renitent, the shell 1 is con- et structed with very thin walls haying sufficient firmness, combined with resiliency, .to effectually maintain the form of the foot, while at the same time yielding slightly when the foot is used in standing or walking. This 70 also secures the proper lightness. For constructing this shell 1 I prefer to use aluminum, and, since, although aluminum is a comparatively light metal, it would be comparatively heavy for the construction of a 75 shoe to be used by a bather in the water, I provide the slipper with a lining or insole 2 of cork or other subereous material, which lining is comparatively thick, and by holding the foot away from the bottom of the shell, 80 increases the bulk of the slipper without correspondingly increasing its weight. At the' same time this cork lining or insole performs the equally desirable function of supplying; a comfortable cushion for the foot of the 85 wearer, and, being flexible as well as soft, will conform not only to the shape of the bottom of the foot while in standing position, but to the movements of the foot while the wearer is walking. This conformation is 90 facilitated also by the elasticity of the thin renitent shell of the slipper. It may also be noted that the function of the shell 1, of metal or other heavy material, and the lining 2, are reciprocal, since, while the use of the cork of 95 sufficient thickness to provide a comfortable and impervious cushion for the bottom of the foot is desirable, the use of such, a proportion of cork in the shoes or slippers of a bather, were these shoes or slippers of the ordinary 100 construction and material, such as leather or rubber, the added bulk with the absence of a corresponding increase in weight would cause the shoes or slippers to have a tendency to float, and would thus prove a detri- 105 ment to a swimmer in degree proportionate to the amount of cushioning material thus used in the foot wear.
Further referring to the use of such mate-, rial as leather or rubber, it may also be ex- 110 plained that these materials do not possess the quality of renitency or resilience com
bined with firmness to a sufficient degree to maintain the form of the foot as desired, unless such materials are used in the construction of the shoe or slipper in such quantity as to 5 make them excessively heavy and preclude their adaptability for bathing purposes. Another objection to the use of shoes of such construction and of the ordinary material, as have been heretofore employed, is that they
10 are particularly undesirable on account of the fact that they are quickly affected by the water, holding the water around the foot, and in the case of leather, becoming hard and stiff and giving away to the destructive
15 action of the water. Although rubber is more desirable than leather for resisting the effect of the water, it is subject to the above objection on account of the fact that it holds the water around the foot, as well as to the
20 fact that it is of no use in maintaining the shape of the foot, due to its extreme elasticity and lack of firmness. This observation in regard to rubber for the use of slippers for bathers is not intended to extend to the use
25 of hard rubber, since that material possesses many of the characteristics which would make it a desirable one for constructing the shell of the slipper according to my invention.
30 With the use of the shell of material unaffected by the water, and this shell being provided with a cushion composed of material which is impermeable to water and which is of low specific gravity, while at the same
35 time being soft and elastic enough to insure comfort to the wearer, the foundation of the slipper thus comprised of this combination is particularly adapted to the comfort of the wearer, as well as to allow the production of
40 foot wear of this character which will have the neat appearance desired. Although the shell 1 and its lining 2 are both impermeable to water, so that they do not become watersoaked and uncomfortable, they would, due
45 to this quality, if of closed formation similar to the usual shoe or slipper, hold a considerable quantity of water around the foot of the wearer. This closed construction would also be particularly undesirable in the use of stiff
50 material, such as metal, and I therefore give my improved slipper an open, shallow, general formation, and it would very closely approach the form of a sandal were it not for the fact that I provide extensions on the
55 walls 3 of the shell, such as the extension 4 on the inner side of the slipper and the extension 5 on the outer side thereof. In constructing the shell of the slipper, these extensions are so formed that they are adapted to
60 embrace the foot of the wearer in the region of the most prominent parts of the foot around the junction of the toes with the instep, the extension on the inner side embracing the ball of the foot, while the extension
65 on the outer side embraces the foot adjacent
to the base of the small toe. These extensions are thus provided to embrace the foot in the parts as explained, due to the fact that the foot, when standing or walking, is disposed to spread laterally, due to the weight 70 of the body, this spreading being prevented ordinarily by the use of shoes or slippers made of leather and of comparatively closed and secure construction, the tension of the material used in the construction of the shoe 75 or slipper being relied upon to resist the spreading pressure of the foot.
In constructing a shoe for use in the water, the closed construction, with its tendency to retain the water, and the necessity of using 80 a comparatively large amount of material in the construction of the shoe or slipper, and thus making it heavy, are objectionable, so that the extreme open construction in combination with the use of a material of suffi- 85 cient firmness to support the foot and prevent its spreading, by merely embracing it, as do the extensions 4 and 5, is found to accomplish the desired result.
The walls 3 of the shell serve to support ao the sides of the foot where -the spreading effect does not require to be counteracted to such a marked degree, and also protect the foot along the sides, as it is desirable that a shoe or slipper should do. Forward, the 95 walls of the shell converge around the toes and are provided with an upward, rearwardly extending extension 6, which extension 6 is provided with openings 7 through which a tape or ribbon or string may be passed, as is 100 illustrated in various figures of the drawing. To the rear, the shell is provided with a comparatively high extension 8, which serves to inclose the heel of the wearer to protect it as well as steady the slipper on the foot. 105 Openings 9 and 10 are provided in this heel 'inclosing extension at its forward part on the inner side and outer side, respectively, of the slipper, and preferably a third opening 11 is provided, slightly to the outside of the mid- 110 die of the slipper, in the rearward part of this heel inclosing extension.
The foot embracing extensions 4 and 5.are provided with slots or openings 12 and 13, respectively. Within the shell, after the n 5 cork insole or lining 2 has been inserted, an inner lining 14 is placed, this inner lining 14 being preferably of a woven material such as the foot is accustomed to, and of a rather heavy weave, so that it constitutes a com- 120 plete cushion interposed between the bottom of the foot and the cork insole, and between the sides of the foot and the adjacent' walls and extensions of the shell, thus adding to the comfort of the wearer. This in- 125 ner lining 14 is of such shape that when it occupies its position in the shell and on the cork insole, its edges conform to the outline or edges of the walls 3 and the extensions 4, 5, 7 and 8 of the shell, and is provided with 130
openings 15,16,17,18,19 and 20 which coincide with the openings 7,9,10,11,13 and 12, respectively, in the extensions of the shell. The edges of vthese openings in the woven
5 inner lining are preferably stitched in the well known manner of finishing button holes in clothing, and the edges of the inner lining are properly stitched m any manner usual in making a garment from woven material.
10 This inner lining is thus constructed entirely independent of the shell and the cork insole, but is made to conform to these parts, so that although it may be removed and replaced with great convenience for drying or
15 washing, or for substituting a new lining when the old one is worn .or soiled, it may, with equal facility, be held in the shell above the cork insole by passing the tape 21 through the various coinciding openings in
20 the shell and inner lining, as is best illustrated in Fig. 5 of the drawing.
•As will be noted, the openings or slots in the shell and in the inner lining are of sufficient length to admit a tape or ribbon of
25 greater width than the tape 21, thus allowing
, latitude of choice in regard to this feature, which may be made to serve 'an ornamental purpose, as evidenced in Figs. 6 and 7 of the drawings, as well as the useful purpose of
30 holding the inner lining in the shell when the slipper is off the foot, and of holding the slip-; per on the foot and reinforcing the shell 1 in the performance of its function for preserving the form of the foot. This reinforce
35 ment of the shell 1 by the tape 21 is best effected by lacing it as illustrated in Figs. 5, 6 and 7 of the drawings, where the two members of the tape pass from the opening 7 in the forward toe inclosing extension, rear
40 wardly to the outside of the inner and outer extensions 4 and 5, and inward through the slots or openings 12 and 13 in the extensions 4 and 5, respectively, then cross over the instep of the foot, as is best illustrated in Fig. 7
4 5 of the drawing, then pass inward through the openings 9 and 10 in the heel inclosing extension, and are carried around the ankle and one of them carried through the opening 11 in the rear of the he«l inclosing extension,
50 the lacing being completed by tying, preferably on the outside of the ankle, which enables an ornamental effect to be obtained in addition to the useful effect. It is especially desirable that the tape 21 in passing through
55 the openings 12 and 13, and 9 and 10, should pass in the rearward direction inwardly of the slipper as above described, so that when the tape is drawn firmly around the foot, its full reinforcing effect on the extensions of
CO the shell may be obtained.
As illustrated in Fig. 1, the shell 1 forms the complete outside of the slipper, and is not provided with any downwardly extending heel, such as is present on the shoes usu
C5 ally worn. "Where it is desired to provide a
slipper with a heel of greater prominence, the shell 1 may be constructed as is the shell la represented in Fig. 3 of the drawing, leaving an opening in the region of the heel and constructing a separate heel shell 22, 70 which may be attached to the shell la in any suitable manner, such as by the seam 23, after which the heel shell 22 is provided with a cork filling 24, over which is placed the cork insole 2a, giving the finish to the inte- 75 rior of the slipper. The cork filling 24 in the thin shell 22 reinforces it without adding an objectionable amount of weight to the slipper. It may also be noted that the bottom of the heel 22 may be corrugated, as at 25, 80 to prevent slipping which would otherwise be an objectionable feature with the use of a metal heel. This would also be present with the use of a metal sole, and I therefore represent the shell of the sh'pper illustrated 85 in Fig. 1 as having corrugations 26 on its bottom. The interior of the bottom of the shell 1 is thus also corrugated and serves to receive the lower side of the cork insole 22, and, becoming embedded in the lower surr 90 face thereof, serves to steady the insole in the shell, which insole, preferably, is not fastened in anyother way, so that it also is removable. Where it is desired to use a material for the outer surface of the slipper 95 other than the material composing the renitent shell 1, I prefer to construct my invention as illustrated in Fig. 4 of the drawing, in which the shell lb is in every way similar to the shell 1, excepting that the heel inclos- 100 ing extension is absent and the bottom of the shell is discontinued short of the rearward termination of the slipper, the wall 3b of the shell being preferably gradually curved down to the end of the shell thus formed, so 105 that the renitency of the shell is only taken advantage of to embrace and support the forward part of the foot, and which is sufficient, since the heel inclosing extension on the shell 1, as illustrated in Fig. 1, is only no provided as protection, and not as a support, the heel of the foot requiring no such support. Outside the shell lb an outer covering 27 conforms to the shape of the shell lb forwardly, and is provided with the rearward 115 heel inclosing extension 28 which affoids all the protection necessary for the heel of the foot. This outer covering 27 may be provided with a heel of any size and shape as desired, such^as the heel 29, a'ud the plate lb 120 continuing over this heel, serves to reinforce the outer covering in the region of its shank 30 in the manner well known in the con.struction of boots and shoes. Covering the inner surface of the bottom of the shell lb 125 and the inner surface of the bottom of the outer covering 27 in the region of the heel 29, is the continuous cork insole 2b similar to the cork insole 2 represented in Fig. 1 of the drawing. This continuous cork insole 2b 130