|Publication number||US8180743 B2|
|Application number||US 11/028,080|
|Publication date||15 May 2012|
|Priority date||1 Jul 2004|
|Also published as||US20060004819|
|Publication number||028080, 11028080, US 8180743 B2, US 8180743B2, US-B2-8180743, US8180743 B2, US8180743B2|
|Inventors||Christopher Hercules Claudatos, William Dale Andruss, Richard Urmston, Mark Rambacher|
|Original Assignee||Emc Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (140), Referenced by (5), Classifications (17), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims priority to co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/884,345 for METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR INFORMATION LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT, filed Jul. 1, 2004, which is incorporated herein by reference for all purposes; and to co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/001,201 for CONTENT-DRIVEN INFORMATION LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT, filed Nov. 30, 2004, which is incorporated herein by reference for all purposes. This application is related to co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/027,997 for POLICY-BASED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT and filed concurrently herewith, which is incorporated herein by reference for all purposes; co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/028,079 for EFFICIENT INFORMATION MANAGEMENT and filed concurrently herewith, which is incorporated herein by reference for all purposes; and co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/028,089 for STORAGE POOLS FOR INFORMATION MANAGEMENT and filed concurrently herewith, which is incorporated herein by reference for all purposes.
This invention relates generally to storage management. More particularly, information management is described.
Businesses and other enterprises generate large amounts of information, which must be stored in a cost-effective manner while ensuring acceptable levels of availability, security, and accessibility. Different types of data have different storage requirements. Stored information is currently managed through a set of manual, automatic, or semi-automatic policies, procedures, and practices. These methods are applied in a variety of ways to a variety of data and data storage systems. For example, the methods can be applied to a specific volume, storage array, object, file, folder, database, or file/data types. When an ILM (Information Lifecycle Management) managed system sets the retention period, storage prioritization, deletion date, etc. of a specific file or object, it typically does so based on one or more criteria, such as date of the file's creation, type of file, location of the file, date of the file's last use, etc.
However, such criteria are generally quite coarse and fail to give enough information to accurately characterize the proper treatment of the file or object. Thus, the ability of a system to automatically or autonomously determine ILM settings for specific data is limited. As a result, some files or objects are not handled efficiently or in the desired manner. For example, some files may be discarded or moved to off-line storage when it is desirable to retain them, while other files are retained when it is desirable to discard them or move them to off-line storage.
There is a need, therefore, for an improved method, article of manufacture, and apparatus for managing the lifecycle of files and other objects in a storage system.
The present invention will be readily understood by the following detailed description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein like reference numerals designate like structural elements, and in which:
A detailed description of one or more embodiments of the invention is provided below along with accompanying figures that illustrate the principles of the invention. While the invention is described in conjunction with such embodiment(s), it should be understood that the invention is not limited to any one embodiment. On the contrary, the scope of the invention is limited only by the claims and the invention encompasses numerous alternatives, modifications, and equivalents. For the purpose of example, numerous specific details are set forth in the following description in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. These details are provided for the purpose of example, and the present invention may be practiced according to the claims without some or all of these specific details. For the purpose of clarity, technical material that is known in the technical fields related to the invention has not been described in detail so that the present invention is not unnecessarily obscured.
It should be appreciated that the present invention can be implemented in numerous ways, including as a process, an apparatus, a system, a device, a method, or a computer readable medium such as a computer readable storage medium or a computer network wherein program instructions are sent over optical or electronic communication links. A general purpose computer system such as an Intel-based processor running Microsoft Windows or Linux may be used, or a specialized appliance could be used. In this specification, these implementations, or any other form that the invention may take, may be referred to as techniques. In general, the order of the steps of disclosed processes may be altered within the scope of the invention.
An embodiment of the invention will be described with reference to an information management system in the form of a storage system configured to store files, but it should be understood that the principles of the invention are not limited to data storage systems. Rather, they are applicable to any system capable of storing and handling various types of objects, in analog, digital, or other form. Although terms such as document, file, object, etc. may be used by way of example, the principles of the invention are not limited to any particular form of representing and storing data or other information; rather, they are equally applicable to any object capable of representing information.
Disclosed herein are a method and system to manage the information lifecycle of an object in a storage system. In particular, the foregoing will be described with respect to
The method, illustrated in
One approach to managing the information lifecycle of a stored file is to set a number of ILM policies, and apply those policies to files that meet the criteria for applying the policies. ILM policies may include quarantine of particular subject matter (such as prohibited material or material relevant to an ongoing investigation) for further review or limited access, workflow management (such as file content which requires multiple actions to be taken upon it such as a review for HR compliance, approval for release from a Quarantine, editing prior to release, etc. by multiple parties either simultaneously or in parallel), service level (such as bandwidth, performance, latency, etc.), security (such as encryption, level of encryption, access control), information protection level (such as frequency of backup, redundancy of data), availability (such as failover, standby server, etc.), archive, physical location, provisioning (such as adding or configuring storage), and so on.
For example, the date of last use of the data is sometimes used to determine a file's relative importance. Data can be moved to a secondary storage location, to offline storage, or even deleted depending on the date of last use. However, this method may be too coarse because it does not take into account other factors besides the date of last use. Certain accounting files may not be used for a quarter but then are needed at the end of the period for specific reporting purposes. Other files may be used in six month intervals or yearly. When they are used, they need to be immediately available and have a high level of service associated with them, perhaps at least equal to their original service level.
Other information may be used in order to characterize the data, such as the file's owner, date of creation, file type, file size, and so on. These are useful in better characterizing the data but alone do not provide sufficient information in order to create automatic or autonomous ILM systems. For example, knowing that the owner of a file is in the accounting department and that the file is an Excel spreadsheet could be used to make service level decisions or determine whether the file should be deleted at a particular time. However, the system cannot determine from this information whether the file is an important revenue-tracking spreadsheet used as a basis for financial statements subject to regulatory compliance procedures (which might be subject to Sarbanes-Oxley and SEC retention requirements), or a spreadsheet used to keep track of people who will be attending a holiday party (which is of minimal importance and can be deleted soon). Outside of the specific content of data, there are few characteristics about the data that can be used to correctly set an appropriate ILM policy.
A factor that must be considered is the requirement to retain data in response to corporate, industry, and governmental laws and regulations. This makes it more critical to accurately characterize the ILM policies that need to be applied to the data, and because of the legal implications, there is a tendency to be over-inclusive. As has been illustrated, knowing the particular owner of a file, its type, date of creation, and date of last use may not be sufficient to make a useful decision with regard to compliance retention or disposal. The result is needless retention of large amounts of data, which also becomes problematic when there is a need to quickly locate and retrieve relevant data.
The content of the data gives a better indication of how the data should be handled from an ILM standpoint. Through the analysis of the data content, more information can be derived and ILM policies can be appropriately created and applied. For example, quarterly and yearly reports may be identified by keywords/phrases within the documents which indicate that they are quarterly/yearly reports. Additional analysis can reveal what type of report, the reporting period, author, etc. This information may be combined with file metadata such as the file's owner, date of creation, and file type to set an appropriate and meaningful ILM policy.
Content can also be used to determine the appropriate retention/deletion policy. For example, if an object contains certain keywords/phrases relating to a patient's diagnosis and/or contains personal health information, then the object may need to be retained as long as the patient's medical records. On the other hand, if the object does not contain such content, it may be found not to require long term retention, and an appropriate ILM policy can be set, such as deletion in a short time period. By evaluating the object's content directly, the correct retention period may be programmatically determined with more accuracy.
The type of data contained by an object may be determined from metadata accompanying the object, which could comprise information provided by the application that created the object, information from the user who created the object, and/or filesystem information. Pattern matching to known file patterns may also be used to determine the file type. The information about the type of data contained by the object can be used to analyze its contents, thereby deriving information to set an appropriate ILM policy.
For example, simply knowing or determining that a file is a video file is useful but not as meaningful in terms of determining the appropriate ILM policy. Knowing who or what is depicted in the video, and other relevant information regarding the subject matter and/or content of the video itself, provides meaningful data that can be used in combination with file metadata to set an appropriate ILM policy.
Content evaluation may be performed on various file types, such as video, audio, graphics (e.g. bitmaps), text, and encrypted data. Content analysis on a video file (or any file that contains video) would involve evaluation of the video images themselves to determine who, where, and what images are depicted. Based on this information, which is derived from the analysis done on the video images, ILM policies are set. An audio file or the audio portion of a file or data set may be analyzed to determine the identity of the speaker and what was said. In addition to analysis of speech data, other forms of audio analysis can be used, such as determining if the audio is music and what type of music. Other sounds include sounds associated with events and places such as explosions, glass breaking, gun shots, screams, automobile traffic, boat/ship/airplane sounds, cash registers opening/closing/tallying, etc.
Graphics and bitmaps like video images, graphic files, and graphic data sets can be evaluated for their content such as who and what are depicted as well as where and how. Text and other forms of document rendition can be analyzed for the presence or absence of certain keywords and phrases. In evaluating data, it can be determined whether the data is encrypted. In cases of encrypted data, different policies could be applied to data encrypted by the host system and files encrypted by unknown systems. For example, data that is encrypted by known host systems may be sent through the host system's decryption system and have its content decrypted so that it can be inspected and evaluated against company policies, legal regulations, etc. Because the content of these files is readable by the host system, appropriate ILM polices can be applied to the files. In the case of data that is encrypted by unknown systems or encrypted in a manner which the host system cannot decrypt, its content is unknown to the host system and the host system has no way to automatically or programmatically decrypt the data to inspect its unencrypted content. Because of this companies may not wish to accept data or files whose meaning and content are not readily known. Companies may also choose to keep files whose decryption keys are unknown to them for purposes of authentication, validation, and non-repudiation of other files. These files serve as digital signatures and can provide cryptographic proof of the validity and authenticity of a file as well provide a timestamp to indicate that the file existed at a specific point in time.
In an embodiment, the data may be in the form of an audio object or comprise an audio portion in an object. An auditory processing system (either integrated into the information management system or separate from it) could be used to identify words and/or sounds, using a lexicon and searching for matches. In an embodiment, the auditory processing system could compare the content to a list of elements specified in a lexicon that comprises a group of data elements consisting of auditory elements or representations of audio elements (keywords) associated to text or other data elements. Upon detection of content that matches lexicon content, metadata may be generated and associated with the content. Such metadata may be the text equivalent of the auditory content or it may be a pointer to other data held within the lexicon. The search for keywords and sound matches could specify:
The information management system can be configured to retain audio objects until a specified disposition date, which may be determined by keywords identified in the audio object or policies invoked by the audio object. For example, after the system receives the audio object, it might retain the audio object for 90 days, but if the audio object contains certain triggering keywords or sounds, or triggers certain policies, the audio object might be retained for seven years.
Metadata relating to the audio object may also be used by the system to determine the disposition and disposition date. If an audio object were determined to be a recording of a phone call (such as by examining the metadata) involving a corporate insider, and words such as “buy stock” were detected in the recording, the audio object might be given a longer retention period. In an embodiment, the detection of keywords and triggering of corporate policies could be determined by an auditory processing system, which would provide an audio object with metadata indicating keywords detected and policies triggered. The metadata may be used to select appropriate ILM policies. These tasks may be performed by either the information management system or auditory processing system.
The disposition(s) and disposition date(s) may be stored with the audio object or separately from the audio object. Upon reaching the disposition date (or expiration date), the stored audio object and associated metadata may be partially or completely destroyed. Other types of processing and disposition may be invoked upon reaching the expiration date, such as hierarchical storage management functions (e.g., moving the data from disk drive media to optical or tape media), bit rate, encryption, application of digital rights management services, service level agreements, and other services associated with information lifecycle management. This processing may be performed by the information management system or other system.
Metadata may be generated to describe the object's content. The metadata may be transient data that is derived each time an evaluation is required, or may be fixed data that, once derived, remains in some form storage for repeated use without requiring further analysis of the content. The metadata may be generated in several ways, which may be used together. Metadata may be associated with an object, stored with the object or separately from the object and referenced by an index, hash, address, link, etc. The metadata may comprise file metadata (e.g. file type, user/creator, data, size, last used, creation date, application), transport metadata, and storage metadata.
In an embodiment, metadata may be generated at the application layer. In this case, data about the content (metadata) is created through the application that uses and/or creates the content itself. The creation of the metadata can be done manually, by the user, or automatically through various programmatic methods, or some combination of manual and automatic methods. For example, a video editing application typically enables users to create, edit, modify/alter, or otherwise manipulate video files (which typically also contain an embedded audio portion). In an embodiment, the video editing application may be configured to accommodate metadata about the video and audio content. In this case as an example, the following information could be captured as metadata of the underlying video file:
Time and Date Data
Application and OS Data
This information can be captured by the application through a variety of means and through a combination of a variety of means. The information can be manually entered by an individual, programmatically derived, or some combination of these. In one embodiment, data relating to the file, OS, application, system data, date/time, etc. may be derived by the application. Content data may also be derived by the application. For example, transcriptions of audio portions containing speech may be rendered through the use of automatic speech recognition applications. Such applications provide programmatic renditions of speech into text.
Similarly, video recognition applications and other video analysis applications can also provide data that describes the content and can be used as metadata. Keyword analysis may be applied to text-based content.
In an embodiment, the user may also directly provide these descriptive data elements. A user can manually transcribe the speech portion of the video as well as scene descriptions, scene changes, etc. Information describing various aspects of the content may thus captured and made available for use in an information management system. In a medical context, a user might identify an object as being a surgical report, pathology report, x-ray of a patient's arm, or otherwise relevant to an individual's healthcare. The descriptive data elements may be freely entered, or selected from a list provided by the application.
Metadata in the above example may be incorporated into the video file itself as part of a video plus metadata file, into its own file (or files or records) separate from the video file itself, or both in the file and separately.
In an embodiment, metadata may be derived while the subject data is in transport. This is done through programmatic analysis (such as described herein) of the data while the data is being communicated from one system to another. Such analysis requires access to all of the data contained within the complete data packet. This may be accomplished in a manner similar to packet sniffing and can be performed in real-time at wire-speed (non-blocking) or at speeds that are slower than the original transmission speed. In an embodiment using this approach, a proxy may be configured to interact with the transmitter and intended recipient and control the proper flow of data.
For example, video files can be copied and/or moved from one system to another electronically via a network. Video files may also be streamed from one system to another for immediate viewing. During the transport of these files (such as for copying, moving, or streaming) analysis can be performed and metadata can be derived.
Additional transport related metadata can also be derived such as: Source Address, Destination Address, Source MAC (Media Access Control), Destination MAC, protocol used, route taken, and so on. In addition, metadata created by applications may also be discovered during transport. This information can also be used for ILM purposes. For example, an application may place a code within the packet header that acts as an application identifier (ID). Other applications create and use metadata for their own classification purposes such as a document's author, title, reviewer, and so on. This metadata can be inspected during transport and used to select an appropriate ILM policy for the data. For example, a document's author and title may be determined during the transport of a file even though the document is being copied or moved between two people's computers and neither one belongs to the document's author. If, for example, the corporate ILM policy specifies that all documents belonging to the author must be known and tracked, the system can do so because it can determine this information during transport, regardless of the source or destination of the file.
In an embodiment, metadata may be derived while the subject data resides on storage media. This is done through programmatic analysis (such as described herein) of the data while the data is held in some form of storage. For example, video files reside on hard disk drives, optical storage media such as DVDs, tape, and so on. While resident on these storage systems, these files can undergo programmatic and/or manual analysis from which metadata can be derived.
Additional storage related metadata may also be derived such as: logical unit (LUN), Volume, Folder, Path, Block, Sector, and so on.
In addition, metadata created by applications can also be discovered in stored data. This information can also be used for ILM purposes.
As described herein, a file or data set may have its content analyzed for the determination of an appropriate policy. In one embodiment, a policy may be selected and applied based on the analysis of the content of a file/data set in context to the content and/or analysis of the content of multiple files and data sets. Multiple documents/files/objects may contain information related to the same topic but have filenames, titles, subject headers, etc. that do not reflect this relationship. By examining and analyzing these objects, it is possible to group them and apply appropriate policies based on this analysis. Policies may be used to help determine which keywords merit forming an information group. For example, certain keywords or data found in certain locations might cause an information group to be formed.
For example, in a medical enterprise there may be multiple documents related to a specific patient's condition, treatment, etc. Physicians, technicians, nurses, orderlies, equipment/service installers (such as for TV, telephones, etc.) may each have management and activity reports which could reference a patient. In some cases, the report may contain references to multiple patients and a variety of topics. In these cases it cannot be determined whether the object is relevant to a patient's healthcare. By examining the content, references to specific patients can be found and their relevance to certain policies can be determined. For example, documents and files can be inspected for the presence of private patient data such as the patient's name, social security number, patient ID, diagnostic code, treatment code, name of the patient's condition(s), etc. By inspecting the files for any or specific combinations of these data elements it can be determined which ILM policy is appropriate. In an embodiment, a keyword-driven search or natural language analysis may be utilized. Thus, multiple documents/files/objects may be associated to a patient healthcare policy or other policy.
In one embodiment, the information management system may examine the content within an object to determine which, if any, other objects should be examined for relevant data. These examinations can cross multiple data types—from text documents to email to voicemail to video recordings to images and so on. For example, a text document may refer to a patient's diagnostic X-Ray and perhaps also the date and location it was taken. Based on this reference, the system could locate the video surveillance recordings taken during the referenced diagnostic session. The video recording's content could then be analyzed to determine if the video contains information relevant to the patient; e.g. is the patient present in the recording, the identity of others present, what diagnostic procedures were performed, etc. This information could be used to find the x-rays, radiologist's findings, etc.
Found documents may be analyzed in a similar manner. For example, the document might refer to a surgery and x-rays, leading to a search for x-rays and a post-operative report. The post-operative report may refer to a biopsy, which could then cause the system to search for the pathology report. The x-rays may have a link to the radiologist's report. If relevant, some or all of the objects may be associated as part of an information group of multiple files and/or documents to which specific policies are applied.
In one embodiment, an object may contain data about other objects that are related to the first object, such as in the form of links, filenames, or other resource locators. This data may be manually entered by the user, such as by embedding the data within the object, adding the data to the object's metadata, selecting from a list of objects, selecting a template of objects typically associated with the object, etc.
All or some of these objects may be associated as part of an information group of multiple objects to which policies are applied, automatically or after evaluation of their content to determine relevance. An embodiment of this process is illustrated in
In one embodiment, the data may be derived programmatically (e.g. by the application), which could for example use information about objects typically associated with the object, or observe which objects are accessed while a user is editing or otherwise accessing the object. This information could be stored in the object's metadata. Any combination of the foregoing may be used. For example, if the user selects from a list identifying the patient as being treated on an outpatient basis for a bacterial infection, the user or the application could then identify objects for the patient's lab report, cell culture, prescriptions, etc. A surgical patient could have objects for diagnostic procedures, surgical supplies used, operating room, x-rays, prescriptions, post-operative report, etc.
Search engines such as the Google Desktop Search Engine (available from Google) may be used to search and index objects as described herein. A default policy could be assigned to each objected, based on user-defined or pre-defined rules. A user interface, such as a “right-click” menu, could be used to enable a user to re-classify the object and assign a different policy. In an embodiment, the classification of the object could also be exposed to a Windows user in the Windows Explorer screen as one of the file's Details. A color coded icon could be displayed with the object to represent the file's IM protection classification. For new files, the user could be asked to specify the IM protection classification level. The classification level may be associated with multiple IM policies, and several classification levels may be available. If IM policies relating to a classification are changed, the new IM policies can be implemented without changing all of the associations between objects and IM policies to be applied to them. If a user requests a classification that the user is not authorized to request, it may be overridden and the system-determined classification used instead.
An embodiment of the process flow is illustrated in
An authorization system could be used to limit the level of service to which a user has access. For example, a software developer might be able to classify his/her files as “Protected” or “Unprotected”, while a senior vice president might have a full range of policy options such as “Protected”, “Unprotected”, and “Maximum Protection”.
In one embodiment, illustrated in
Another DPS policy might be:
The DPS 100 may thus have a set of analytic policies and act as a policy manager/scheduler, as shown in
The DPS 100 may thus be used to generate metadata that may be used to drive the IM system.
For example, an object may be determined to contain patient health care data (based on the DPS analysis of the object) and thus subject to HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) regulations requiring a 6-year retention span. The actual determination of which IM policy or policies to apply and their duration may be done by the DPS 100. In this example, the DPS 100 applies a DPS-HIPAA policy. The DPS-HIPAA policy specifies what constitutes a HIPAA file (e.g. keywords, x-ray images, etc.). The DPS's HIPAA policy also specifies that files meeting the criteria must have a retention policy of 6 years.
In one embodiment, the DPS 100 can have knowledge of the appropriate IM policies of the IM system. In one embodiment, the DPS 100 may be separate from the IM system and have no knowledge of IM policies. The DPS 100 may be configured to simply pass the desired retention period requirement to the IM Policy Manager 16 which would in turn select the appropriate IM policy to meet the requirement. This facilitates the use of different IM systems with a content analysis system that uses a DPS, as the DPS would not need to know the details of how the IM systems would implement policies.
The DPS 100 may use the IM Policy Manager 16, which keeps the associations of the IM policies to the relevant object. The IM Policy Manager 16 may be invoked and controlled manually or programmatically (such as by the DPS 100). In one embodiment, the IM Policy Manager 16 does not determine which policies are to apply, nor does it set the duration directly. The IM Policy Manager 16 can break or revoke associations between policies and the objects to which they are associated. The DPS 100 may also be configured to disassociate or terminate policy and object relationships by issuing a command to the IM Policy Manager 16 to terminate a policy.
Once an IM policy or policies are selected, they are applied to the object for the term as specified by the DPS policy or policies and required by the DPS 100. Termination and/or changes of the application of the IM policies can also be done by the IM policies themselves (which may be self-limiting), by the IM Policy Manager 16, or by the DPS 100.
Efficient information lifecycle management generally benefits from object-by-object implementation of protection policies as described herein. Typically, information protection technologies such as backup, archive, and replication are not designed to target a single file or object. They may not track information about the file, its need for protection, replication, archival, or deletion. Because of this, the processes are conducted at either the block level or file level without regard to an individual file's information management needs. This may create problems, for example, when trying to apply one protection policy to one file, while applying a different policy to the file next to it in the same directory. In an efficient implementation, each object receives the protection that it should receive, rather than being grouped with other objects that may not have the same level of protection.
In one embodiment, an ILM system may be created based on centralized storage pools, each of which provides a specific class of information protection service. By way of example, a storage pool will be described as providing a specific class of information protection service, but it should be understood that a pool may support more than one specific class of information protection service. Further, “centralized” may be understood to refer to the logical or physical grouping of similarly-classified files/objects together, rather than a physical arrangement of storage devices, which may be placed in the same location or in different locations (such as a facility thousands of miles away). An embodiment is shown in
A storage pool may provide a particular class of information protection service, such as backups nightly, while another may be replicated, archived, and receive snapshot backups every hour. Still another could be replicated, archived, and receive continuous data protection. An embodiment is illustrated in
The pools 204 and 206 are in communication with an information management system 208 (which may, for example, be a backup or replication server), and storage devices 210, 212, and 214 (which may, for example, be disk drives, content addressable storage, flash memory, tape drives, optical drives, CD-Recordable drives, DVD-Recordable drives, non-volatile storage, etc.). The information management system 208 may be configured to provide different classification levels (of protection, service, availability, mirroring, etc.) to pools 204 and 206. For example, IM system 208 may be configured to perform a snapshot backup of pool 204 every hour, while performing a backup of pool 206 nightly.
It should be understood that the embodiment of
A pool may be subdivided into sub-pools as well. The sub-pools would inherit the protection policies of their parents, while adding their own protection policies. Thus, a pool might be replicated to certain locations, and every member of that pool would be replicated to those locations. Within the pool, one sub-pool might receive snapshot backups every hour, while another sub-pool might be backed up nightly. Referring to
Storage pools could be on a user's local filesystem, such as source filesystem 200 or a filesystem associated with the application system 12, or accessed remotely on another storage system such as pool server 202. The storage pools need not be physically separate from source filesystem 200. In an embodiment, the system could leverage an ILM “filter driver” running on the source file server (the file server on which an object is first placed or created by the user or application). This driver could replace an object with a shortcut, stub, Windows reparse point, symbolic link, or some form of link. Based on the object's value to the user or business (which may be determined as has been described herein), the driver would move the underlying object to the appropriate storage pool, where it would receive the appropriate level of protection. Once an object has been moved to a pool, all of its I/O would take place on the “pool” copy of the object, using the shortcut, stub, reparse point, or other link to the pool copy, and would be transparent to the user. This may also free up space on the local filesystem for data that does not require protection using the ILM system, where the storage pools are on a different storage device(s) from the local filesystem. It should be understood that as used herein, “replace” does not necessarily mean to place the replacement in the same precise location as the original, but to effect the replacement in such a way that an attempt to access the original will result in an access to the replacement.
Metadata about the object, such as applicable ILM policies, could be stored in the object itself using a variety of approaches. For example, on Windows the metadata could be stored as a separate file stream, or as part of the reparse point. Metadata could also be stored separately and the object linked to the metadata through pointers, indexes, or some other kinds of links.
In one embodiment, the original object may remain on the local file server, while a protected copy is maintained on a pool server, which may be characterized as a backup with “pools” of objects that have common expiration dates, common information protection/availability/replication/mirroring policies, etc. In this manner, a mobile user could still have his files (objects) local, but copies could be maintained and protected on the ILM storage server (the pool server). Metadata about the object itself could be stored with the object, as described above.
In one embodiment, the object may be moved into a content management repository such as Documentum, available from EMC Corporation. The content management repository may store the object in a directory that receives the appropriate level of protection, which may be associated with a storage pool or pools.
Although the methods and systems herein have been described with respect to an illustrative embodiment, it should be appreciated that the methods and systems disclosed are independent of the precise architecture of the information management system, dynamic policy selector, content analysis engine, storage system, etc. used for processing data. Functions and capabilities may be distributed among various systems in a variety of ways, and the principles of the invention are independent of the exact tasks performed by each system. They are applicable to tape storage, optical devices, hard disk drives, and all other types of data storage.
For the sake of clarity, the processes and methods herein have been illustrated with a specific flow, but it should be understood that other sequences may be possible and that some may be performed in parallel, without departing from the spirit of the invention. Additionally, steps may be subdivided or combined. As disclosed herein, software written in accordance with the present invention may be stored in some form of computer-readable medium, such as memory or CD-ROM, or transmitted over a network, and executed by a processor.
All references cited herein are intended to be incorporated by reference. Although the present invention has been described above in terms of specific embodiments, it is anticipated that alterations and modifications to this invention will no doubt become apparent to those skilled in the art and may be practiced within the scope and equivalents of the appended claims. More than one computer may be used, such as by using multiple computers in a parallel or load-sharing arrangement or distributing tasks across multiple computers such that, as a whole, they perform the functions of the components identified herein; i.e. they take the place of a single computer. Various functions described above may be performed by a single process or groups of processes, on a single computer or distributed over several computers. Processes may invoke other processes to handle certain tasks. A single storage device may be used, or several may be used to take the place of a single storage device. The present embodiments are to be considered as illustrative and not restrictive, and the invention is not to be limited to the details given herein. It is therefore intended that the disclosure and following claims be interpreted as covering all such alterations and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4831438||25 Feb 1987||16 May 1989||Household Data Services||Electronic surveillance system|
|US5027104||21 Feb 1990||25 Jun 1991||Reid Donald J||Vehicle security device|
|US5053868||18 Sep 1990||1 Oct 1991||Broadcast Equipment Rental Company||Video monitoring system for auto drive-through fast food restaurants|
|US5086385||31 Jan 1989||4 Feb 1992||Custom Command Systems||Expandable home automation system|
|US5454037||28 Oct 1993||26 Sep 1995||Grayline International Limited||Portable secure-telephone communications module|
|US5758079||7 Jun 1996||26 May 1998||Vicor, Inc.||Call control in video conferencing allowing acceptance and identification of participants in a new incoming call during an active teleconference|
|US5793419||9 Jan 1997||11 Aug 1998||Systems Engineering & Management Co., Inc.||Personal audio/video surveillance system|
|US5867494||18 Nov 1996||2 Feb 1999||Mci Communication Corporation||System, method and article of manufacture with integrated video conferencing billing in a communication system architecture|
|US5905988||13 Nov 1996||18 May 1999||Imaginon||Method and apparatus for database transformation and adaptive playback|
|US5946050||4 Oct 1996||31 Aug 1999||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Keyword listening device|
|US5987454||9 Jun 1997||16 Nov 1999||Hobbs; Allen||Method and apparatus for selectively augmenting retrieved text, numbers, maps, charts, still pictures and/or graphics, moving pictures and/or graphics and audio information from a network resource|
|US6064963||17 Dec 1997||16 May 2000||Opus Telecom, L.L.C.||Automatic key word or phrase speech recognition for the corrections industry|
|US6064964||27 Mar 1998||16 May 2000||Fujitsu Limited||Data processing apparatus having breath detecting function and image display control method using breath detection|
|US6067095||4 Feb 1997||23 May 2000||Microsoft Corporation||Method for generating mouth features of an animated or physical character|
|US6115455||5 Nov 1996||5 Sep 2000||Boston Technology, Inc.||Method and apparatus for dynamically creating message mailboxes|
|US6137864||25 Jul 1997||24 Oct 2000||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Specifiable delete times for voice messaging|
|US6192111||6 Feb 1998||20 Feb 2001||Avaya Inc.||Abstracting system for multi-media messages|
|US6192342||17 Nov 1998||20 Feb 2001||Vtel Corporation||Automated camera aiming for identified talkers|
|US6233313||16 Mar 1999||15 May 2001||Bell Atlantic Network Services||Call detail reporting for lawful surveillance|
|US6243676||23 Dec 1998||5 Jun 2001||Openwave Systems Inc.||Searching and retrieving multimedia information|
|US6246933||4 Nov 1999||12 Jun 2001||BAGUé ADOLFO VAEZA||Traffic accident data recorder and traffic accident reproduction system and method|
|US6278772||30 Jun 1998||21 Aug 2001||International Business Machines Corp.||Voice recognition of telephone conversations|
|US6278992||17 Feb 1999||21 Aug 2001||John Andrew Curtis||Search engine using indexing method for storing and retrieving data|
|US6289382||31 Aug 1999||11 Sep 2001||Andersen Consulting, Llp||System, method and article of manufacture for a globally addressable interface in a communication services patterns environment|
|US6311159||5 Oct 1999||30 Oct 2001||Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products N.V.||Speech controlled computer user interface|
|US6327343||16 Jan 1998||4 Dec 2001||International Business Machines Corporation||System and methods for automatic call and data transfer processing|
|US6345252||9 Apr 1999||5 Feb 2002||International Business Machines Corporation||Methods and apparatus for retrieving audio information using content and speaker information|
|US6377663||3 Jan 1997||23 Apr 2002||Ncr Corporation||Call management system and associated method for a local telephone circuit|
|US6404856||10 Apr 1998||11 Jun 2002||Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.||System for recording, annotating and indexing audio data|
|US6438594||31 Aug 1999||20 Aug 2002||Accenture Llp||Delivering service to a client via a locally addressable interface|
|US6522727||17 Dec 1997||18 Feb 2003||Comverse, Inc.||System for archiving voice mail messages|
|US6539077||8 Dec 1999||25 Mar 2003||Netnumber.Com, Inc.||Method and apparatus for correlating a unique identifier, such as a PSTN telephone number, to an internet address to enable communications over the internet|
|US6539354||24 Mar 2000||25 Mar 2003||Fluent Speech Technologies, Inc.||Methods and devices for producing and using synthetic visual speech based on natural coarticulation|
|US6542500||31 Dec 1998||1 Apr 2003||At&T Corp.||Network server platform (NSP) for a hybrid coaxial/twisted pair local loop network service architecture|
|US6542602||14 Feb 2000||1 Apr 2003||Nice Systems Ltd.||Telephone call monitoring system|
|US6549949||31 Aug 1999||15 Apr 2003||Accenture Llp||Fixed format stream in a communication services patterns environment|
|US6577333||12 Dec 2000||10 Jun 2003||Intel Corporation||Automatic multi-camera video composition|
|US6633835 *||11 Jan 2002||14 Oct 2003||Networks Associates Technology, Inc.||Prioritized data capture, classification and filtering in a network monitoring environment|
|US6661879||10 Nov 2000||9 Dec 2003||Xtend Communications Corp.||System and method for recording telephonic communications|
|US6662178||8 Jun 2001||9 Dec 2003||Knowledge Management Objects, Llc||Apparatus for and method of searching and organizing intellectual property information utilizing an IP thesaurus|
|US6665376||23 Oct 1998||16 Dec 2003||T-Netix, Inc.||Selectively activated integrated real-time recording of telephone conversations with automated documentation of consent to call recording|
|US6697796||13 Jan 2000||24 Feb 2004||Agere Systems Inc.||Voice clip search|
|US6721706||30 Oct 2000||13 Apr 2004||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||Environment-responsive user interface/entertainment device that simulates personal interaction|
|US6728679||30 Oct 2000||27 Apr 2004||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||Self-updating user interface/entertainment device that simulates personal interaction|
|US6731307||30 Oct 2000||4 May 2004||Koninklije Philips Electronics N.V.||User interface/entertainment device that simulates personal interaction and responds to user's mental state and/or personality|
|US6732090||5 Dec 2001||4 May 2004||Xerox Corporation||Meta-document management system with user definable personalities|
|US6732109||31 Jan 2001||4 May 2004||The Eon Company||Method and system for transferring information between a user interface and a database over a global information network|
|US6748360||21 Feb 2002||8 Jun 2004||International Business Machines Corporation||System for selling a product utilizing audio content identification|
|US6772125||4 Dec 2001||3 Aug 2004||Sony United Kingdom Limited||Audio/video reproducing apparatus and method|
|US6781962||26 Apr 2002||24 Aug 2004||Jetque||Apparatus and method for voice message control|
|US6784899||31 Mar 2000||31 Aug 2004||Ricoh Company, Ltd.||Systems and methods for providing rich multimedia messages to remote users using telephones and facsimile machines|
|US6785370||8 Jun 2001||31 Aug 2004||Dictaphone Corporation||System and method for integrating call record information|
|US6795808||30 Oct 2000||21 Sep 2004||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||User interface/entertainment device that simulates personal interaction and charges external database with relevant data|
|US6807574||22 Oct 1999||19 Oct 2004||Tellme Networks, Inc.||Method and apparatus for content personalization over a telephone interface|
|US6816085||17 Nov 2000||9 Nov 2004||Michael N. Haynes||Method for managing a parking lot|
|US6820075||5 Dec 2001||16 Nov 2004||Xerox Corporation||Document-centric system with auto-completion|
|US6862566||12 Mar 2001||1 Mar 2005||Matushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Method and apparatus for converting an expression using key words|
|US6889232||15 Feb 2001||3 May 2005||Microsoft Corporation||System and method for data migration|
|US6930599||26 Jun 2003||16 Aug 2005||@ Security Broadband Corp.||Security system|
|US6934756||21 Mar 2002||23 Aug 2005||International Business Machines Corporation||Conversational networking via transport, coding and control conversational protocols|
|US6937986||28 Dec 2000||30 Aug 2005||Comverse, Inc.||Automatic dynamic speech recognition vocabulary based on external sources of information|
|US6961763||17 Aug 2000||1 Nov 2005||Microsoft Corporation||Automation system for controlling and monitoring devices and sensors|
|US6961954||2 Mar 1998||1 Nov 2005||The Mitre Corporation||Automated segmentation, information extraction, summarization, and presentation of broadcast news|
|US6968364||29 Aug 2000||22 Nov 2005||Microsoft Corporation||System and method to facilitate selection and programming of an associated audio/visual system|
|US7007048 *||29 May 2003||28 Feb 2006||Storage Technology Corporation||System for information life cycle management model for data migration and replication|
|US7027565||7 May 2003||11 Apr 2006||Denso Corporation||Voice control system notifying execution result including uttered speech content|
|US7039585||24 Sep 2001||2 May 2006||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and system for searching recorded speech and retrieving relevant segments|
|US7058565||17 Dec 2001||6 Jun 2006||International Business Machines Corporation||Employing speech recognition and key words to improve customer service|
|US7069291||14 Jun 2002||27 Jun 2006||Coppercom, Inc.||Systems and processes for call and call feature administration on a telecommunications network|
|US7117158||25 Apr 2002||3 Oct 2006||Bilcare, Inc.||Systems, methods and computer program products for designing, deploying and managing interactive voice response (IVR) systems|
|US7133511||13 Feb 2004||7 Nov 2006||Securelogix Corporation||Telephony security system|
|US7177800||2 Nov 2001||13 Feb 2007||Digital Design Gmbh||Method and device for the processing of speech information|
|US7191133||15 Feb 2001||13 Mar 2007||West Corporation||Script compliance using speech recognition|
|US7260190||26 Sep 2002||21 Aug 2007||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for managing voicemails using metadata|
|US7302394||20 Dec 2002||27 Nov 2007||Ianywhere Solutions, Inc.||Front-end device independence for natural interaction platform|
|US7356474||19 Sep 2002||8 Apr 2008||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for remotely enforcing operational protocols|
|US7440558||17 Jun 2004||21 Oct 2008||Securelogix Corporation||Telephony security system|
|US7444287||31 Mar 2005||28 Oct 2008||Emc Corporation||Efficient monitoring system and method|
|US7457396||1 Jul 2004||25 Nov 2008||Emc Corporation||Automated call management|
|US7499531||1 Jul 2004||3 Mar 2009||Emc Corporation||Method and system for information lifecycle management|
|US20010036821||10 Aug 1998||1 Nov 2001||Jay L. Gainsboro||Computer-based method and apparatus for controlling, monitoring, recording and reporting wireless communications|
|US20010038624||30 Jan 2001||8 Nov 2001||Greenberg Jeffrey Douglas||Internet telephony for ecommerce|
|US20010055372||8 Jun 2001||27 Dec 2001||Dictaphone Corporation||System and method for integrating call record information|
|US20020002460||31 Aug 1999||3 Jan 2002||Valery Pertrushin||System method and article of manufacture for a voice messaging expert system that organizes voice messages based on detected emotions|
|US20020032564||19 Apr 2001||14 Mar 2002||Farzad Ehsani||Phrase-based dialogue modeling with particular application to creating a recognition grammar for a voice-controlled user interface|
|US20020105598||12 Dec 2000||8 Aug 2002||Li-Cheng Tai||Automatic multi-camera video composition|
|US20020107694||21 Dec 2001||8 Aug 2002||Traptec Corporation||Voice-recognition safety system for aircraft and method of using the same|
|US20020110264||28 Jan 2002||15 Aug 2002||David Sharoni||Video and audio content analysis system|
|US20020122113||20 Nov 2001||5 Sep 2002||Foote Jonathan T.||Method and system for compensating for parallax in multiple camera systems|
|US20020143797 *||27 Mar 2002||3 Oct 2002||Ibm||File classification management system and method used in operating systems|
|US20020168058||3 Jul 2002||14 Nov 2002||Africa Development Enterprises Cc||Passive telecommunication monitor system|
|US20030018531||20 May 2002||23 Jan 2003||Mahaffy Kevin E.||Point-of-sale commercial transaction processing system using artificial intelligence assisted by human intervention|
|US20030033287||5 Dec 2001||13 Feb 2003||Xerox Corporation||Meta-document management system with user definable personalities|
|US20030033294||15 Apr 2002||13 Feb 2003||Walker Jay S.||Method and apparatus for marketing supplemental information|
|US20030058277||31 Aug 1999||27 Mar 2003||Bowman-Amuah Michel K.||A view configurer in a presentation services patterns enviroment|
|US20030074404||28 Feb 2002||17 Apr 2003||Parker Benjamin J.||Sharing of still images within a video telephony call|
|US20030078973||25 Sep 2002||24 Apr 2003||Przekop Michael V.||Web-enabled system and method for on-demand distribution of transcript-synchronized video/audio records of legal proceedings to collaborative workgroups|
|US20030088573||20 Mar 2002||8 May 2003||Asahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Method and apparatus for information delivery with archive containing metadata in predetermined language and semantics|
|US20030093260||13 Nov 2001||15 May 2003||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||Apparatus and method for program selection utilizing exclusive and inclusive metadata searches|
|US20030097365||20 Mar 2002||22 May 2003||Patrick Stickler||Method and apparatus for content repository with versioning and data modeling|
|US20030112259||3 Dec 2002||19 Jun 2003||Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.||Method and apparatus for registering modification pattern of transmission image and method and apparatus for reproducing the same|
|US20030120390||31 Jan 2003||26 Jun 2003||Metrovideo, Inc.||Image acquisition system|
|US20030158839||26 Mar 2002||21 Aug 2003||Yaroslav Faybishenko||System and method for determining relevancy of query responses in a distributed network search mechanism|
|US20030182308||7 Oct 2002||25 Sep 2003||Matthias Ernst||Schema-oriented content management system|
|US20030182387||14 Jan 2003||25 Sep 2003||Geshwind David Michael||Class of methods for improving perceived efficiency of end-user interactive access of a large database such as the world-wide web via a communication network such as "The Internet"|
|US20030191911||2 Apr 2003||9 Oct 2003||Powerquest Corporation||Using disassociated images for computer and storage resource management|
|US20030193994||21 Mar 2002||16 Oct 2003||Patrick Stickler||Method of managing media components|
|US20030225801||31 May 2002||4 Dec 2003||Devarakonda Murthy V.||Method, system, and program for a policy based storage manager|
|US20030227540||5 Jun 2002||11 Dec 2003||Monroe David A.||Emergency telephone with integrated surveillance system connectivity|
|US20030236788 *||3 Jun 2002||25 Dec 2003||Nick Kanellos||Life-cycle management engine|
|US20040002868||7 May 2003||1 Jan 2004||Geppert Nicolas Andre||Method and system for the processing of voice data and the classification of calls|
|US20040003132||6 Dec 2001||1 Jan 2004||Biosentients, Inc.||Data pool architecture, system, and method for intelligent object data in heterogeneous data environments|
|US20040006506||29 May 2003||8 Jan 2004||Khanh Hoang||System and method for integrating, managing and coordinating customer activities|
|US20040008828||9 Jul 2002||15 Jan 2004||Scott Coles||Dynamic information retrieval system utilizing voice recognition|
|US20040010415||23 Dec 2000||15 Jan 2004||Yoon-Deuk Seo||Apparatus and method for searching digital audio data file from media where digital audio data files are recorded|
|US20040010519||20 Dec 2002||15 Jan 2004||Sinn Richard P.||Rule based data management|
|US20040024762||9 Dec 2002||5 Feb 2004||Sachin Agarwal||Support for multiple mechanisms for accessing data stores|
|US20040030741||1 Apr 2002||12 Feb 2004||Wolton Richard Ernest||Method and apparatus for search, visual navigation, analysis and retrieval of information from networks with remote notification and content delivery|
|US20040054531||21 Oct 2002||18 Mar 2004||Yasuharu Asano||Speech recognition apparatus and speech recognition method|
|US20040083101||23 Oct 2002||29 Apr 2004||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for data mining of contextual conversations|
|US20040083244||23 Oct 2002||29 Apr 2004||Andreas Muecklich||Change-driven replication of data|
|US20040085203||5 Nov 2002||6 May 2004||Junqua Jean-Claude||Distributed apparatus to improve safety and communication for law enforcement applications|
|US20040111639||10 Jun 2003||10 Jun 2004||Schwartz Michael I.||Information aggregation, processing and distribution system|
|US20040127286||16 Dec 2003||1 Jul 2004||Aruze Corp.||Information providing system|
|US20040143602||17 Oct 2003||22 Jul 2004||Antonio Ruiz||Apparatus, system and method for automated and adaptive digital image/video surveillance for events and configurations using a rich multimedia relational database|
|US20040167890||23 Feb 2004||26 Aug 2004||Aviv Eyal||System and method for media search and playback|
|US20040186726||1 Oct 2002||23 Sep 2004||Grosvenor David Arthur||Automatic photography|
|US20040199494||4 Apr 2003||7 Oct 2004||Nikhil Bhatt||Method and apparatus for tagging and locating audio data|
|US20040199566 *||14 Mar 2003||7 Oct 2004||International Business Machines Corporation||System, method, and apparatus for policy-based data management|
|US20040203577||25 Jul 2002||14 Oct 2004||International Business Machines Corporation||Remotely monitoring and controlling automobile anti-theft sound alarms through wireless cellular telecommunications|
|US20040221261||1 Apr 2003||4 Nov 2004||Mike Blevins||Collaborative business plug-in framework|
|US20040235520||20 May 2003||25 Nov 2004||Cadiz Jonathan Jay||Enhanced telephony computer user interface allowing user interaction and control of a telephone using a personal computer|
|US20040247086||7 Apr 2003||9 Dec 2004||Royal Thoughts, Llc||Emergency response information distribution|
|US20040249790||31 Mar 2003||9 Dec 2004||Toshiba Tec Kabushiki Kaisha||Search device, search system, and search method|
|US20040263636||26 Jun 2003||30 Dec 2004||Microsoft Corporation||System and method for distributed meetings|
|US20050015286||26 Apr 2004||20 Jan 2005||Nice System Ltd||Advanced quality management and recording solutions for walk-in environments|
|US20050069095||25 Sep 2003||31 Mar 2005||International Business Machines Corporation||Search capabilities for voicemail messages|
|US20050131559||30 May 2003||16 Jun 2005||Jonathan Kahn||Method for locating an audio segment within an audio file|
|US20060010150 *||19 Sep 2000||12 Jan 2006||Kom, Inc.||Method and System for Electronic File Lifecycle Management|
|US20060095502||24 Nov 2003||4 May 2006||America Online, Incorporated||Real-time communications and content sharing|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8533850||29 Jun 2010||10 Sep 2013||Hitachi, Ltd.||Fraudulent manipulation detection method and computer for detecting fraudulent manipulation|
|US8850592 *||2 Apr 2010||30 Sep 2014||Hitachi, Ltd.||Unauthorized operation detection system and unauthorized operation detection method|
|US9124616||28 Jun 2010||1 Sep 2015||Hitachi, Ltd.||Computer system management method and client computer|
|US20110264635 *||27 Oct 2011||Board Of Governors For Higher Education, State Of Rhode Island And Providence Plantations||Systems and methods for providing continuous file protection at block level|
|US20110289589 *||2 Apr 2010||24 Nov 2011||Hitachi, Ltd.||Unauthorized operation detection system and unauthorized operation detection method|
|U.S. Classification||707/694, 707/737|
|International Classification||G06F17/30, G06F17/00, G06F7/00|
|Cooperative Classification||G06F17/30115, H04M3/42221, G06Q10/10, H04M3/2281, H04M7/006, G06F17/30085, H04M2201/40, H04M3/5175|
|European Classification||G06Q10/10, G06F17/30F1P1, G06F17/30F5, H04M3/42L|
|11 Mar 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: EMC CORPORATION, MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:CLAUDATOS, CHRISTOPHER HERCULES;ANDRUSS, WILLIAM DALE;URMSTON, RICHARD;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:015885/0688;SIGNING DATES FROM 20050303 TO 20050309
Owner name: EMC CORPORATION, MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:CLAUDATOS, CHRISTOPHER HERCULES;ANDRUSS, WILLIAM DALE;URMSTON, RICHARD;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20050303 TO 20050309;REEL/FRAME:015885/0688
|16 Nov 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4