|Publication number||US7553234 B2|
|Application number||US 10/835,422|
|Publication date||30 Jun 2009|
|Priority date||22 Nov 1995|
|Also published as||EP1790114A2, EP1790114A4, US7553235, US8353752, US8556728, US20040236944, US20060219717, US20060234792, US20060234793, WO2007018481A2, WO2007018481A3|
|Publication number||10835422, 835422, US 7553234 B2, US 7553234B2, US-B2-7553234, US7553234 B2, US7553234B2|
|Inventors||Jay S. Walker, James A. Jorasch, John M. Packes, Jr., Robert C. Tedesco|
|Original Assignee||Walker Digital, Llc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (91), Non-Patent Citations (33), Referenced by (10), Classifications (29), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This is a continuation-in-part of commonly owned, U.S. Pat. application Ser. No. 09/165,089 entitled “METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DOCUMENTING CAP REMOVAL DATA” filed Oct. 1, 1998, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,751,730 which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/677,544 entitled “REMOTE AUDITING OF COMPUTER GENERATED OUTCOMES AND AUTHENTICATED BILLING AND ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM USING CRYPTOGRAPHIC AND OTHER PROTOCOLS” filed Aug. 8, 1996, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,970,143, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/561,668 of the same title filed Nov. 22, 1995, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,768,382; and is further a continuation-in-part of commonly owned, U.S. application Ser. No. 08/628,920 entitled “METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR SECURE MEASUREMENT CERTIFICATION” filed Apr. 8, 1996, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,828,751; the entirety of each of these applications being hereby incorporated by reference herein.
A major problem facing the health care industry today is the difficulty of enforcing patient compliance with prescription medications. All too often, patients ignore the directions associated with their prescriptions, consuming more or fewer pills than that recommended by their doctor. Many patients simply forget to take the medication for one or more days, resulting in a lengthened healing process. In some cases, not taking pills according to a precise schedule can result in complications requiring expensive hospital stays or increased time consulting with a physician. These cost increases from the patient's lack of compliance are passed on to health care providers and insurers.
One approach to solving the problem of patient compliance has been the development of modified pill containers which automatically dispense the correct number of pills. U.S. Pat. No. 5,641,091 to Daneshvar is a medication dispensing device which allows a patient to receive his medication on a regular basis. A series of small spaces are arranged in one or more electrically powered rotating trays to allow a proper dose via a window. While this approach makes it easier for a conscientious patient to follow his prescription, forgetful patients may simply let pills “build up” rather than consuming them. Additionally, such devices contain many moving parts that are subject to malfunction and wear. Malfunctions could result in legal liability if the patient was provided access to fewer pills than required by his prescription.
A similar dispensing device is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,472,113 to Shaw. The automatic pill dispensing device of Shaw has cartridges rotated via an electric motor, electromagnetic clutches, a rotatable shaft, and gears. As with the Daneshvar device, there is no way for a remote third party to know whether or not the device is operating properly and whether the patient is in fact complying with his prescription.
Because third parties such as hospitals and insurance companies would like to have access to patient prescription compliance data, other devices have been created to store data such as how often a pill container has been opened or the time and date that it was opened. U.S. Pat. No. 5,016,172 to Dessertine and U.S. Pat. No. 4,939,705 to Hamilton et al. both describe such an apparatus. These devices, however, either require the user to physically deliver the apparatus to the interested third party for data retrieval and verification, or require that the device have a modem for online connection to the third party. Physical delivery is time consuming and potentially costly for the user, while an online connection requires expensive hardware and greater sophistication on the part of the user.
A need therefore exists for a method and apparatus that addresses the deficiencies of the prior art. Specifically, a need exists for a reliable and efficient method and apparatus for securely measuring, reporting and tracking pill container access data generated in an off-line environment. Accordingly, the shortcomings associated with the related art have heretofore not been adequately addressed. The present invention addresses the deficiencies of the prior art by providing an apparatus and processing approach that have not previously been proposed.
An understanding of the invention and many of the attendant advantages thereof may be readily obtained by reference to the following detailed description when considered with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
The present invention relates generally to medicine containers. More particularly, the present invention relates to a method and apparatus for documenting and authenticating medicine container cap removal data.
One object of the present invention is to enable a user to document the number of times that he has accessed a pill container by removing the cap, with the cap removal data secured so that a third party can authenticate that the user performed the documented number of cap removals.
An advantage of the present invention is that it enables a user to automatically produce reliably documented cap removal data. Another advantage of the present invention is that it enables a third party to rely on a measurement of the cap removal data by a user of pill containers. Yet another advantage of the present invention is that it enables a third party to provide rebates, discounts, higher reimbursement levels or rewards to a user based on a measurement of the number of cap removals performed by the user.
According to the present invention, a method and apparatus are disclosed for documenting cap removal data. The method includes the step of measuring a number of removals to determine cap removal data. The method further includes the step of encoding the determined cap removal data to derive encoded cap removal data. The method also includes the step of outputting the encoded cap removal data.
The above objects, features and advantages as well as other objects, features and advantages are readily apparent from the detailed description when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings.
An embodiment of the apparatus of the present invention will now be discussed with reference to
In a preferred embodiment, documenting module 200 includes elements incorporated within the cap of a prescription medication container, although it could also take the form of an add-on module attached to either the medicine bottle cap or bottle. Documenting module 200 could also be used in conjunction with a pill dispensing device that is operated to vend pills. A system that was capable of holding a plurality of prescriptions could also incorporate the documenting technologies of the present invention.
In operation, a user employs documenting module 200 to measure and document the number of times that an openable or reclosable cap, lid, or other similar dispensing covering has been removed from the associated pill container. The container is equipped with a detector which generates a first electrical signal in response to the opening of the dispensing covering and alternatively a second electrical signal in response to the reclosing.
In accessing the pill container by removing or replacing the cap, user 116 causes cap removal data to be generated which is stored as a numeric value. This cap removal data may be the total number of times that the cap has been removed in a given time period, the number of days in which the cap was removed more than once, the number of days in which the cap was not removed, the average number of removals per day, etc. It should be noted that the same measures may apply equally to cap replacement data which is similar to cap removal data in that both indicate the number of times that the container was accessed. In addition to recording the quantity of removals, documenting module 200 may store chronographic data regarding the timing of the removals. Such chronographic data may include the date/time of each removal, the average time of day of all removals over a particular period, the average number of hours between each removal, etc. Documenting module 200 receives the cap removal data from cap removal sensor 216, and encodes the data, thereby generating encoded cap removal data. In the simplest embodiment, the encoded cap removal data is an encoded version of the cap removal data, but in preferred embodiments, it may additionally incorporate a user identifier, drug identifying data, a cap identifier, an insurance policy identifier or other pertinent information such as biometric data or a timestamp.
The encoded cap removal data is displayed to user 116, as illustrated by reference numeral 120. This encoded data may take the form of a series of numeric digits or alphanumeric characters/digits. For example, the user may view a ten digit number representing the encoded data and type these digits into the keypad of his phone while connected to the central controller 300 via an interactive voice response unit (“IVRU”). The user might alternatively read out the digits of the encoded cap removal data to a human operator.
Central controller 300 decodes the received encoded cap removal data and stores the decoded information. A third party may employ central controller 300 to determine and authenticate the number of times the user 116 removed the cap, thereby providing greater assurance that the user has consumed the prescribed medication. Such compliance data could be used to lower insurance premiums in much the same way that motorists are rewarded with lower car insurance premiums for wearing safety belts.
Referring now to
Cap removal sensor 216 supplies CPU 210 with an indication of the number of times that the cap has been removed and/or replaced. This sensor could take many forms. In one embodiment, a switch is used which is physically engaged when the top is placed on the pill container and which is disengaged when removed. Other functionally equivalent magnet switches or the like could be used so long as they give an accurate indication of a parameter representing the opening and closing of the pill container. The cap removal parameter generated by cap removal sensor 216 may represent one of a number of measurements. The cap removal data may include, for example, the number of cap removals in a particular period, the date and time of each of the last twenty removals, the number of pills dispensed over a given period of time, etc. For examples of cap removal sensors, those of ordinary skill in the art may refer to U.S. Pat. No. 4,939,705 to Hamilton, et al., the entirety of which is incorporated by reference herein.
Another pill dispensing sensor technology that may be used in the present invention is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,616,316 to Hanpeter et al., also incorporated by reference herein. The device of Hanpeter consists of a blister pack with an array of plastic blisters which define compartments for medication. The backing sheet has conductive traces which are respectively ruptured when the medication doses are removed. An electronic memory circuit detects the ruptures and stores the data over a period of time, performing a function similar to the cap removal sensor 216 of the present invention. Those of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that any pill access sensing technology which is capable of generating an electronic signal may be used as cap removal sensor 216.
Input device 218 may be employed by CPU 210 to receive external input such as a user identifier, a cap identifier, an insurance policy identifier, or a prescription identifier. A number of alternative devices may be employed to perform the function of input device 218. Input device 218 may be a numeric keypad for receiving input from a user. Alternatively, a biometric device, such as a fingerprint or retinal scanner could be employed as input device 218. Further, input device 218 could be a magnetic card reader or smart card reader for receiving data from a card carried by a user. If input device 218 is a smart card reader, it may also operate as an output device to transmit an encoded measurement value to an associated smart card. Input device 218 might also incorporate speech recognition software so as to allow users to enter their user identifier via voice. Those of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that many forms of input may be used.
CPU 210 is also configured to output data via output device 220. Output device 220 is preferably a liquid crystal display (“LCD”) unit, light emitting diode (“LED”) or other conventional display unit that may be used to visually communicate information to user 116. This data may be represented as numeric or alphanumeric characters, or could take the form of a barcode or pulsed light display. Numeric characters could scroll slowly across a screen of output device 220 allowing for a large number of characters to be displayed with a relatively small viewing area. Output device 220 could include one or more speakers to facilitate audible transmission to the user, allowing the user to simply hold up a telephone to the output device after a connection was made to central controller 300 for DTMF transmission of the encoded cap removal data. In another embodiment, output device 220 includes a printer or memory device for permanently recording output. Output device 220 could also incorporate standard contacts for communication with smart card devices.
CPU 210 is also connected to RAM 230 and ROM 232 for temporary and long-term storage requirements, respectively. ROM 232 could store cryptographic keys used to encode cap removal data, as well as a cap identifier which uniquely identifies the cap. Such a cap identifier may be encoded along with cap removal data before it is displayed to user 116, allowing central controller 300 to authenticate the source of the cap removal data.
CPU 210 is further configured to access data storage device 212. Data storage device 212 stores cap removal data table 400 which is described more fully with reference to
Data storage device 212 may also store prescription data such as the number of doses contained in that particular pill container or the desired time windows within which the drugs are to be consumed. This data could also be stored in RAM 230 or ROM 232.
Data storage device 212 is also preferably capable of being updated periodically as new prescriptions are obtained. User 116 may thus obtain a documenting module 200 which can be attached to pill containers that are discarded after use. Each time the user goes back to the pharmacy he is provided with a new pill container and new pills. The user brings documenting module 200 so that data and software stored in storage device 212 may be updated. In this way, revised prescription data may be conveniently entered.
In order to physically secure documenting module 200, secure perimeter 202 may be employed to protect the elements responsible for generating the encoded cap removal data. Such a secure perimeter could provide tamper detection signals to CPU 210 for use with encoding process instructions 250, as discussed more fully with reference to
Power requirements of documenting module 200 could be supplied through batteries, AC/DC adapter, or solar cells. A lithium battery (not shown) could supply small voltages to the components of documenting module 200. AC/DC adapters may be used for those embodiments in which substantial power is needed for display or other purposes.
Referring now to
Data storage device 312 is operatively connected to CPU 310 providing storage for and access to process instructions and data. Data storage device 312 stores decoding protocol table 500 and patient table 600, described more fully with reference to
CPU 310 is operatively connected to RAM 330 and ROM 332 for temporary and permanent storage requirements, respectively. ROM 332 could store cryptographic keys used to decode cap removal data.
Referring now to
The exemplary cap removal table 400 includes four records. Record 440 represents a cap removal event which occurred on Mar. 5, 1998, with the cap opened at 9:43 AM and replaced at 9:36 AM. The cap removal data is stored in field 410 when the cap is removed (opened) and is stored in field 420 when the cap is replaced (closed). One of the advantages to storing the times of access is that some medications are much more effective at certain hours of the day, making documented cap removal data much more valuable to a third party. Data stored with data table 400 may be periodically deleted by CPU 210 if storage space is constrained.
Referring now to
Record 540 of decoding protocol table 500 represents a particular cap with an identifier of“1A2B3C4D.” This cap has an associated key 520 of “0011001101010101” which corresponds to user “USR0003.”
Referring now to
In one embodiment, user compliance may be authenticated through the decoding of the received encoded cap removal data. The user may be rewarded with a discounted monthly insurance premium to reflect the lower expected probability of future complications. Other rewards could include a fixed discount off of future prescriptions, or a decrease in the amount of the deductible for hospital visits associated with the condition for which the drugs were prescribed.
Tampering indication field 660 stores an indication of whether or not secure perimeter 202 has been breached. This tampering indication is generated by CPU 210 and transmitted to central controller 300 via encoded cap removal data.
The exemplary patient table 600 includes four records. Record 670 stores information about the user “JOHN SMITH” whose user identifier is “456123.” Address field 630 indicates that he lives at “22 RIVER PL. METROPOLIS, USA” and that his phone number is “(345) 123-4567.” He has an insurance policy identified as “POL0002” and has an account identifier of “6011-2468 -9090-1048” for use in those embodiment requiring billing or the provision of rewards. Field 660 stores an indication that there has been “NO” tampering detected.
Having thus described the architecture and components of the present invention, the operation of documenting module 200 and central controller 300 will now be described in greater detail with reference to
Referring now to
At step 714, this stored data representing a measurement of the number of cap removals is retrieved by CPU 210. In one embodiment, CPU 210 retrieves the number of records within cap removal data table 400 in order to determine the number of times that the cap has been removed. For many prescriptions, this will be a number ranging from ten to a hundred, depending on the period of time covered. CPU 210 next retrieves encoding process instructions 250 from data storage device 212 at step 716. These instructions are executed at step 718 and applied to the cap removal data retrieved at step 714. For example, if the number of cap removals is “36” the resulting encoded cap removal data may be “3489112073.” The advantage of encoding the cap removal data is that the user is not able to lie about the number of cap removals when presenting the data to a third party. Without knowing the encoding protocols, the user does not know the encoded equivalent of any set of cap removal data, thus preventing the user from fabricating false cap removal data. Although the user could simply make up a number to represent false cap removal data, the probability that it represented a reasonable number of cap removals when decoded would be made vanishingly small.
The instructions of step 718 may direct CPU 210 to perform any type of encoding commonly used to render data secure. Examples include symmetric key encryption, public key encryption, hash algorithms, digital signatures, and the like. If lower levels of security are required, substitution ciphers or transposition ciphers may be appropriate. Common types of encoding are described in “Applied Cryptography, 2nd Edition” by Bruce Schneier, 1996.
Although step 718, as illustrated, represents the steps required to encode the number of times the cap has been removed, it may also include steps for encoding other data in addition to the cap removal data, including the user identifier, the cap identifier, a beginning timestamp and an ending timestamp. The user may also enter the number of pills that he takes at each cap removal event, entering the information into input device 218. In one embodiment, a cap identifier is stored in ROM 232 of documenting module 200. CPU 210 retrieves this cap identifier and concatenates it with the cap removal data retrieved at step 714. The resulting combined data is then encoded as described above. The advantage of this embodiment is that when the encoded cap removal data is decoded by central controller 300, the identity of the cap may be authenticated in addition to the number of cap removals, preventing a user from providing the encoded cap removal data from another user's documenting module 200. The encoding process of step 718 may also incorporate results from an integrity test of secure perimeter 202. Should CPU 210 detect that the secure perimeter had been breached, an indication is concatenated with the cap removal data prior to the encoding process. Decoding by central controller 300 then reveals evidence of the breach.
The retrieval of cap removal data at step 714 and the subsequent encoding at steps 716 and 718 may be scheduled to occur at prescribed dates, such as the first day of each month or the date at which the prescription is scheduled to run out. The steps may also be performed upon request by user 116. In this embodiment, the user actuates a button of input device 218 of documenting module 200, the actuation signaling CPU 210 to perform the encoding operation.
At step 720, CPU 210 outputs the encoded cap removal data. The step of outputting the encoded cap removal data may be performed in a number of ways. In a preferred embodiment, the encoded cap removal data is output via output device 220 for viewing by the user. The user may then initiate a phone call to IVRU 345 of central controller 300 and type in the displayed encoded cap removal data using the touch tone keys of his telephone. Such a process has the advantage of simplicity and low cost. No modem or online connection is required. Users may be entered into sweepstakes drawings every time that they call in with encoded cap removal data, encouraging greater participation rates. The probability of winning the sweepstakes could even be based partly on the degree to which the user complied with the prescription instructions.
Input device 218 could incorporate a switch or button, actuated by user 116 to control the display of output device 220. Such an embodiment would allow the user to select whether to view the cap removal data in encoded or non-encoded form.
In an alternate embodiment, the encoded cap removal data may be output to a smart card or magnetic stripe card via an appropriate interface (not shown). The user could insert a smart card into an electrical contact of output device 220, initiating the transfer of data to the smart card. This smart card could then be mailed to the central controller 300 for decoding, or inserted into a reader device (such as a kiosk) at a hospital or pharmacy for later transmission to central controller 300.
It should be noted that the functionality of step 720 may include outputting data in addition to the encoded cap removal data. For example, the user identifier, a beginning timestamp and an ending timestamp may be output in either an encoded or non-encoded format. As described with respect to the encoded cap removal data, the step of outputting may be accomplished via output device 220 or an appropriate smart card or magnetic stripe card interface.
Referring now to
At step 812, central controller 300 retrieves decoding process instructions 350 from data storage device 312 and then executes these instructions at step 814 to decode the received cap removal data in order to derive a parameter indicative of the decoded cap removal data. In the preferred embodiment, additional data may be derived from the encoded cap removal data. According to the preferred embodiment, step 814 includes the steps of deriving a beginning timestamp, an ending timestamp, the secure perimeter test result or a diagnostic test result.
For those embodiments in which cap removal data is encoded by calculating a hash value associated with the cap removal data, central controller 300 executes decoding process instructions 350 to apply the same hash algorithm to the cap removal data to determine the associated hash value. If the two hash values are the same, the cap removal data has been authenticated.
At step 814, central controller 300 may additionally determine whether the secure perimeter of documenting module 200 has been breached. Although this determination may be effected in a number of conventional ways, in the present embodiment, the determination is made based on the secure perimeter test result decoded at step 814. If central controller 300 determines that the secure perimeter has been breached, central controller 300 is directed to store an indication within the tampering indication field 660 of patient database 600.
At step 816, CPU 310 outputs the result of decoding step 814 to the user, providing immediate feedback as to the documented cap removal data. This output may be in audio form, provided via IVRU 345 or communications port 340. The decoded cap removal data is then stored at step 818 in patient table 600.
CPU 310 may additionally update user data stored within data storage device 312 based on the decoded cap removal data. For example, a user record may be flagged to indicate that the patient had not complied with the instructions of his prescription, or that he had complied with only the bare minimum required. Historical user data such as this could provide the basis for rewards or penalties, and could serve as a basis for making pricing decisions for future insurance coverage. Users might be provided with higher reimbursement levels for drugs for which they had complied with the prescription instructions. For example, a user might pay $100 for a prescription, with the insurance provider reimbursing one quarter of that amount if the user does not comply with the prescription requirements, and one half of that amount if he does comply with the requirements. Insurance companies might also require that the user call in with encoded cap removal data before any reimbursements are provided.
It should also be recognized that documenting module 200 may include additional processing instructions to store cap removal statistics associated with a user, and may output an encoded cap removal code only upon reaching a predetermined reward threshold. Thus, encoding process instructions 250 could include code which outputs encoded data only when the user opens the pill container a number of times equal to the number of doses stored within the container.
A further application of the present invention enables a pharmaceutical supplier to offer rebates to purchasers of pharmaceuticals based on usage. Alternatively, a physician could provide a money back guarantee provided a user conforms with the prescription for a specified period of time.
Yet another application of the present invention enables medical service providers such as doctors, health maintenance organizations and insurance companies to offer preferred rates to their clients who consistently follow prescription instructions. By employing the present invention, any medical service provider may verify prescription compliance.
The disclosed method and apparatus for authenticating cap removal data may be applied to a number of commercial applications. For example, drug testing trials commonly involve dispensing drugs to a number of test subjects. These subjects are monitored to determine the efficacy of the drug, with the results provided to a governing authority such as the Food and Drug Administration for approval. Subjects who do not take the medication according to the prescribed schedule will of course negatively impact the results, so drug companies could use the authentication procedure of the present invention to eliminate bad data from the study.
In some embodiments, the documenting module 200 (or processor thereof) and/or central controller 300 (or processor thereof) may determine a compliance status (i.e., “compliant” or “not compliant”). Such a compliance status may be determined, for example, for a particular user, particular medication, and/or particular unit of time. The compliance status may be determined based on cap removal data. In one example, the status for a user may be determined as “compliant” if the cap removal data associated with the user indicates the user has met a required minimum number of cap removals per unit time.
In one or more embodiments, once a compliance status has been determined, the documenting module 200 may output an indication of compliance status. For example, if a user is not compliant, a warning indication or other message may be output via an output device. For example, if a user fails to remove the cap of a pill bottle once during a 12-hour time period, a red LED associated with the pill bottle may be actuated at the end of the period. Other exemplary warning indications include an audio speaker emitting sound (e.g., “beeping”), an LED display or LCD screen displaying text (e.g., “Please Take Your Pills”), etc. In one or more embodiments, such warning indications may persist until the next cap removal.
In some embodiments, the number of cap removals per a specified period of time may be recorded (e.g., one or more appropriate fields of a cap removal data table such as table 400 may be updated). For example, if a user must take one pill every 24 hours, each 24-hour time period during which a cap has been removed at least once may be recorded as a “success” (i.e., the user was compliant), while each 24-hour period during which a cap was not removed may be recorded as a “failure” (i.e., the user was not compliant).
In some embodiments, stored rules may indicate to output a warning indication based on the number of recorded failures. For example, a warning indication may be output each time a failure is recorded. In another embodiment, a warning indication may be output if a user's “failure percentage” (i.e., the number of failures divided by the number of elapsed time periods) is equal to or greater than a predetermined percentage amount (e.g., 0.15 or 15%).
In one or more embodiments, a user may be penalized based on a number of failures (e.g., a threshold number of failures is reached). For example, a penalty may be a removal of a previously awarded discount or an increase in a co-pay for prescriptions. In another embodiment, a user may be penalized by not having a game result displayed (display of game results as a benefit are described in more detail below).
In one or more embodiments, a user may be provided with one or more benefits based on a number of recorded successes, a percentage of recorded successes, and/or a ratio of recorded successes to recorded failures. As described above, a user may be provided with an encrypted code that may be used to redeem one or more benefits. For example, a user acquiring 100 consecutive successes may be provided with a code that may be entered into a Web site to achieve a discount on goods or services offered by the Web site. In another example, a user may be provided with a code entitling the user a number of entries in a sweepstakes. For example, for every five successes, the user may be provided with an encrypted code, which the user may “call in” to a sweepstakes telephone service. Alternately, at the end of every month, a user may be provided with a number of benefits (e.g., sweepstakes entries) based on a “success percentage” (i.e., the number of successes divided by the number of elapsed time periods). In one embodiment, the value of a benefit (e.g., discount amount, sweepstakes jackpot, etc.) may increase relative to the number of a user's successes.
It should be noted that a code may be not be encrypted, but scrambled in some other manner (e.g., the sum of all the digits of the code 102311 is less than ten, and the code is therefore valid). In some embodiments, codes may not be encrypted, scrambled, encoded or otherwise secured at all.
In one or more embodiments, a benefit may comprise a set of lottery numbers. For example, so long as a user is compliant, the user may be provided with several numbers every week for a state-drawn lottery. The numbers may be output, for example, via an output device associated with the medicine container. In one example, an LED screen depicts five lottery numbers, as well as the date/time of the drawing and an encrypted code, which represents the date and the lottery numbers displayed to the user. Should the numbers be winners, the user may provide the encrypted code to a lottery agent so that the claim to winnings is validated. In another example, a medicine container may further comprise or be associated with a printer that may function to print a physical lottery ticket.
In one or more embodiments, the user may be allowed to select their own lottery numbers for a drawing. For example, in one embodiment the medicine container may output a code, whenever the user is eligible for an entry into a lottery drawing. The user may use the code to access a Web site, via which the user may select a set of lottery numbers. The Web site may first decrypt the code to verify that the user is in fact eligible to select the set of lottery numbers. In another example, a user may provide a set of preferred lottery numbers to the medicine container or to another entity (e.g., a pharmacist may download the selected numbers to the medicine container or the user may register, with the central controller, the selected set of numbers as associated with the user via a Web site or other connection). In this latter example, whenever the user is eligible to be entered into a lottery drawing, the user may be provided with a code. The user may then call in this code to the central controller or input it to a Web site in order to have his preferred set of lottery numbers automatically entered into the next available lottery drawing. Alternatively, the medicine container may be operable (e.g., via a modem) to communicate with the central controller whenever the user becomes eligible for an entry into a lottery drawing, in order to transmit to the central controller an indication of the user's eligibility. Upon receiving such an indication, the central controller may automatically enter the user's preferred set of lottery numbers into the next available lottery drawing.
In or more embodiments, a medicine container (e.g., the documenting module 200 of the medicine container) comprises a random number generator. In one such embodiment, each cap removal may trigger the generation of a random number. A benefit may then be awarded based on one a result associated with the random number (e.g., “You've won a Ford Explorer! Call 1-800-555-5555 and enter code 205034059”). In one embodiment, the random number itself may be displayed to the user. The user may then determine the result associated with the random number by calling an entity such as the central controller 300 with the random number and/or by visiting a Web site that displays the results associated with various random numbers. In another embodiment, the result associated with the random number may be displayed via an output device associated with the medicine container.
The data table comprising a list of random numbers and their corresponding results may be stored in a memory of the medicine container or another processor responsive to instructions from the medicine container. For example, the data table may be stored in the memory of a computing device (e.g., the user's PC onto which appropriate software including the table has been loaded) and the medicine container may include an infra-red (IR) or radio frequency (RF) based output device via which the computing device may be instructed to access the table and display the result associated with the random number. In another example, the user may manually enter the random number into a computing device (e.g., the user's PC onto which appropriate software including the table has been loaded), thus causing the computing device to display the result to the user.
It should be noted that a “result” may comprise a representation or indication of a benefit to be provided to the user. For example, a result may comprise a slot machine like collection of graphical symbols (e.g., cherry-cherry-cherry). A data table may store a plurality of available results and the benefit (if any) associated with each respective result. This data table may be stored, for example, within a memory of the medicine container, within the memory of another computing device (e.g., the user's PC onto which appropriate software including the table has been loaded), and/or the memory of the central controller 300.
A particular embodiment of the present invention will now be described with reference to
Thus, in accordance with one or more embodiments, a medicine container may include an output device for outputting the result of a game. In one embodiment, the result of a game may be output via an entertaining game interface, such as a slot machine interface. Having the result be output via a game interface will further enhance the user's enjoyment of obtaining the result of the game.
Referring now to
As described above, in one or more embodiments the medicine container may include an output device via which a result of a game may be output to the user. The output device may be included in, for example, (i) the cap of the medicine container; (ii) the cavity of the medicine container; (iii) the label of the medicine container; (iv) another portion of the medicine container; (v) a peripheral device associated with the medicine container; or (v) a combination thereof. The output device may comprise an audio output device and/or a display device. Possible output devices include: a cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor, liquid crystal display (LCD) screen (a flexible or rigid one), light emitting diode (LED) screen, a printer, an audio speaker, an infra-red transmitter, a radio transmitter. A display device comprising the output device may be operable to display still images (e.g., “winner”) or animated images (e.g., spinning slot reels).
Referring now to
In one embodiment, the user is provided with a chance to win a prize each time the user opens or re-closes the cap 910. In another example, the user may be provided with a chance to win a prize each time the user opens or re-closes the cap in compliance with the prescription (e.g., one every twelve hours, if the user is to take the medicine once every twelve hours). In such embodiments, the medicine container 905 may comprise a random number generator, a processor, a detector for detecting when the cap 910 has been removed and/or replaced, and a memory. The memory may store, for example, a probability table of available results (e.g., symbol combinations to be displayed via display device 925), each result corresponding to at least one random number that may be generated by the random number generator. In one or more embodiments, the memory may further store a payout table of available prizes, each prize corresponding to one or more results that may be displayed via display device 925.
Thus, for example, every time a detector of the medicine container 905 determines that the cap 910 has been removed (or, alternately, that the cap has been replaced), a random number generator included in the medicine container 905 (e.g., in the cap 910) may generate a random number. The processor of the medicine container 905 may then access the probability table to determine the result that corresponds to the random number and cause display device 925 to display the result. If the memory also stores a payout table, the processor may further access this payout table to determine the prize corresponding to the result and cause either display device 925 or display device 930 to display an indication (e.g., a graphical representation or textual description) of the prize. It should be noted that in some embodiments the user may separately be provided with a list of the prizes available, and the respective result that each prize corresponds to. For example, a user may be provided with a printed list of prizes and the one or more results corresponding to each prize or may be provided with access to a Web site on which this information is posted.
In either the embodiments where the medicine container 905 stores a payout table in memory or the embodiments where the user is provided with a list of prizes available, the prizes available to the user may be customized to the user or may be prizes generally available to all users participating in the system.
In one or more embodiments, random game results may be generated ahead of time (either by the medicine container or another computing device) and stored in the memory of the medicine container. In such embodiments, rather than generating a random number in response to a determination that a user has become eligible for a game result, the processor of the medicine container may simply retrieve a game result from memory and output it to the user. For example, the processor may retrieve the next available game result that has not previously been output to the user.
In one or more embodiments, the probability of winning a particular prize or the prizes available may change. For example, the longer a user is compliant with taking his medicine, the higher the probability of winning a prize becomes. In another example, more valuable prizes may become available as the user remains compliant over time. For example, the medicine container may store in memory information identifying the user and additional information associated with the identify of the user that may be used to determine the probability to be used in determining a game result for the user. Such information may include, for example, an indication of the user's current and/or past compliance with a cap removal requirement of a medication currently and/or previously associated with the user. In another example, such information may include an indication of the duration for which a requirement of the medication has been associated with the user (e.g., if the user has just begun a prescription, the user may be provided winning game results more frequently to encourage the user to become used to taking the medication as prescribed).
In one or more embodiments, the medicine container 905 may be operable to communicate with another computing device (e.g., the user's PC). For example, the user may download software that includes a game interface and that is operable to display game results based on information received from the medicine container 905. For example, the medicine container 905 may transmit to the PC a code or other instruction that causes the software on the PC to display a game result. The medicine container 905 may transmit such code or other instruction via, e.g., RF or IR signals, a cable connection between the medicine container 905 and the PC, or via the user, who may be instructed to manually input the information to the PC. In such embodiments, the medicine container 905 may not include a random number generator or table of game results in memory or be operable itself to display game results. Instead, the computing device may comprise these elements and be operable to perform these functions in response to input from the medicine container 905. In other embodiments, both the medicine container and the computing device may be operable to perform these functions and the user may select the method via which the game results are to be displayed (i.e., via the medicine container 905 or via the computing device).
In one or more embodiments, a user may be allowed to select one or more game interfaces or games via which results are to be displayed. For example, the medicine container may store more than one game or game interface in memory. In another example, the user may be instructed to visit a Web site that has downloads of various games and/or game interfaces available and may select one of these for download to the memory of the medicine container 905. In yet another example, the user may be asked to select a game or game interfaces (e.g., by a pharmacist) when the user takes possession of the medicine container or obtains a refill of medicine for the medicine container and this selection may be downloaded to the medicine container. In yet another example, different medicine containers 905 or medicine container caps 910 may be programmed with different games or game interfaces and the user may be provided with the appropriate one based on the user's selection of a game or game interface.
In one or more embodiments, to further motivate a user to take their medicine, the medicine container 905 may be programmed to initiate a game or begin the display of a game result at the times at which the user is supposed to take their medicine. Thus, for example, one of the representations of a reel may display symbol along a payline at a time the user is supposed to take the medicine. Additionally (or in lieu of beginning a game or the display of a result of a game), the medicine container 905 may be equipped with an audio output device and may output an audio signal to remind the user that it is time to take the medicine or that the game or display of a game result has begun. In some embodiments, the entire game result may be displayed at the time the user is supposed to take the medicine but the user may only be allowed to claim any prize that is associated with the result if the user had in fact opened and/or re-closed the medicine container before the full game result was displayed. This may further motivate a user to take their medicine in compliance with their prescription, since the user may be reluctant to chance a winning result being displayed and not being able to claim the corresponding prize.
In one embodiment, a result of a game may be displayed for a predetermined length of time (e.g., one hour) at a time the user is supposed to take his medication. For example, if the user is supposed to take his medication once every twenty-four hours and the last time the user opened the medicine container was 8:00 am yesterday, the medicine container may display a result of a game between 7:30 am and 8:30 am on the current day. If the user takes his medicine as he is supposed to, the user will be handling the medicine container during this one-hour period and will see the game result. Thus, if the game result is a winning one, the user will be able to claim the associated prize. If the user fails to take his medicine as he is supposed to, the user will miss seeing the game result displayed during the one-hour period. Many users will be motivated to remember to take their medicine as prescribed in order to avoid missing any winning game results.
In one or more embodiments, rather than being provided with a prize or a chance at a prize upon each opening or re-closing of the medicine container 905, the user may instead be building equity in a chance at a prize, improving his chance at winning a prize, or increasing the value of an available prize with each opening or re-closing of the medicine container 905. For example, in one game a user may win a prize if the user obtains a predetermined number of occurrences of a particular symbol over a plurality of game results (e.g., ten cherries). Thus, each time the user opens or re-closes the cap 910, the user is hoping to obtain a game result that includes a cherry. The medicine container 905 may be operable to track the number of occurrences of the particular symbol the user is attempting to collect. In such an embodiment, the frequency of the appearance of the symbol the user is attempting to collect may change. For example, the symbol may appear more frequently when the user first begins to collect the symbol, thus encouraging the user to comply with taking his medicine.
In another example, each time the user opens or re-closes the cap 910, the player may be provided with a chance to win a progressive jackpot for which the user is competing with other users of the system. Further, each time the user opens or re-closes the cap 910 a contribution to the progressive jackpot may be made, such that the progressive jackpot increases over time.
In yet another example, a discount or other benefit available to the user may increase over time as the user remains compliant. For example, a discount in the user's co-pay or insurance premiums may increase by a predetermined amount for each predetermined period of time over which the user remains compliant. In such embodiments the user may be penalized for not complying with a prescription by, for example, a substantial reduction or removal of such a discount. Thus, a user that has been compliant for an extended length of time and has thus earned a substantial discount will be quite motivated to remain compliant in order to maintain the level of discount that it took so long to build up.
In one or more embodiments, the user may be provided with a chance to win a prize each time the user opens or re-closes the cap 910 and also, in addition, be entered into a bonus game or pool for a chance to win a larger prize.
In addition to games of chance, the games playable by the user may include games of skill or games that are part chance and part skill. For example, a trivia game may be available to a user. The questions for the trivia game may be, e.g., stored in a memory of the medicine container 905 and/or the memory of another computing device (e.g., the user's computer) with which the medicine container 905 is operable to communicate.
In one example of a trivia game, the questions may be related to the medicine associated with a user (e.g., the medicine in the medicine container, another prescription associated with the user, or a combination thereof). For example, the user may be asked whether the medicine causes drowsiness, is to be taken with food, can be taken with alcohol, or is compatible with another medicine. In such trivia game embodiments, the medicine container may include an input device via which the user may provide answers to the questions.
In one or more embodiments, one or more trivia questions may be posed to a user as a further requirement of claiming a prize. For example, assuming a winning game result has been output to a user via the medicine container, the user may be required to visit a Web site in order to input an indication of the winning result (e.g., an encrypted code output along with the winning result) and claim the associated prize. However, before the user is allowed to claim the prize, the user may be asked one or more trivia questions. Such trivia questions may be related to one or more medicines the user currently has a prescription to or another medicine.
In another example of a type of game that may be played via a medicine container, an output device of the medicine container may output a number or set of numbers that the user must match to a second number or second set of numbers known to the user. For example, the user may win a prize if the number or set of numbers output via the medicine container matches the prescription number of a prescription associated with the user, the user's social security number, or the user's telephone number. Such a number or numbers output via the medicine container may be determined randomly in a manner similar to that described above.
In one or more embodiments, an input by the user may be incorporated into the determination of a game result, for added user enjoyment and further motivation to open the medicine container. For example, the exact time at which the user opens the medicine container may be incorporated into the determination of the random number used to determine the game result. For example, in one embodiment the random number generator may continuously generate random numbers and the random number generated at the time of the medicine container opening may be the random number used for the game result.
It should be understood that, as described at least with respect to
In one or more embodiments, a player may need to provide additional verification or validation of having taken the medicine as prescribed in order to collect a prize won based on a game result. For example, prizes valued above a predetermined threshold (e.g., twenty dollars) may require validation of compliance.
In one embodiment, validation of compliance may comprise having the user provide a code output by the documenting module 200, as described in detail above.
In another embodiment, a user attempting to win a large prize may be required to document compliance with a prescription by use of reagent test strips. For example, a user may be provided with a plurality of reagent test strips. A test area of each reagent test strip may be impregnated with an appropriate indicator that reacts with a particular substance being tested for. The medicine to be taken by the user may be coated with a quick-dissolving coating containing the substance being tested for. Alternatively, the user may be provided with a second set of pills, the second set of pills being coated or impregnated with the substance being tested for, or a syrup or other edible form that includes the substance being tested for. In such embodiments, the user may be required to ingest the second pill or other substance each time the user takes his medicine. When the indicator reacts with the substance being tested for, a color change of the test area of the reagent test strip may occur. In such an embodiment, the user may be required to place a test strip into his mouth after taking the medicine and store the used test strips in an appropriate container. If and when the user obtains a game result that corresponds to a prize of at least a predetermined value, the user may be required to provide the used test strips as further proof of having taken the medicine. In one embodiment, a reagent test strip may be in the shape of a toothpick.
In one or more embodiments the substance being tested for may include a component that degrades or decomposes over time at a predetermined rate, such that a laboratory may be able to determine a length of time since a particular reagent test strip has been used. For example, a laboratory may be able to determine whether the user used the reagent test strips over time as he was supposed to or used all the reagent strips at once right before sending them into the laboratory.
In yet another embodiment of how a user may be required to further validate compliance, the user may be required to visit a physician or laboratory for testing to verify that the user has been taking the medication. For example, a physician or laboratory may collect a blood sample from the user, for analysis to determine whether the correct dosage of medicine is in the user's bloodstream.
In yet another embodiment of how a user may be required to further validate compliance, the user may be provided with pills that each include a bar code imprinted thereon. The user may also be provided with a bar code scanner. In such an embodiment, the user may be required to scan the bar code of each pill before ingesting the pill. If the user wins a prize (or a prize of at least a predetermined value), the user may be required to provide the data from the bar code scanner to further verify compliance (e.g., by taking the bar code scanner or memory card of the bar code scanner to a pharmacy).
In one or more embodiments, friends or relatives of a user may be allowed to fund one or more prizes for the user. For example, as a birthday present, a granddaughter may provide one-hundred dollars to the system to find prizes for her grandmother. The granddaughter may even be able to specify how the one-hundred dollars is to be provided to her grandmother. For example, the granddaughter may specify that the one-hundred dollars is to be provided as one large prize or distributed over a plurality of small, frequent prizes. The user may or may not be informed of the source for the funding of the prize. Friends or relative may also be allowed to purchase a chance for the user to win a relatively large prize. For example, a nephew may pay fifty dollars for a chance for his aunt to win one million dollars.
It is understood that some users may miss a dose of medicine occasionally. In one or more embodiments, such occasional misses may be allowed so long as the user admits to the miss after it occurs and before taking the next dose. The documenting module 200 may, for example, track the indication of the miss and the user's acknowledgement of the miss before the taking of the next dose. The documenting module 200 may incorporate this information in the next encrypted code generated for the user.
In one or more embodiments, encoded cap removal data received by the central controller 300 during a compliance verification process may comprise several elements, which may indicate (i) a removal requirement (e.g., the cap should be removed three times per day), (ii) the elapsed time since the last verification (e.g., seven days) and (iii) the number of removals since the last verification (e.g., 21 removals). For example, if an encrypted numeric code is “264180579,” upon decryption, the first three digits may indicate a removal requirement, the second three digits may indicate the elapsed time since the last verification, and the final three digits may indicate the number of removals since the last verification. In this manner, the central controller 300 may verify prescription compliance without maintaining and/or continuously updating patient data.
In one or more embodiments, cap removal data may be received by a pharmacy when a user refills a prescription (e.g., the user may provide the cap to the pharmacist at the time of the refill). A benefit may then be provided by the pharmacy (e.g., a 10% discount on prescription medication co-pay). In other embodiments, the pharmacy may transmit cap removal data to a third party (e.g., an insurance company). In one embodiment, the pharmacy that provides a benefit to the user may be reimbursed for at least a portion of the benefit by at least one third party (e.g., the user's insurance company and/or the manufacturer of the medication for which compliance has been verified).
In one or more embodiments, cap removal data may be transmitted to the central controller 300 in a substantially automatic manner (i.e., the transmission of data may require little or no user action). For example, in an embodiment wherein the documenting module 200 comprises a communications port, a program may instruct the module to connect to the central controller 300 (e.g., a modem coupled to the documenting module dials a telephonic number) and transmit cap removal data on a periodic basis (e.g., data is transmitted once per week). In another embodiment, cap removal data is transmitted with each cap removal. In some embodiments, a connection to the central controller 300 may be facilitated via an “always-on” or broadband Internet connection. In this manner, a patient's compliance may be determined and benefits provided in a substantially automatic manner. For example, if the documenting module 200 automatically transmits data to a health insurance agent, all a patient need do is follow a prescription requirement, and the patient may automatically receive a benefit (e.g., a $5 health insurance credit every month).
It should be noted that various rewards or benefits for complying users are envisioned, including but not limited to: (i) priority servicing (e.g., such that patients needn't wait on hold, wait in a line at a pharmacy, etc.), (ii) information on drug trials (pharmaceutical companies may wish to test drugs with to patients who are known to comply with prescriptions, and may pay them for participating), (iii) frequent flyer miles, (iv) prepaid telephone time (e.g., a patient's account is awarded five minutes of phone time for every “success”), and (v) premium entertainment content (e.g., access to pay-per-view television, movies, music, Web sites, etc.).
In one embodiment, a benefit for user compliance may comprise an entry into a sweepstakes. For example, a process for providing a benefit to a user may comprise the following steps: (i) receiving an encrypted code comprising a patient identifier from a patient, (ii) decrypting the code to determine the patient's compliance with a prescription, and if the patient is compliant, (iii) entering the patient identifier in a sweepstakes, (iv) drawing a patient identifier at random, and (v) providing a benefit to the patient associated with the drawn patient identifier. In some embodiments, a patient's identifier may be entered into a sweepstakes more than once. For example, a patient may be entered into a sweepstakes once per each “success.” In other embodiments, a patient's number of entries may be based on the length of time the patient is compliant, the patient's “success percentage,” etc.
While particular embodiments for carrying out the invention have been described in detail, those familiar with the art to which the invention relates will recognize various alternative designs and embodiments for practicing the invention. These alternative embodiments are within the scope of the present invention.
For example, in one or more embodiments, the documenting module 200 may be included in a pill bottle stand. In one such embodiment, the documenting module 200 may comprise a weight and/or motion sensor, such that the module may be operable to (i) determine a first bottle weight, (ii) detect the removal of the bottle from the stand, (iii) detect the replacement of the bottle on the stand, (iv) determine a second bottle weight, and (v) determine a difference between the first and second bottle weight. In this manner, the documenting module 200 may measure compliance by the removal of the bottle from the stand and its corresponding weight. Such a compliance test may ensure that pills are removed from a bottle (e.g., a “success” may be determined if the second weight is smaller than the first weight).
It should be noted that although cap removal has been described herein as the action monitored to verify compliance, other actions may be monitored within the scope of the present invention. For example, a medicine container may include an accelerometer operable to detect when the medicine container has been lifted or shaken.
In another example, multiple medicine compliance may be encouraged by having the documenting module 200 be associated with a container for multiple medicines (e.g., a holder of multiple medicine containers). In such multiple medicine embodiments, the gaming interface embodiments may also be utilized. For example, if a holder holds six medicine containers, a pharmacist may program a processor of the holder to allow the user six “spins” of the slot machine interface (e.g., every predetermined period of time).
In an alternate embodiment of the present invention, an entity may utilize the functionality of the medicine container described herein to advertise products to the user. For example, a pharmaceutical company may pay to have advertisements for medicines output via an output device of the medicine container. The user may be provided with a game result at the end of such an advertisement, as a reward for viewing the advertisement.
It should be noted that although the embodiments of the present invention have been described with respect to a medicine container, many of the embodiments may be useful for various other types of containers as well. The gaming interface embodiments described above, in particular, may be used for any type of container the opening of which it is desirous to encourage. For example, a soft drink container cap may include a display device for outputting a game result. The game result may be displayed when the soft drink container is first opened or each time the soft drink container is opened or re-closed.
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|U.S. Classification||463/43, 463/44, 463/16, 713/161|
|International Classification||G06F19/00, B67D7/06, A63F13/12, G07F17/32, H04L29/06, A63F9/24, G06F9/00, H04L9/32|
|Cooperative Classification||H04L2209/56, H04L2209/805, H04L9/3297, G07F17/3218, G07F17/32, G06F19/3418, A61J7/04, G06F19/3462, G07F7/06|
|European Classification||G07F17/32, G07F17/32C4B, A61J7/04, H04L9/00, G07F7/06, G06F19/34C, G06F19/34L1, H04L9/32T|
|21 Jul 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: WALKER DIGITAL, LLC, CONNECTICUT
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:WALKER, JAY S.;JORASCH, JAMES A.;PACKES, JOHN M., JR.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:015577/0909;SIGNING DATES FROM 20040514 TO 20040524
|26 Aug 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: JORASCH, JAMES A, NEW YORK
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:WALKER DIGITAL, LLC;REEL/FRAME:024879/0857
Effective date: 20100622
|2 Jan 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|2 Jan 2013||SULP||Surcharge for late payment|
|8 Aug 2014||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: IGT, NEVADA
Free format text: LICENSE;ASSIGNORS:WALKER DIGITAL GAMING, LLC;WALKER DIGITAL GAMING HOLDING, LLC;WDG EQUITY, LLC;ANDOTHERS;REEL/FRAME:033501/0023
Effective date: 20090810