|Publication number||US4782910 A|
|Application number||US 07/129,911|
|Publication date||8 Nov 1988|
|Filing date||4 Dec 1987|
|Priority date||23 May 1986|
|Publication number||07129911, 129911, US 4782910 A, US 4782910A, US-A-4782910, US4782910 A, US4782910A|
|Inventors||Claude C. Sims|
|Original Assignee||Mobil Oil Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (21), Referenced by (17), Classifications (14), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This is a continuation of copending application Ser. No. 866,560, filed on May 23, 1986 now abandoned.
The invention relates to bi-polar transducers and more particularly, to a transducer for logging boreholes.
Open boreholes are logged with acoustic pulses to determine the velocities of compressional and shear waves traveling through the earth formations surrounding the borehole. By timing the travel of acoustic waves between the transmitters and receivers of a logging tool, the nature of these surrounding formations is determined. U.S. Pat. No. 4,516,228--Zemenek describes a logging tool for detecting both compressional and shear waves.
Monopole transducers typically generate a compressional wave by generating a pressure pulse on one side of the transducer which radiates outwardly from the transducer. Bender transducers typically are monopole transducers which generate compressional waves U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,363,118--Sims and 3,380,019--Sims disclose bender transducers for use in open water. These transducers include a disk and a piezoelectric material which flexes the disk in a bender action. The disk is fixed around its edge, as by a support ring in the Sims '118 patent so that when a voltage is applied to the piezoelectric material, the center portion of the disk flexes. Alternatively, these transducers are used as receivers which convert acoustic energy to an electrical signal.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,383,308--Caldwell discloses the use of a bender transducer in a borehole logging tool. The operating environments of a borehole and open water are quite different, as are the respective transmission media and associated instrumentation. A transducer used in a logging tool must be capable of operating under high temperatures, typically 300°-350° F.
Another known type of acoustic transducer is referred to as a "bender bar" transducer, such as the one made by Honeywell, Inc. This comprises a stack of flat piezoelectric elements which are supported at one end. When a voltage is applied, the other end of the stack moves to produce a monopole pulse of energy. One way to use bender bar transducers in a logging tool would be to provide a circular array of such devices, with each bender bar stack producing energy which radiates outwardly from the tool. However, the constraints of a logging tool do not provide enough room for such an array of sources. The industry standard logging tool is 35/8" in diameter which severely constrains the size of the transducer.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a bender transducer which will fit into an industry standard logging tool, and which will withstand the severe conditions of borehole logging.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a bender transducer which will radiate a dipole wave with positive pressure pulses on one side of the transducer, and negative pressure pulses on the other side of the transducer.
In accordance with the present invention, a bender transducer includes a flat, elongated piezoelectric element affixed to a flat elongated inert element. The inert element is hinged at both ends to a supporting mass or frame which exposes two sides of the elements. When a voltage is applied to the electrodes of the piezoelectric element, the inert element flexes, moving about the hinges at both ends. This produces a dipole shear wave in the fluid surrounding the logging tool. Alternatively, of course, the transducer of the present invention can be used as a receiver to convert acoustic energy into an electric signal.
In accordance with an important aspect of the invention, baffles on the supporting frame acoustically separate the two sides of the elements. This prevents an acoustic "short circuit", which would otherwise be present if a typical bender transducer was used as a dipole generator.
In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a second piezoelectric element is affixed to the other side of the inert element. Opposite voltages are applied to the two piezoelectric elements, so that one tends to compress and other expand to impart a reinforced flexing motion to the inert element.
In accordance with other aspects of the invention, the dimensions of the supporting frame and elements are critical to produce the desired frequency acoustic wave, about 1 KHz.
The present invention has the advantages of compact size, good frequency characteristics, good temperature stability and ruggedness, all of which makes the transducer of the present invention particularly suitable for use in a borehole logging tool.
The foregoing and other objects, features and advantages of the invention will be more apparent from the following more detailed description and appended claims.
FIG. 1 shows a well logging system with a logging tool in a borehole;
FIG. 1A shows the transducer of the present invention mounted in the logging tool;
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the transducer;
FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view of a transducer with two piezoelectric elements;
FIG. 3A is a section on the line 3A--3A of FIG. 3;
FIG. 4 is an end view of the supporting frame;
FIG. 5 is an end view of the transducer; and
FIG. 6 depicts the electrical connections to the transducer.
Referring to FIGS. 1 and 1A, an acoustic logging system has the improved transducer of the present invention. The logging system includes an elongated logging tool 10 which is suspended from a cable 11 within a borehole 12 which traverses a subterranean formation of interest 14. Formation 14 may be a suspected oil or gas bearing formation which is to be characterized in regard to its porosity, fluid saturation, or such other information as may be desired. The well 12 is filled with a liquid such as drilling mud 16. The logging tool 10 comprises acoustic transmitters 17 and 18 and the acoustic receiver 19.
Signals from the logging tool 10 are transmitted uphole by the conductors in cable 11 to a utilization system comprising control circuit 22 and recorder 24. A depth indicating means, such as a measuring sheave produces a depth signal which is applied to the recorder 24 in order that the output from control circuit 22 may be correlated with depth.
The mounting of the bender transducer of the present invention in the logging tool is shown in more detail in FIG. 1A. Transducer 25 comprises a piezoelectric element 26 affixed to inert element 27, which is typically an aluminum plate. The plate is mounted at both ends to the supporting mass or frame 28. Vicom rubber straps 29-32 suspend the transducer in the transducer compartment formed by the panels 33 and 34 and neoprene rubber protective casing 35. The transducer compartment is filled with a suitable coupling liquid which has an acoustic impedance close to that of the liquid within the borehole.
FIG. 2 depicts an embodiment of the invention wherein one flat, elongated piezoelectric element 26 is mounted on the flat, elongated inert element 27. Inert element 27 is affixed to a supporting mass, or frame 28 at both ends of inert element 27. Frame 28 has baffles 36 and 37 which acoustically separate the exposed sides of the transducer. Fiberglass layers 38 and 39 bond the inert element 27 to the sides 40 and 41 of frame 28. These sides act as hinges when a voltage applied to electrodes 42 and 43 causes the inert element to flex.
Frame 28 is rectangular, with a rectangular opening, best seen in the bottom plan view of FIG. 3. Sides 40 and 41 are on opposite sides of the rectangular opening. These sides twist in a hinge-like movement as the inert element 27 flexes in response to applied voltage. This produces a bi-polar acoustic wave when the exposed top surface of element 26 produces a positive pressure pulse and the bottom exposed surface of element 27 (FIG. 2) produces a negative pressure pulse, or vice versa.
FIGS. 3-5 show an embodiment in which another piezoelectric element 26a is mounted on the bottom side of inert element 27. Like reference numerals, or reference numerals with "a" affixed thereto, indicate like components to the embodiment described with reference to FIG. 2. In this embodiment, one side of each piezoelectric element is exposed and the other side is affixed to the inert element. The two exposed surfaces of the piezoelectric elements respectively generate positive and negative pressure pulses to produce a bi-polar acoustic wave.
FIG. 3A depicts an important function of the baffles 36 and 37. These baffles acoustically separate the two exposed surfaces of the elements. The acoustic energy generated must take the path indicated by the dashed lines 44. Without this acoustic baffling, the acoustic energy would take the shortest path between the two exposed surfaces and would not generate the desired acoustic wave.
FIG. 6 depicts the electrical connections to the two piezoelectric elements 26 and 26a. An alternating voltage is applied to the two opposed surfaces of the piezoelectric elements. The voltage on one side is positive-going while the other is negative-going, and vice versa. This results in the element 26 being compressed and the element 26a being expanded during one half cycle, and vice versa during the other half cycle. This reinforces the flexing of the inert element 27. By applying an alternating voltage at the proper frequency, an acoustic wave at the desired frequency is produced.
Certain dimensions of the transducer are critical to the generation of the acoustic wave at the desired frequency. The width of the sides 40 and 41 of the frame are critical. This dimension, from the outside of the frame to the edge of the rectangular opening, must be correctly chosen to provide the desired hinge-like movement. Another critical dimension is the width of the space 45 (FIG. 3) between the edge of the frame and the edge of the inert element. This space must be sufficiently small so that liquid does not easily pass through the opening without producing the desired wave. At the same time, the opening must be large enough so that unwanted viscous damping does not occur.
In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, piezoelectric elements 26 and 26a were 4" PZT-4 material supplied by EDO Western Corporation, Salt Lake, Utah. Elements 26 and 26a were 1.25 inches thick, cut to 1.5 inch widths. They were bonded to inert element 27 with one layer of fiberglass.
Inert element 27 was a 6.125×1.5×0.25 piece of aluminum stock 6061-T6. Leads of #26 wire were attached to the electrode and the elements were potted in DC 170 A & B. The capacitance was 0.0145 microfarads. The frame 28 was cold rolled steel with the following dimensions referenced to FIGS. 3 and 4.
A: 2.5 inches
B: 3.00 inches
C: 2.5 inches
D: 1.70 inches
E: 3.00 inches
F: 1.00 inches
G: 0.375 inches
A DC voltage of up to about 1,000 volts RMS was applied to the transducer at about 1 KHz. The desired 1 KHz acoustic wave was produced.
While a particular embodiment of the invention has been shown and described, various modifications are within the true spirit and scope of the invention. The appended claims are, therefore, intended to cover all such modifications.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3158762 *||27 Dec 1962||24 Nov 1964||Horan John J||Bilaminar transducers|
|US3354426 *||28 Jan 1966||21 Nov 1967||Dynamics Corp Massa Div||Pressure gradient hydrophone|
|US3360664 *||30 Oct 1964||26 Dec 1967||Gen Dynamics Corp||Electromechanical apparatus|
|US3370187 *||30 Apr 1965||20 Feb 1968||Gen Dynamics Corp||Electromechanical apparatus|
|US3582698 *||24 Jun 1969||1 Jun 1971||Baker Hugh M Jr||Resonator with counterrotating rigid parts|
|US3593255 *||29 May 1969||13 Jul 1971||Marathon Oil Co||Acoustic logging tool having opposed transducers|
|US3714475 *||11 Sep 1970||30 Jan 1973||H Eng Corp||Resonator having counter rotating rigid parts|
|US4131874 *||12 May 1977||26 Dec 1978||Westinghouse Electric Corp.||Inertial balanced dipole hydrophone|
|US4140936 *||1 Sep 1977||20 Feb 1979||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy||Square and rectangular electroacoustic bender bar transducer|
|US4184093 *||7 Jul 1978||15 Jan 1980||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy||Piezoelectric polymer rectangular flexural plate hydrophone|
|US4431873 *||8 Dec 1981||14 Feb 1984||Her Majesty The Queen In Right Of Canada, As Represented By The Minister Of National Defence||Diaphragm design for a bender type acoustic sensor|
|US4503350 *||4 Jan 1984||5 Mar 1985||Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.||Piezoelectric resonator device with a laminated structure|
|US4516228 *||25 Aug 1983||7 May 1985||Mobil Oil Corporation||Acoustic well logging device for detecting compressional and shear waves|
|US4517664 *||12 Nov 1981||14 May 1985||Teledyne Exploration Company||Seismic apparatus|
|US4536862 *||24 May 1982||20 Aug 1985||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Seismic cable assembly having improved transducers|
|US4649525 *||22 Aug 1985||10 Mar 1987||Mobil Oil Corporation||Shear wave acoustic logging system|
|US4679178 *||19 Sep 1985||7 Jul 1987||Geophysical Company Of Norway A.S.||Arrangement in hydrophone|
|CA727792A *||8 Feb 1966||E. Turner Edwin||Electroacoustical apparatus|
|CH279345A *||Title not available|
|GB2122351A *||Title not available|
|GB2124377A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5020036 *||6 Feb 1990||28 May 1991||Atlantic Richfield Company||Magnetostrictive transducer for logging tool|
|US5042611 *||18 May 1990||27 Aug 1991||Texaco Inc.||Method and apparatus for cross-well seismic surveying|
|US5197041 *||23 Jan 1991||23 Mar 1993||Balogh William T||Piezoelectric mud pulser for measurement-while-drilling applications|
|US5357481 *||4 Nov 1992||18 Oct 1994||Western Atlas International, Inc.||Borehole logging tool|
|US5677894 *||27 Dec 1995||14 Oct 1997||Syntron Inc.||Hydrophone structure with center pin|
|US5724308 *||10 Oct 1995||3 Mar 1998||Western Atlas International, Inc.||Programmable acoustic borehole logging|
|US5815466 *||3 Mar 1997||29 Sep 1998||Syntron, Inc.||Hydrophone structure with reverse bend of piezoelectric element|
|US6568486||6 Sep 2000||27 May 2003||Schlumberger Technology Corporation||Multipole acoustic logging with azimuthal spatial transform filtering|
|US7171309 *||24 Oct 2003||30 Jan 2007||Schlumberger Technology Corporation||Downhole tool controller using autocorrelation of command sequences|
|US8408782||28 Oct 2009||2 Apr 2013||United Technologies Corporation||Acoustic acceleration of fluid mixing in porous materials|
|US8789999||15 Mar 2013||29 Jul 2014||United Technologies Corporation||Acoustic acceleration of fluid mixing in porous materials|
|US9541657||9 Sep 2011||10 Jan 2017||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Method of controlled pulse driving of a stacked PZT bender bar for dipole acoustic radiation|
|US20050090985 *||24 Oct 2003||28 Apr 2005||Goodman Kenneth R.||Downhole tool controller using autocorrelation of command sequences|
|US20080049545 *||22 Aug 2006||28 Feb 2008||United Technologies Corporation||Acoustic acceleration of fluid mixing in porous materials|
|US20100046319 *||28 Oct 2009||25 Feb 2010||United Technologies Corporation||Acoustic Acceleration of Fluid Mixing in Porous Materials|
|EP0552833A1 *||15 Jan 1993||28 Jul 1993||Anadrill International SA||Sonic vibration telemetering system|
|WO2015047369A1 *||30 Sep 2013||2 Apr 2015||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Asymmetric bender bar transducer|
|U.S. Classification||181/106, 367/160, 381/386, 310/349, 181/402, 381/190, 367/165|
|International Classification||G01V1/52, B06B1/06|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S181/402, G01V1/52, B06B1/0603|
|European Classification||G01V1/52, B06B1/06B|
|9 Dec 1991||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|25 Mar 1996||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|5 May 2000||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12