Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3654933 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date11 Apr 1972
Filing date18 Nov 1968
Priority date18 Nov 1968
Publication numberUS 3654933 A, US 3654933A, US-A-3654933, US3654933 A, US3654933A
InventorsNorman R Hagfors
Original AssigneeMedtronic Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Implatable electrode
US 3654933 A
Abstract
An improved electrode for implantation into a body including one or more electrical conductor leads adapted to be connected to a source of electrical signal, and one or more flexible electrodes attached to the leads, so that the electrodes may be bent around the portion of the body to which they are to make electrical contact. The leads and the portion of the electrode not to be in contact with the body are encapsulated in a substance substantially inert to body fluids and tissue.
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Hagfors [451 Apr. 11, 1972 1 1 IMPLATABLE ELECTRODE 3,279,468 10/1966 Le Vine 1 28/410 [72] lnventor: Norman R. Hagfors, Minneapolis, Minn. 52 22 47 [73] Assignee: Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, Minn. Re26,809 3/197 flagfofs 3/ 18 R 6,8 0 Filed: Nov. 18 1968 e2 1 3/1970 Schwartz et al 128/418 2 l 1 App]. No: 776,348 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 106,662 9/1924 Switzerland 1 28/410 I I a 4 I I s i s a s a i I a 4 s I s I I a l a a I n u I I I a v n a p I I a o I I I I e v I u a I I I I A. Assistant mine xy e 128/419 D16 Attorney-Lew Schwartz and Donald R. Stone 57 ABSTRACT [56} References Cited 1 An improved electrode for implantat1on mm a body lncluding UNITED STATES PATENTS one or more electrical conductor leads adapted to be connected to a source of electrical signal, and one or more flexi- 298511 72 8 I L 52 1 ble electrodes attached to the leads, so that the electrodes may 3405 J15 1 ag ors 18 be bent around the portion of the body to which they are to 3142115 I l 1/1969 Schwartz et "128/418 make electrical contact. The leads and the portion of the elec- 2118415 I 1 12/1939 Bagno et "128/21 x trode not to be in contact with the body are encapsulated in a 2,187,928 1/1940 Barcroft 1 28/404 X Substance Substantially inert to body fluids and tissue 3,157,181 11/1964 McCarty ..128/404 3,216,424 1 1/1965 Chardack 128/418 35 Claims, 14 Drawing Figures PATENTEDAPR 11 I972 3,654,933

sum 1 0r 2 r 15 r 14 F1155 11 INVEN'IOR.

11/084440 e Mrarazs IMPLATABLE ELECTRODE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Implantable electro-medical devices are now well known in the art. The structure of the electrodes which connect the electrical signals from an implantable device to a desired portion of the body, has been found to be highly important to those skilled in the art. For example, two electrode structures particularly adaptable to connect to nerves are shown and described in U.S. Pat. application Ser. No. 12,981, filed Dec. 10, 1965, by Seymour 1. Schwartz et al., now U.S. Pat. No. Re. 26,810 and assigned to the assignee of this invention; and, U.S. Pat. No. Re. 26,809, issued Mar. 3, 1970, having the same inventor as this application, and assigned to the assignee of this invention.

A review of the above mentioned application and patent will indicate that numerous advantages and disadvantages arise from the structure selected for the implantable electrode. For example, the structure should be one which avoids traumatizing the portion of the body to which it is to be connected, a particular electrode structure may be preferable as providing greater current density to a greater depth in the portion of the body to be stimulated, and a guarded electrode structure may be preferred to prevent excess leakage current from stimulating portions of the body adjacent to that portion it is desired to stimulate. These are just a few of the problems involved in the structure of implantable electrodes.

The apparatus of this invention overcomes particular prior art problems by providing a structure which is capable of atraumatic connection to nerves or other portions of the body of various sizes, while providing a permanent connection to the portion of the body, and providing an improved current density through the portion of the body to which it is connected, as well as other various advantages.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Briefly described, the apparatus of this invention comprises one or more flexible electrodes connected to leads which are adapted to be connected to a source of electrical signal. The flexibility of the electrodes enables them to be wrapped around, for example, a portion of a nerve to be stimulated. Thus a greater surface contact area is provided between the electrode and the nerve, and the connection can be properly fitted to avoid trauma. The leads and the portion of the electrode not to be in contact with the nerve are encased in a substance substantially inert to body fluids and tissue. A guarded electrode configuration may be used with the apparatus of this invention, in which case it is preferable to have the surface area of the electrode being guarded equal to the combined surface area of the guarding electrodes. This will provide an improved current density.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a two-electrode configuration of the apparatus of this invention;

FIG. 2 is a second perspective view of the configuration of FIG. 1 as shown in its preferred form prior to connection;

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a three-electrode, guarded electrode configuration of the apparatus of this invention;

FIG. 4 is another perspective view of the configuration of FIG. 3 shown in its preferred form prior to connection;

FIG. 5 is a perspective view showing the apparatus of this invention after connection to a portion of a body;

FIG. 6 is a top-plane view of a variation of a guarded electrode configuration of the apparatus of this invention;

FIG. 7 is a copy of an equipotential line plot of the apparatus of this invention shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 8 is a copy of an equipotential line plot of a prior art two-electrode configuration;

FIG. 9 is a copy of an equipotential line plot for the apparatus of FIG. 3;

FIG. 10 is a copy of an equipotential line plot wherein the center or guarded electrode is not twice the surface area of the guarding electrodes;

FIG. 11 is a copy of an equipotential line plot for a prior art three-electrode, guarded electrode configuration;

FIG. 12 is a copy of an equipotential line plot for the apparatus of FIG. 6;

FIG. 13 is a perspective view of a variation of the apparatus of this invention involving a two-electrode, guarded electrode configuration, and

FIG. 14 is another perspective view of the apparatus of FIG. 13 shown in the preferred form prior to connection.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Throughout the FIGS. of the drawing the same number has been used to indicate the same or similar part of the apparatus, though the embodiments themselves may vary.

Referring first to FIGS. 1 and 2, there is seen a pair of electrical conductor leads 10 and 11, which are adapted to be connected to a source of electrical signal. An electrode 12 is connected to lead 10, while another electrode 13 is connected to lead 11. Electrodes l2 and 13 are shown in the preferred embodiment of FIG. 1 as generally rectangular, flat pieces of metal, which are flexible. If desired, flexible electrodes 12 and 13 can be position retaining, that is, of a material that will hold any position or shape to which it is flexed. Leads 10 and 11 are encapsulated in a substance 14 substantially inert to body fluids and tissue. Electrodes 12 and 13 are partially encapsulated in substance 14, leaving exposed those surfaces which will make contact with a portion of the body. A pair of tabs 15 and 16 extend from substance 14 in the manner shown in FIG. 1, for a purpose to be described below.

FIG. 2 shows the embodiment of FIG. 1 in a shape which has been found preferable for the manufacture of nerve electrodes. In FIG. 2, electrodes 12 and 13 and the associated portion of substance 14 are shown in a curved state to make it easy to hook the electrodes around a nerve, whereafter additional bending of electrodes 12 and 13 is completed. To achieve the form of FIG. 2, substance 14 is preferably semicured while the structure is held in the position shown in FIG.

Referring now to FIG. 5, it can be seen that the apparatus of FIGS. 1 and 2 is attached to a portion of the body, here shown as a representative drawing of a nerve 20, by bending electrodes l2 and 13 around nerve 20. In FIG. 5 it can be seen that when the attachment of electrodes 12 and 13 is completed. tabs 15 and 16 will have met, at which time they are preferably joined by sutures such as 21, and the unneeded portions of tabs 15 and 16 are then cut off.

Referring now to FIGS. 3 and 4, there are again shown leads l0 and 11 encapsulated in a substance 14, the substance 14 having extending tabs 15 and 16. A pair of electrodes 22 and 24 are here shown connected to lead 10 while a single electrode 23 is shown connected to lead 11. Leads 22, 23 and 24 extend generally parallel, and leads 22 and 24 are in current guarding relation to lead 23. The advantages of a current guarding embodiment are described in U.S. Pat. No. Re. 26,809, mentioned above. FIG. 4 shows a configuration of this second preferred embodiment similar to that of FIG. 2 and achieved in the same manner and for the same purposes as those described above in the discussion of FIG. 2. The embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4 is connected to a portion of the body, such as nerve 20 in FIG. 5, in the same manner described above for the connection of the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2.

Referring again to FIGS. 3 and 4, it can be seen that electrode 23 is of greater width than either of electrodes 22 and 24. Preferably, the width of electrodes 22 and 24 is substantially equal, and the width of electrode 23 is approximately twice that of either of electrodes 22 and 24. This improvement results in a greater current density through the portion of the body to receive the electrical signal, such as nerve 20 in FIG. 5. This effect will be more fully described below.

Referring now to FIG. 6, there is seen a variation of the guarded electrode embodiment of the apparatus of this invention. In this embodiment, leads l0 and 11 are again connected, respectively, to a pair of parallel extending electrodes 12 and 13. A U-shaped electrode 18 is at least partially encapsulated in substance 14 such that leads 12 and 13 extend into the open end of U-shaped member 18 and are parallel to and substantially in the same plane as member 18.

FIGS. 7 through 12 constitute copies of equipotential line plots of the apparatus of this invention and of various prior art electrode configurations, the plots actually taken by the inventor of the apparatus of this invention. FIGS. 7 through 12 represent cross sections of the electrodes as they would appear when connected to a portion of the body, such as nerve 20 in FIG. 5.

Referring first to FIG. 7, the two-electrode configuration of FIG. 1, it can be seen that electrodes 12 and 13 appear on opposite sides of the portion of the body to which they are attached. FIG. 8 is an equipotential line plot of a prior art twoelectrode configuration such as that of the patent application of Seymour I. Schwartz et al. described above. The electrodes herein are denoted 12 and 13, and it can be seen that they appear on only one side of the portion of the body to which they are attached. A review of the equipotential line plots of FIGS. 7 and 8, recognizing that current is normal to the equipotential lines, makes apparent that the plot of FIG. 7 has a greater density of equipotential lines, with less curvature,

' located in the central portion between electrodes 12 and 13.

The plot of FIG. 8 indicates very few equipotential lines limited to the space between electrodes 12' and 13, and shows more equipotential lines extending external to the entire configuration than does the plot of FIG. 7. It thus becomes apparent that the concentration of current in the nerve such as 20 is much improved by the use of the apparatus of this invention as depicted by FIG. 7.

FIGS. 9, and 11 are equipotential line plots for various three-electrode configurations. FIG. 9 represents an equipotential line plot for apparatus such as that shown in FIGS. 3 and 4. FIG. 10 represents an equipotential line plot for a configuration similar to that shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, but where the guarded electrode 23 is not of greater width than the guarding electrodes 22 and 24. FIG. 11 is an equipotential line plot for a prior art guarded electrode configuration such as that shown in US. Pat. No. Re. 26,809, described above.

In FIG. 11, the three electrodes are denoted 22", 23" and 24". It can be seen that guarded electrode 23" has the greater amount of equipotential lines surrounding it, but that very few equipotential lines extend through the portion of the body to which the electrode is connected. Further, the shape of the equipotential lines surrounding electrode 23" indicate that they contribute little current to the longitudinal direction of the portion of the body being stimulated.

Reference to the equipotential line plot of FIG. 10 indicates an improvement in the number of equipotential lines flowing vertically, as shown in the diagram, through the portion of the body to be stimulated. This advantage is achieved through the fact that electrodes 22, 23' and 24' appear on opposite sides of the portion of the body to which they are connected. However, reference to FIG. 9 indicates a by far greater number of equipotential lines which are comparatively evenly spaced and extend vertically through the portion of the body being stimulated. This much improved result is due to the surface area of guarded electrode 23 being approximately double that of either of the two guarding electrodes 22 and 24. It is thus apparent that the type of structure obtainable with the flexible electrodes of this invention allows a greatly improved current density and distribution in the portion of the body to be stimulated over the prior art configurations, as may be seen by comparing the prior art equipotential line plot of FIG. 11 to that of the plot of FIG. 10 and FIG. 9. It is also apparent that the apparatus of FIG. 3 of the drawing is preferred in that it gives the most favorable equipotential line plot as shown in FIG. 9.

Referring now to FIG. 12, there is shown an equipotential line plot for the apparatus of FIG. 6, a variation of the guarded electrode configuration. Here again, the equipotential line plot achieved by having electrodes 12, 13 and 18 on both sides of the portion of the body being stimulated is seen to be preferable to that of the prior art guarded electrode configuration of FIG. 11.

Referring now to FIGS. 13 and 14 there is yet another variation of the apparatus of this invention, this variation comprising a two-electrode, guarded configuration. In FIG. 13 there is shown a pair of leads 50 and 51. Lead 50 has an extending portion 52 which acts as an electrode such as electrode 12 of FIG. 1, except that extending portion 52 is curved in a generally U-shape as shown in FIGS. 13 and 14. Lead 51 has an extending portion 53 which acts as electrode 13 in FIG. 1, except that electrode 53 extends into the U-shape formed by electrode 52. Leads 50 and 51 are encapsulated in substance 14 having extending tabs 15 and 16, while the extending portion comprising electrodes 52 and 53 are partially encapsulated in substance 14, having exposed those areas adapted to be connected to the portion of the body. FIG. 14 shows the structure of FIG. 13 in the form preferable prior to connection, which is for the purposes and achieved in the manner described above for the apparatus of FIG. 2.

Again referring to FIGS. 13 and 14 it should be recognized that the highly flexible leads 50 and 51, which terminate in electrodes 52 and 53, are of a different design than coiled leads l0 and 11 of FIG. 1, and that the use of leads 50 and 51 is unique in implantable electrodes. Each of leads 50 and 51 comprises a plurality of non-overlapping, helically wound, electrical conductor lines. The lines are wound around an electrically insulating core. In addition, each of the lines comprises a single electrical conductor strip which is helically wound on a separate electrically insulating core. The use of this type of lead in an implantable electrode offers a greater flexibility and durability than leads previously used in the prior art.

From the above description it will be apparent that the apparatus of this invention offers significant advantages over the prior art, and it should be recognized that the embodiments described above are the preferred embodiments but that other configurations may be used without departing from the scope of this invention.

That which is claimed is:

1. Electrode apparatus for implantation in the body comprising: electrical conductor lead means adapted to be connected to a source of electrical current; flexible electrode means connected to said lead means, said flexible electrode means including means for being bent to adjustably substantially completely encircle and electrically contact the portion of the body to receive the electrical signal; and said lead means and a portion of said electrode means being encapsulated in an electrically insulating substance substantially inert to body fluids and tissue.

2. The apparatus of claim 1 in which said substance includes: portions of said substance encapsulating said electrode means which extend in opposite directions when said electrode means are not bent and which are adapted to meet for joining when said electrode means are bent to generally encircle the portion of the body, for holding said electrode means in contact with the portion of the body.

3. The apparatus of claim 1 including: a pair of said lead means; and a pair of said flexible electrode means, each connected to a different one of said lead means.

4. The apparatus of claim 3 in which said pair of flexible electrodes each comprise a generally rectangular flat strip of flexible metal.

5. The apparatus of claim 4 in which said flexible metal is position retaining.

6. The apparatus of claim 3 in which said pair of flexible electrode means extend generally parallel.

7. The apparatus of claim 6 including: U-shaped electrical conductor means at least partially encapsulated in said substance and mounted so that said parallel pair of flexible electrode means extend parallel to and in substantially the plane of and through the open end of said U-shaped means.

8. The apparatus of claim 1 including: a pair of lead means; a pair of said flexible electrode means, both connected to a first one of said pair of lead means; a third of said flexible electrode means connected to a second one of said pair of lead means; and said pair of flexible electrode means mounted for current guarding said third flexible electrode means.

9. The apparatus of claim 8 in which the surface area of said third flexible electrode is approximately equal to the combined surface area of said pair of flexible electrodes.

10. The apparatus of claim 8 in which: each of said flexible electrode means comprise a generally rectangular flat strip of flexible metal.

11. The apparatus of claim 10 in which said flexible metal is position retaining.

12. The apparatus of claim 10 in which: the width of said pair of flexible electrodes is equal; and the width of said third flexible electrode is approximately twice the width of one of said pair of flexible electrodes.

13. The apparatus of claim 10 in which: all said flexible electrode means extend generally parallel; and said third flexible electrode means is mounted between said pair of flexible electrode means.

14. The apparatus of claim 1 in which: said lead means comprise a plurality of electrical conductor lines wound in a nonoverlapping, helical pattern around an electrically insulating core; said lines each comprising a single electrical conductor strip helically wound around a separate electrically insulating core; and said flexible electrode means comprise an extending portion ofsaid lead means.

15. The apparatus of claim 14 in which: one of said flexible electrode means is U-shaped; and the other of said flexible electrode means extends parallel to and in substantially the plane of and through the open end of said U-shape of said one flexible electrode, so that said one flexible electrode means is in current guarding relation to said other flexible electrode means.

16. In implantable electrode apparatus having electrical conductor lead means connected to a plurality of electrode means, the lead means adapted to be connected to a source of electrical current such that at least one of the electrode means is of opposite electrical polarity to at least another of the electrode means, the improvement comprising: the electrode means including means for selective flexing to substantially completely encircle and electrically connect to a portion of a body such that at least portions of electrode means of opposite electrical polarity are on opposite sides of the portion of the body.

17. Electrode apparatus for implantation in the body comprising: electrical conductor lead means adapted to be connected to a source of electrical current; flexible electrode means connected to said lead means, and including bend area means for bending to adjustably substantially completely encircle the portion of the body to receive the electrical signal; said lead means and a portion of said electrode means being encapsulated in an electrically insulating substance substantially inert to body fluids and tissue; and at least a portion of said bend area means not encapsulated in said substance.

18. The apparatus of claim 17 in which said substance includes: portions of said substance encapsulating said electrode means which extend in opposite directions when said bend area means are not bent for joining when said bend area means are bent to generally encircle the portion of the body, for holding said electrode means in contact with the portion of the body.

19. The apparatus of claim 17 including: a pair of said lead means; and a pair of said flexible electrode means, each connected to a different one of said lead means.

20. The apparatus of claim 19 in which said pair of flexible electrodes each comprise a generally rectangular flat strip of flexible metal having a bend area portion not encapsulated in said substance.

21. The apparatus of claim 20 in which said flexible metal is position retaining.

22. The apparatus of claim 19 in which said pair of flexible electrode means extend generally parallel.

23. The apparatus of claim 22 including U-shaped electrical conductor means at least partially encapsulated in said substance and mounted so that said parallel pair of flexible electrode means extend parallel to and in substantially the plane of and through the open end of said U-shaped means.

24. The apparatus of claim 17 including: a pair of lead means; a pair of said flexible electrode means, both connected to a first one of said pair of lead means; a third of said flexible electrode means connected to a second one of said pair of lead means; and said pair of flexible electrode means mounted for current guarding said third flexible electrode means.

25. The apparatus of claim 24 in which the surface area of said third flexible electrode is approximately equal to the combined surface area of said pair of flexible electrodes.

26. The apparatus of claim 24 in which: each of said flexible electrode means comprise a generally rectangular flat strip of flexible metal having a bend area portion not encapsulated in said substance.

27. The apparatus of claim 26 in which said flexible metal is position retaining.

28. The apparatus of claim 26 in which: the width of said pair of flexible electrodes is equal; and the width of said third flexible electrode is approximately twice the width of one of said pair of flexible electrodes.

29. The apparatus of claim 26 in which: all said flexible electrode means extend generally parallel; and said third flexible electrode means is mounted between said pair of flexible electrode means.

30. The apparatus of claim 17 in which: said lead means comprise a plurality of electrical conductor lines wound in a non-overlapping, helical pattern around an electrically insulating core; said lines each comprising a single electrical conductor strip helically wound around a separate electrically insulating core; and said flexible electrode means comprise an extending portion of said lead means.

31. The apparatus of claim 30 in which: one of said flexible electrode means is U-shaped; and the other of said flexible electrode means extends parallel to and in substantially the plane of and through the open end of said U-shape of said one flexible electrode, so that said one flexible electrode means is mounted for providing current guarding to said other flexible electrode means.

32. Electrode apparatus for implantation in the body comprising: electrical conductor lead means adapted to be connected to a source of electrical current; flexible wraparound electrode means connected to said lead means, said electrode means including means for forming an adjustable configuration adapted to substantially encircle and electrically contact different-sized portions of the body to receive the electrical currents; and electrically insulating, flexible means substantially inert to body fluids and tissue encapsulating said lead means and a portion of said electrode means.

33. Electrode apparatus for implantation in the body comprising: electrical conductor lead means adapted to be connected to a source of electrical current; flexible wraparound electrode means connected to said lead means, said electrode means including means for forming an adjustable configuration adapted to substantially encircle and electrically contact different-sized portions of the body to receive the electrical current and for confining and concentrating sufficient current density to a selected portion of the body without adversely affecting said portion of the body, and electrically insulating, flexible means substantially inert to body fluids and tissue encapsulating said lead means and a portion of said electrode means.

34. Electrode apparatus for implantation in the body comprising: electrical conductor lead means adapted to be connected to a source of electrical current; flexible, wraparound, substantially elongated electrode means connected to said lead means, said electrode means including means for forming an adjustable configuration adapted to substantially encircle and electrically contact different-sized portions of the body to receive the electrical current; electrically insulating, flexible, means substantially inert to body fluids and tissue encapsulating said lead means and all of said electrode means except for that portion of said electrode means adapted to contact a portion of the body; and generally oppositely extending tab means connected to the portion of said insulating means encapsulating said electrode means. said tab means for fastening together for assisting in retaining said electrode means in a desired configuration.

35. Electrode apparatus for implantation in the body comprising: electrical conductor lead means adapted to be connected to a source of electrical current; flexible, wraparound, substantially elongated electrode means connected to said lead means, said lead means comprising at least two separate electrical conductors and said electrode means comprising at least two separate electrodes; electrically insulating, flexible means substantially inert to body fluids and tissue encapsulating said lead means and all of said electrode means except for a portion of said electrode means adapted to contact a portion of the body; said encapsulating means extending beyond said electrode means and defining oppositely extending integral tab means; said portion of said electrode means adapted to contact a portion of the body defining an elongated area of exposed electrode surface comprising a major portion of the length of said electrode means and further defining an elongated area of reduced thickness in cross section, substantially less than the thickness of areas immediately adjacent opposite ends of said electrode means, said area of reduced thickness defining an elongated portion of greater flexibility than the areas immediately adjacent thereto, and further providing a bend area means for forming an adjustable configuration adapted to substantially encircle different-sized portions of the body to receive the electrical current, such that when said bend area is bent around a portion of the body the areas of greater thickness and said tab means will lie substantially to one side of said portion of the body.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US26809 *10 Jan 1860 Henry belfield
US26810 *10 Jan 1860Himself And WTheodor blume
US2184511 *28 Oct 193726 Dec 1939Abraham BarnettMethod and apparatus for measuring impedance
US2187928 *19 Jan 193823 Jan 1940Barcroft William GBurgiar alarm and trap
US2985172 *31 Aug 195923 May 1961Jones William CTissue contact electrode
US3157181 *2 May 196217 Nov 1964Dow Chemical CoNerve electrode apparatus
US3216424 *5 Feb 19629 Nov 1965Chardack William MElectrode and lead
US3279468 *14 May 196318 Oct 1966Vine Sidney LeElectrotherapeutic facial mask apparatus
US3367339 *9 Oct 19646 Feb 1968Robert W. SessionsImplantable nerve stimulating electrode and lead
US3405715 *20 Oct 196615 Oct 1968Medtronic IncImplantable electrode
US3421511 *10 Dec 196514 Jan 1969Medtronic IncImplantable electrode for nerve stimulation
US3452743 *1 Mar 19651 Jul 1969Gen ElectricBody impedance bridge
CH106662A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3788329 *17 Apr 197229 Jan 1974Medtronic IncBody implantable lead
US3822708 *7 Dec 19729 Jul 1974Clinical Technology CorpElectrical spinal cord stimulating device and method for management of pain
US4026300 *14 Mar 197531 May 1977Liberty MutualMethod and apparatus for interfacing to nerves
US4125116 *14 Feb 197714 Nov 1978The Johns Hopkins UniversityHuman tissue stimulation electrode structure
US4308868 *27 May 19805 Jan 1982The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space AdministrationImplantable electrical device
US4341221 *7 Oct 198027 Jul 1982Medtronic, Inc.Shielded recording electrode system
US4506673 *18 Oct 198226 Mar 1985Rorer Group Inc.Therapeutic treatment within joint capsules of the body
US4590946 *14 Jun 198427 May 1986Biomed Concepts, Inc.Surgically implantable electrode for nerve bundles
US4602624 *11 Oct 198429 Jul 1986Case Western Reserve UniversityImplantable cuff, method of manufacture, and method of installation
US4608985 *11 Oct 19842 Sep 1986Case Western Reserve UniversityAntidromic pulse generating wave form for collision blocking
US4628942 *11 Oct 198416 Dec 1986Case Western Reserve UniversityAsymmetric shielded two electrode cuff
US4649936 *11 Oct 198417 Mar 1987Case Western Reserve UniversityAsymmetric single electrode cuff for generation of unidirectionally propagating action potentials for collision blocking
US5010895 *3 Aug 198930 Apr 1991Empi, Inc.Expandable vaginal electrode
US5031621 *6 Dec 198916 Jul 1991Grandjean Pierre ANerve electrode with biological substrate
US5092332 *22 Feb 19903 Mar 1992Medtronic, Inc.Steroid eluting cuff electrode for peripheral nerve stimulation
US5265608 *5 Dec 199130 Nov 1993Medtronic, Inc.Steroid eluting electrode for peripheral nerve stimulation
US5344438 *16 Apr 19936 Sep 1994Medtronic, Inc.Cuff electrode
US5591216 *19 May 19957 Jan 1997Medtronic, Inc.Method for treatment of sleep apnea by electrical stimulation
US5897583 *13 Jul 199527 Apr 1999Fraunhofer Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Angewandten Forschung E.V.Flexible artificial nerve plates
US5919220 *8 Sep 19956 Jul 1999Fraunhofer Gesellschaft Zur Foerderung Der Angewandten Forschung E.V.Cuff electrode
US5938596 *17 Mar 199717 Aug 1999Medtronic, Inc.Medical electrical lead
US6095148 *3 Nov 19951 Aug 2000Children's Medical Center CorporationNeuronal stimulation using electrically conducting polymers
US633048020 Nov 199711 Dec 2001Cardia Innovation AbPlastically deformed medical electrode with releasable conductive cable
US6456866 *28 Sep 199924 Sep 2002Dustin TylerFlat interface nerve electrode and a method for use
US7054692 *15 May 200230 May 2006Advanced Bionics CorporationFixation device for implantable microdevices
US724893028 Feb 200024 Jul 2007Medtronic, Inc.Medical electrical lead
US725152929 May 200331 Jul 2007Oklahoma Foundation For Digestive ResearchSpinal cord stimulation as treatment for functional bowel disorders
US738914927 Jun 200517 Jun 2008Cvrx, Inc.Connection structures for extra-vascular electrode lead body
US739511919 May 20051 Jul 2008Cvrx, Inc.Implantable electrode assembly having reverse electrode configuration
US74609049 Oct 20032 Dec 2008Wake Forest University Health SciencesWireless systems and methods for the detection of neural events using onboard processing
US751596828 Apr 20067 Apr 2009Medtronic, Inc.Assembly method for spinal cord stimulation lead
US761700628 Apr 200610 Nov 2009Medtronic, Inc.Medical electrical lead for spinal cord stimulation
US773896621 Aug 200615 Jun 2010Medtronic, Inc.Features for routing conductors in medical electrical lead electrode assemblies
US774282421 Aug 200622 Jun 2010Medtronic, Inc.Medical electrode mounting
US77611672 Oct 200620 Jul 2010Medtronic Urinary Solutions, Inc.Systems and methods for clinician control of stimulation systems
US776501121 Aug 200627 Jul 2010Medtronic, Inc.Assembly methods for medical electrical leads
US77970584 Aug 200514 Sep 2010Ndi Medical, LlcDevices, systems, and methods employing a molded nerve cuff electrode
US781380910 Jun 200512 Oct 2010Medtronic, Inc.Implantable pulse generator for providing functional and/or therapeutic stimulation of muscles and/or nerves and/or central nervous system tissue
US783130515 Oct 20029 Nov 2010Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc.Neural stimulation system and method responsive to collateral neural activity
US799609216 Jan 20079 Aug 2011Ndi Medical, Inc.Devices, systems, and methods employing a molded nerve cuff electrode
US80148748 Aug 20076 Sep 2011Cvrx, Inc.Connection structures for extra-vascular electrode lead body
US807354310 Dec 20096 Dec 2011Stephen T. PylesMethod of using spinal cord stimulation to treat gastrointestinal and/or eating disorders or conditions
US811688212 Feb 200914 Feb 2012Angeltear Solutions Inc.Adjustable tissue or nerve cuff and method of use
US812652920 Sep 200728 Feb 2012Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc.Methods and systems for securing electrode leads
US81656923 Jul 200724 Apr 2012Medtronic Urinary Solutions, Inc.Implantable pulse generator power management
US817067428 Feb 20081 May 2012Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc.Method of using spinal cord stimulation to treat gastrointestinal and/or eating disorders or conditions
US819530412 Oct 20075 Jun 2012Medtronic Urinary Solutions, Inc.Implantable systems and methods for acquisition and processing of electrical signals
US821404726 Sep 20053 Jul 2012Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc.Method of using spinal cord stimulation to treat gastrointestinal and/or eating disorders or conditions
US832643419 May 20104 Dec 2012Medtronic, Inc.Medical electrode mounting
US83407852 May 200825 Dec 2012Medtronic, Inc.Self expanding electrode cuff
US846338518 Jun 201211 Jun 2013Stephen T. PylesMethod of using spinal cord stimulation to treat gastrointestinal and/or eating disorders or conditions
US846787528 Mar 200718 Jun 2013Medtronic, Inc.Stimulation of dorsal genital nerves to treat urologic dysfunctions
US84891691 Jul 201016 Jul 2013Medtronic, Inc.Assembly methods for medical electrical leads
US85155208 Dec 200820 Aug 2013Medtronic Xomed, Inc.Nerve electrode
US863489319 May 201021 Jan 2014Medtronic, Inc.Features for routing conductors in medical electrical lead electrode assemblies
US86941262 Nov 20098 Apr 2014Medtronic, IncMedical electrical lead for spinal cord stimulation
US87062521 Jul 201022 Apr 2014Medtronic, Inc.Systems and methods for clinician control of stimulation system
US893499231 Aug 201213 Jan 2015Inspire Medical Systems, Inc.Nerve cuff
US9061137 *29 Nov 201223 Jun 2015Korea Institute Of Science And TechnologyNerve electrode provided with anti-inflammatory drug and method of manufacturing the same
US907901220 Jan 201214 Jul 2015Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc.Methods for securing electrode leads
US92052557 Sep 20068 Dec 2015Medtronic Urinary Solutions, Inc.Implantable pulse generator systems and methods for providing functional and/or therapeutic stimulation of muscles and/or nerves and/or central nervous system tissue
US92162945 Mar 201422 Dec 2015Medtronic Urinary Solutions, Inc.Systems and methods for clinician control of stimulation systems
US92270531 May 20095 Jan 2016Medtronic, Inc.Self expanding electrode cuff
US93083827 Sep 200612 Apr 2016Medtronic Urinary Solutions, Inc.Implantable pulse generator systems and methods for providing functional and/or therapeutic stimulation of muscles and/or nerves and/or central nervous system tissue
US948084628 Feb 20071 Nov 2016Medtronic Urinary Solutions, Inc.Systems and methods for patient control of stimulation systems
US97245267 Mar 20168 Aug 2017Medtronic Urinary Solutions, Inc.Implantable pulse generator systems and methods for operating the same
US20030088274 *30 Sep 20028 May 2003Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.Method and apparatus for electrically stimulating cells implanted in the nervous system
US20040039425 *29 May 200326 Feb 2004Beverley Greenwood-Van MeerveldSpinal cord stimulation as treatment for functional bowel disorders
US20040088021 *30 Oct 20026 May 2004Tracy CameronSystem and method for treatment of sexual dysfunction
US20040138579 *9 Oct 200315 Jul 2004Deadwyler Sam A.Wireless systems and methods for the detection of neural events using onboard processing
US20050075679 *7 May 20047 Apr 2005Gliner Bradford E.Methods and apparatuses for treating neurological disorders by electrically stimulating cells implanted in the nervous system
US20050278000 *10 Jun 200515 Dec 2005Strother Robert BImplantable pulse generator for providing functional and/or therapeutic stimulation of muscles and/or nerves and/or central nervous system tissue
US20060004430 *27 Jun 20055 Jan 2006Cvrx, Inc.Connection structures for extra-vascular electrode lead body
US20060074456 *26 Sep 20056 Apr 2006Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc.Method of using spinal cord stimulation to treat gastrointestinal and/or eating disorders or conditions
US20060198770 *7 Mar 20057 Sep 2006Ching-Fu LaiOzone generator
US20060265038 *19 May 200523 Nov 2006Cvrx, Inc.Implantable electrode assembly having reverse electrode configuration
US20060271137 *21 Mar 200630 Nov 2006The Cleveland Clinic FoundationApparatus and system to stimulate a nerve
US20070060968 *7 Sep 200615 Mar 2007Ndi Medical, LlcImplantable pulse generator systems and methods for providing functional and/or therapeutic stimulation of muscles and/or nerves and/or central nervous system tissue
US20070060980 *7 Sep 200615 Mar 2007Ndi Medical, LlcImplantable pulse generator systems and methods for providing functional and/or therapeutic stimulation of muscles and/or nerves and/or central nervous system tissue
US20070066995 *7 Sep 200622 Mar 2007Ndi Medical, LlcImplantable pulse generator systems and methods for providing functional and/or therapeutic stimulation of muscles and/or nerves and/or central nervous system tissue
US20070255372 *28 Apr 20061 Nov 2007Metzler Michael ENovel assembly method for spinal cord stimulation lead
US20070255373 *28 Apr 20061 Nov 2007Metzler Michael ENovel medical electrical lead for spinal cord stimulation
US20070276442 *8 Aug 200729 Nov 2007Cvrx, Inc.Implantable electrode assembly having reverse electrode configuration
US20070276459 *8 Aug 200729 Nov 2007Cvrx, Inc.Connection structures for extra-vascular electrode lead body
US20070293910 *3 Jul 200720 Dec 2007Ndi Medical, Inc.Implantable pulse generator for providing functional and/or therapeutic stimulation of muscles and/or nerves and/or central nervous system tissue
US20080046049 *21 Aug 200621 Feb 2008Skubitz Sean PNovel assembly methods for medical electrical leads
US20080046050 *21 Aug 200621 Feb 2008Skubitz Sean PNovel medical electrode mounting
US20080046051 *21 Aug 200621 Feb 2008Skubitz Sean PNovel features for routing conductors in medical electrical lead electrode assemblies
US20080140167 *22 Feb 200812 Jun 2008Cvrx, Inc.Implantable electrode assembly having reverse electrode configuration
US20080154329 *28 Feb 200826 Jun 2008Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc.Method of using spinal cord stimulation to treat gastrointestinal and/or eating disorders or conditions
US20080154349 *21 Feb 200826 Jun 2008Cvrx, Inc.Connection structures for extra-vascular electrode lead body
US20080172116 *16 Jan 200717 Jul 2008Ndi Medical, Inc.Devices, systems, and methods employing a molded nerve cuff electrode
US20080200925 *20 Sep 200721 Aug 2008Northstar Neuroscience, Inc.Methods and systems for securing electrode leads
US20090036752 *10 Oct 20085 Feb 2009Deadwyler Sam AWireless systems and methods for the detection of neural events using onboard processing
US20090210042 *12 Feb 200920 Aug 2009Angeltear Solutions Inc.Adjustable tissue or nerve cuff and method of use
US20090276024 *2 May 20085 Nov 2009Bonde Eric HSelf expanding electrode cuff
US20100087904 *2 Nov 20098 Apr 2010Medtronic, Inc.Novel medical electrical lead for spinal cord stimulation
US20100145221 *8 Dec 200810 Jun 2010Brunnett William CNerve electrode
US20100174339 *10 Dec 20098 Jul 2010Pyles Stephen TMethod of using spinal cord stimulation to treat gastrointestinal and/or eating disorders or conditions
US20100228329 *19 May 20109 Sep 2010Medtronic, Inc.Novel medical electrode mounting
US20100274324 *1 Jul 201028 Oct 2010Medtronic Urinary Solutions, Inc.Systems and methods for clinician control of stimulation system
US20100298916 *22 May 200925 Nov 2010Pierre RabischongPelvic implanted neural electrode and method for implanting same
US20100298920 *3 Aug 201025 Nov 2010Ndi Medical, LlcDevices, Systems, and methods employing a molded nerve cuff electrode
US20100325869 *1 Jul 201030 Dec 2010Medtronic, Inc.Novel assembly methods for medical electrical leads
US20110147046 *1 May 200923 Jun 2011Medtronic, Inc.Self expanding electrode cuff
US20110160827 *1 May 200930 Jun 2011Medtronic. Inc.Electrode lead system
US20140100639 *29 Nov 201210 Apr 2014Korea Institute Of Science And TechnologyNerve electrode provided with anti-inflammatory drug and method of manufacturing the same
US20160038736 *6 Dec 201111 Feb 2016Neurimpluse SrlElectro catheter for neurostimulation
DE4413065B4 *15 Apr 199430 Nov 2006Medtronic, Inc., MinneapolisManschettenelektrode
EP0460324A2 *1 Nov 199011 Dec 1991Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Subcutaneous defibrillation electrodes
EP0460324A3 *1 Nov 19908 Jul 1992Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Subcutaneous defibrillation electrodes
EP0865800A3 *16 Mar 19988 Dec 1999Medtronic, Inc.Medical electrical lead
WO1991012850A1 *6 Feb 19915 Sep 1991Medtronic, Inc.Steroid eluting cuff electrode for peripheral nerve stimulation
WO1991017791A1 *21 May 199128 Nov 1991Souriau & CieAnnular neural electrode
WO1996008290A1 *8 Sep 199521 Mar 1996Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V.Cuff electrode
WO2001022877A1 *28 Sep 20005 Apr 2001NeurocontrolFlat interface nerve electrode and a method for use
Classifications
U.S. Classification607/118
International ClassificationA61N1/04, A61B5/042, A61N1/375, A61N1/05, A61B5/0416
Cooperative ClassificationA61N1/375, A61B5/042, A61N1/05, A61B5/0416, A61N1/0556, A61N1/0551
European ClassificationA61N1/05L, A61N1/375, A61B5/0416, A61N1/05, A61B5/042