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Publication numberUS3643252 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date15 Feb 1972
Filing date1 Aug 1967
Priority date1 Aug 1967
Publication numberUS 3643252 A, US 3643252A, US-A-3643252, US3643252 A, US3643252A
InventorsRichardson S Roberts Jr
Original AssigneeUltronic Systems Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Video display apparatus
US 3643252 A
Coded characters from a plurality of input sources are stored in different intervals of a recirculating memory, each interval containing the characters for a row of the display. Characters for a display row are loaded into buffer register means which is then recirculated and the contents encoded during successive recirculations to produce signals representing the portions of the characters to be displayed on respective lines of the display row. Information from one source is displayed in the plurality of rows which are upshifted to rows thereabove and new information displayed in the bottom row, by delaying the vertical sweep relative to said encoding during upshift. Information from another source is displayed in rows which do not upshift, by delaying the decoding so that it remains unchanged with respect to the vertical sweep.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

hid Mates Water Roberts, iii, 11 1210. 115, 11972 [54] i /111511 21111 iiliiiSiPiLfiiY AsPiFfiiiEi/h'ifiilfi 3,487,308 12/1969 Johnson .340/324 [72] Inventor. islnvcghurdsou ikoheriis, 11s., Cherry H111, Primary Emmmwwjohn W. C 81 dwell Assistant Examiner-Marshall M. Curtis [73] Assignee: 1J1hronic Systems Corp, Mount Laurel, AltOrney-Th$OdOfe Ja Jr, and N rm n J OMan NJ. 22 Filed: Aug. 11, 1%? [571 AEWMCT [21] Appl. N05 6516M, Coded characters from a plurality of input sources are stored 1111 different intervals of a recirculating memory, each interval containing the characters for a row of the display. Characters [52] ILLS. 1C1 "lid WEN A, 178/75 D, 340/154 f a display row are w d into b ff register means which is [51] (W911i 3/14} then recirculated and the contents encoded during successive [58] Ii ieid off fiesireh ..l78/7.5 1D, 6, 6.8; 340/3241, recirculations to produce Signals representing the portions of 340/152 154 the characters to be displayed on respective lines of the display row. information from one source is displayed in the plu- [56] Meflwmms 0mm rality of rows which are upshifted to rows thereabove and new UNITED STATES PATENTS information dispiayed in the bottom row, by delaying the vertlcal sweep relative to said encoding during upshift. 1nforma- {ion from another source is in rows do not 3,426,344 2/ 1969 Clam 340/324 upshift, by delaying the decoding so that it remains unchanged 1 Wel'me respect to the ertical weep 3,453,384- 7/1969 Donner et a1.'..... ....340/324.1 3,439,218 4/1969 Savinese et a1. ..315/18 311 diliaims, 21 Drawing, Figures s NEW YOAA ,3- E0, i 8 52 I fiac x (a w 8 1% i la %9 2374 i 9 $3 I a I; I flMm/m/v .9 1 I0 E i i 4 W i my FNG w 1 g 6622 x22 5 r5 1 .QrE i z 6 ,E 1 I [-5 I; l r 7 F3 #7 77/2 MoMEA f w 4 5 I a I 5) THIS WMAE' 1 c? 2 I l 9 13 1 QWV fx zcr E -21 l 1W9 00 NOT 1 5 17 i 1/ I}? IEVE/V 71-7005 -J 5 5Z 1 i /a 5L fffli w 111:1: :1: 1: 11:11-55 :1 6 as M5 6 m w 7 PATENTEDFEB 15 I972 SHEET OZUF 16 WK Wk 19* mi EPSdBPZEZ PMENTEUFEB 15 I972 SHEET OBUF i6 PAIENTEDFEB 15 1972 SHEET Wm 16 SHEET 05 [1F 16 PATWEDFEB 15 I972 PAIENTEDFEB 15 m2 SHEET 07 [1F 16 PATENTEDFEB 15 1972 SHEET 12 0F 16 l i m 3 2 as: w m wwawwwwws mm wns, a:

7 14 did MWNEY-5 lll 1 m wk E E E I fiea a w gma a QR m sts gm 3 sum IBOF 1e PATENTED EB 1 5 I972 VlllDlEU DllSlPlLAY APPARATUS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to video display apparatus for receivin g information in the form of coded characters and displaying it on a television-type display unit. it is particularly useful for the display of stock market quotations and like information, along with news or general market information.

Quotations on stocks, bonds, commodities, etc., are now commonly available by coded ticker tape transmissions from stock exchanges and other commercial sources. Teletype service is also available from commercial sources giving news and other information of interest to stockbrokers, investors, etc., Different types of equipment are used for the display of this information, including paper tape recorders, Teletype equipment, quotation boards and television-type display equipment.

The present invention is directed to television-type display equipment and provides means for storing information to be displayed and developing corresponding video signals which yield a highly satisfactory and legible display, and which can accommodate both quotation and news broadcasts with provision for independently changing the displayed information in a manner appropriate to each.

SUMMARY OF THE lNVENTlON In accordance with the invention a recirculating memory is supplied with coded characters from one or more input sources. The memory stores the characters in memory row intervals each containing the characters for a row of the display. The characters in different memory row intervals are successively loaded into a row buffer register means which is recirculated between successive loadings thereof to yield outputs during a plurality of cycles corresponding to a plurality of display line sweeps. Advantageously, the row buffer register means comprises a plurality of registers loaded in bit-parallel, character-series form, each register containing like-order bits of the characters. The outputs are supplied to a display character encoder which produces signals iine-by-line representing the portions of the characters to be displayed on respective scanning lines of a display row. Advantageously the characters are formed by dots on each scanning line, a predetermined number of dots and lines being allocated to a character and used as required. The output of the encoder is used to form a video signal, and preferably line and field synchronizing signals are incorporated therein to enable conventional television video monitors to be used as display units.

For news broadcasts and the like, a plurality of display rows are employed and the characters entered at the bottom of the display and upshifted to a higher row as a new row is written. This is accomplished by producing a relative delay of the display field sweep with respect to the line-by-line encoding of the characters in the rows to be upshifted, the delay being one scanning line per field for a number of fields equal to the line spacing of the rows in which information is displayed.

The upshift cycle is initiated by a signal indicating that a new row of characters is to be displayed. if characters arrive during the course of an upshift cycle, they are entered in an entry memory row interval occurring after the memory interval that contains characters for the normally lowest display row. They are then read out of the recirculating row buffers and encoded for a normally hidden display row, and upshiftecl to the normally lowest display row as the characters in that row are upshifted to the row above.

As the upshift cycle is completed, the relative timing of the memory row intervals and the field synchronization is changed so that information in the memory row intervals is loaded into and read out of the row buffers for the display rows to which the respective information has been upshifted. Additional new characters are then entered into the memory in the row interval allocated to the normally lowest display row, until the row is completed.

Advantageously the delay between the input and output of the recirculating memory is equal to one-half a display field period, and memory row intervals allocated to information for display rows in the upper half of the display are interleaved with intervals allocated to information for display rows in the lower half. The total number of memory row intervals is an odd integer. Thus the row characters in alternate intervals may be loaded into the buffer registers and the intervals therebetween are available for buffer recirculation, readout and line-by-line encoding.

if desired, the entire display may be devoted to rows which are upshifted as new rows are written. However, the present invention particularly contemplates upshifting only part of the display, without upshifting the other part, This enables information from two or more sources to be displayed at different parts of the display screen, and one part changed independently of the other. 1

Thus, for example, the upper half of the display may be arranged not to be upshifted, and devoted to stock quotations and the like. These may be written from left to right, and new quotations entered at the left of the same row with erasure of the old. Or, stock indices in tabular form may be displayed as long as desired. The lower half of the display may be devoted to news broadcasts and the like, and upshifted as required to display new rows.

For this operation, coded characters from a plurality of input sources are entered into the recirculating memory in different memory row intervals corresponding to display rows in different parts of the display. For'example, Teletype news broadcasts may be entered into a memory row interval corresponding to the normally lowest display row, or an entry memory row interval during an upshift cycle, as described above. The display rows in the lower half of the display may be devoted to these broadcasts and will be filled upon successive upshifts. After all rows are filled, information in the uppermost row disappears during the next upshift cycle and is replaced by that in the next lower row, and new information appears in the bottom row. Quotations from the New York and American stock exchanges may be written in the upper half of the display, and replaced as required without regard to the upshifting of the lower half.

To prevent upshifting of the upper half during upshift of the lower, provision is made to delay the row buffer recirculation, readout and encoding of the corresponding row information by amounts equal to the delay of the field sweep during an upshift cycle. Then, after the upshift cycle, the information is relocated in the memory so that it thereafter occurs at the memory output at the proper time with respect to the vertical sweep to be displayed in the same rows as previously.

Stock quotations have letters identifying a stock, followed by figures giving the quotation. It is desired to have the letters displayed in one row and the figures in the next lower row. To accomplish this, the row buffers are recirculated a number of times corresponding to two rows of the display. The characters include letter and figure-identification, and are recognized to control the encoding. During the recirculation the encoder first produces line-by-line outputs for the letters and then lineby-line outputs for the figures.

Further features of the invention, and specific means for carrying out the above operations, will be described hereinafter in connection with the specific embodiment.

BRTEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWlNGS FlG. ll illustrates a display in accordance with the invention, and HG. Ila illustrates the dot character formation;

F IG. 2 is a simplified overall block diagram of the apparatus;

H65. 3, Fla and d show the input channels in detail;

lFlGS. 5 and h show the recirculating memory and control, and the recirculating buffers and control;

FIGS. '7 and h show the timing arrangements, including upshift;

lFllGS. and Ni show the manner of generating signals used in other figures;

FIG. 11 shows the character encoder and video output arrangement;

FIG. 12 is explanatory of signal storage and readout during normal and upshift cycles; and

FIGS. 13-19 illustrate waveforms used in preceding figures.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT FIG. 1 illustrates the type of display on the face of the television picture tube. The upper half of the display is for stock information, such as quotations obtained from the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and American Stock Exchange (AMEX) ticker tapes. The lower half is for news and other information obtained, for example, over a teletype line.

The number of scanning lines, number of rows of display information, and field repetition rate may be selected to meet the requirements of a particular application. In this embodiment a 60 Hz. (Hertz) field frequency with 260 lines per field is employed so'that conventional television monitors can be used for display. However, interlacing is not used. The 260 lines are divided into 26 rows of IO lines each. These numerical values will be used hereinafter for convenience, although it will be understood that they can be changed if desired.

As indicated at the left margin, the 26 rows are divided into 13 S-rows alternating with 13 R-rows. In the lower half of the picture the S-rows correspond to memory and the R-rows to readout. In the upper half this is not always true.

At the right margin the order in which information is stored in the'recirculating memory is indicated. It will be noted that memory sections 1,2,3, etc., are interleaved with memory sections 8,9,10, etc., and that the memory'cycle occurs twice during a field period. Fixed titles New York" and American" are displayed in rows S1 and R3 with dividing lines 20 to separate the titles from the displayed information. Although the title and line information could be stored in the memory, in this embodiment separate title and line generators are employed for the purpose. The NYSE information is displayed in rows S2 and R2, the stock identifying letters appearing in S2 and the quotation figures in R2. Both letters and figures are stored in one memory row, but are displayed in two rows as shown. Similarly, information from AMEX is displayed in rows R4 and S5. The information from each exchange is written from left to right. When the rows are completed, quotations at the left are erased and replaced by new quotations.

The lower half of the screen displays TTY information. Only six rows R7-Rl2 are actually displayed, R13 being conveniently considered to be out of sight at the bottom of the screen. At the beginning of a TTY message, characters are normally written in row R12. When the row is completed, new information is written in hidden row R13 and upshifted one line per field until it appears in R12. If characters initially arrive during an upshift cycle, they are first written in R13 and upshifted to R12. Inasmuch as the TTY character frequency is slow compared to the field frequency, the upshifting from R13 and R12 is completed during the first few character intervals. Thereafter row R12 is completed. As additional information arrives, it starts again in R13 and is upshifted into R12, the material in R12 being upshifted to R11 at the same time. This operation continues until the top information has been upshifted to R7 and six rows of information are displayed, as shown. Thereafter, as further information appears in R13 and is upshifted into R12, the top row R7 is upshifted and gradually disappears.

Referring to FIG. la, the displayed characters are written by a suitable dot pattern. The 1 lines of a display row are designated Y1-Y10. Five horizontal dots in vertical columns Xl-XS are available for each character, and characters are separated by two columns at dot frequency. The construction of the letters A and B by dot patterns is shown. In general, letters are written in seven lines Y2-Y8, as indicated. Fractions, and arbitrary characters if used, may use all of the Y-lines.

Referring to FIG. 2, a simplified block diagram shows the overall arrangement of the apparatus. Input channels 25 receive ticker information from NYSE and AMEX, together with 'I'I'Y information. The information is then transferred by memory input control 26 to a recirculating memory 27. The period of the memory recirculation cycle is selected as onehalf the TV field period, specifically 8% milliseconds for a 60 Hz. field frequency. The memory stores characters in serial digital bit form, and the input information is fed into the proper memory character cells under the control of timing signals from timing circuits 28.

Information in memory 27 is supplied serially to memory output register 29. As each character is registered in 29, the bits thereof are transferred in parallel to a buffer input register 31. Then, the character bits are transferred in parallel to a plurality of recirculating row buffers 32. In this embodiment sixbit characters are employed in the memory, and six-row buffers are employed. Each row buffer accommodates one coding bit of each character of a display row. Here, 48 characters per display row are used for stock information and 50 characters for TTY information.

The outputs of the row buffers 32 are supplied in parallel to a character encoder 33. Inasmuch as 10 lines are allocated to a display row, the row buffers 32 recirculate 10 times per display row so that the character encoder 33 can form the row dot patterns line by line for display purposes. Since NYSE and AMEX quotations occupy two rows, the buffers recirculate 20 times. For a given line, as each character is encoded the corresponding line dot pattern is transferred in parallel to the video output register 34.

Al! the registers and buffers, etc., are supplied with suitable timing signals from 28, as indicated. Timing signals are also supplied to sync generator 35 which produces conventional vertical and horizontal sync signals in accordance with present television standards. The synchronizing signals and the video signals are supplied to mixer 36 to form a composite TV signal which is fed to TV display 37.

The upshift cycle is initiated by a line feed character from the TIY input channel to upshift control 38. During this cycle the display rows in the lower half of the display are upshifted, but the display rows within the upper half are not. Broadly, the upshifting of the lower half of the display is produced by delaying the vertical sync pattern relative to memory readout one line at a time for successive fields until a total upshiftin g of 20 lines has been produced. During this upshift the utilization of information from the row buffers 32 by the character encoder 33 for the upper half of the display is delayed by one H (horizontal line period) per frame so that the upper half does not upshift. At the end of the upshift, the relative timing of memory readout and vertical synchronization is changed to reestablish the normal relationship between memory rows and display rows, and information in the memory for the upper half of the display is relocated. The relocation involves resync register 41, EOU (End Of Upshift) transfer register gate 42 and gate 43, as will be described later.

The memory character format is shown at the bottom of FIG. 2. The sixth bit indicates whether the preceding five data bits are for figures or letters. A two-bit space occurs between successive memory characters.

The logic diagrams shown in subsequent figures use digital logic elements. Many types of elements are known in the art and may be used as desired to perform the functions hereinafter described. The specific embodiment here shown uses NOR logic units extensively, examples of which are given in U.S. Pat. No. 3,28l,788, FIGS. 6-8. Their functioning will be described at this time to facilitate understanding the diagrams.

A gate such as shown at 55 in FIG. 3 has a plurality of inputs and one output. If any input line is high (say ground potential), the output line is low (say negative). If all input lines are low, the output line will be high. Thus, the gate functions as an AND gate with polarity inversion for input signals whose assertion levels are low, and as an OR circuit with inversion for signals whose assertion levels are high. An OR use is indicated by as at 72. If only one input line is used and the others left unconnected, the gate functions as a polarity inverter.

Two such gates may be cross connected as shown at 51 to form a DC flip-flop. A high input signal to either side (with the input to the other side low) will cause the output of that side to go low and the output of the other side to go high. The terms set" and *reset" will be used hereinafter to designate the two possible states of the flip-flop and are selected arbitrarily as seems convenient.

An AC flip-flop such as shown at 62 in FIG. 3 is a bistable multivibrator having steering inputs A and A,, and corresponding outputs Il and I. The FF is triggered by a positivegoing signal to the T-input and reset by a high signal to the R- input. In the reset state the output is high and the l output low. In the set state the outputs are reversed. If the steering inputs are high to A and low to A a trigger signal will set the flip-flop. If the steering inputs are low to A and high to A,, a trigger signal will reset the flip-flop. A shift register such as shown at 52 may be constructed of a number of AC flip-flops interconnected in known manner. Counters may also be made of AC flip-flops in known manner.

Both barred and unbarred signals are shown in the drawings, and are the inverse of each other. Usually the assertion level of an unbarred signal is high, and that of a barred signal is low. One signal may be obtained from the other by passing it through an inverter, or both outputs of a flip-flop may be used to provide the two signals, etc.

Certain portions of the apparatus such as the row buffers 32, character encoder 335 and video output register 3d operate at high speed. In such case integrated circuit logic elements are employed in practice. Several types are available commercially and vary somewhat in the polarity of signals required to produce a desired result, and in other operating details. To avoid confusion herein, the description is in terms of NOR logic as described above. The changes required for other types of logic elements will be understood by those skilled in the art.

Many signals used in earlier figures are developed in later figures. Usually their functioning will be described as they are used, leaving detailed development until later.

Referring now to FIG. 3, this shows a portion of the input channel for TTY signals, sometimes designated C3 (for Channel 3). The TTY signals are assumed to be of conventional five-level type having five data bits preceded by a start space and followed by a stop mark for each character.

The line TTr signals are supplied through DC FEM to input register 52. The register has seven AC FE stages of the type described above, shifted by TlRIG pulses. Marks and lbits are assumed high at the A, input and low at the A input. Spaces and O-bits are high at the A input and low at the A input.

A TTY line normally marks between characters, resetting the stages of register 52 and yielding a high W from the last stage. When a start space arrives, line 53 will go high. This makes the A input of FEM high, and the high I??? to gate fad is inverted to make the A, input low, thus steering FEM toward set. A 2.4 kl-lz. oscillator 56 drives a 3 counter d? to supply 800 Hz. pulses to the T-input of FEM and to gate 58. One pulse sets FEM, making its O-output low and enabling gate 1%. Subsequent pulses pass through gate dd to a 16 counter 59, thereby yielding 50 Ill. TRICv pulses corresponding to a 50 Baud rate for the TTY signals. Counter 59 is arranged to give a TING pulse at each count ofti, so that the TRIG pulses occur i the middle of bit intervals. These shift register $2. The high I17 to gate 55 maintains the A input low during the shifting so that FEM cannot be reset.

When a TTY character has been fully shifted into register 52, the start space in the last stage will makeWlow. The stop mark will make line fill low. This reverses the steering of lFEtid and it will be reset by the next pulse to its T input, closing gate Mi and stopping the shifting of register 52. Gate till senses when the shift clock is cut off. The resetting of lFEfi l and the low E77 makes both inputs low, and the gate output will be high. This steers FEM; toward set.

Sync tl pulses are produced at the beginning of each memory character cycle (FIG. Mb) and will set lFFtiZ. The resulting low O-output enables gate 653 to pass the next sync ll may pulse .(EIG. lldc), assuming XEER INI-I is low. The high gate output is inverted to produce a low DATA XEER which opens transfer gates M- to transfer the five data bits in register 52 to memory register 6% in parallel. The latter has set steering in puts by making A of the first stage high and A low, as indicated, so that a previous shift out will leave all stages set. Thus the transferred data bits need only reset the appropriate stages.

Before proceeding further with the memory transfer opera tion, the special character decoding will be described. TTY signals include special characters for carriage return, indicating the end of a line; for figures and letters, indicating the nature of subsequent characters until changed; and for line feed, indicating the start of a new line. The states of the five data stages in register 52 are supplied to the special character decoder 16h, along with R7 to indicate when the character is ready for decoding, and yields one or another of the outputs indicated. If carriage return is denoted, EEbT is steered toward set. A high CHAR. READY signal is produced by the setting of H 62 and sets H 67 to produce a high C/R RESET signal used in lFlG. Zia.

A figures character steers ElFtSIl toward set, and the CI-IAR. READY signal sets it to produce a low FIGS. INS. signal. A letters character produces the opposite steering and FFMI is reset. Either character is remembered until the opposite character is received.

A line feed character produces a high signal which is inverted to be a low signal to gate 69. RCLZ INII. (FIG. lltli inverted) is high except during upshift, and is inverted to be low to gate 6h. Thus, the gate output to A of FF'l'tl is high. The A input is held low by -V. lFE70 is set by the next SYNC Ii pulse to produce a high LINE FEED ADV. signal which initiates upshift. If a second l ine feed is received while upshift is proceeding, RCIJL INl-l. causes it to be ignored. The inversion of this signal goes high at the beginning of upshift, and is differentiated and used to reset lFF'Nl.

The special TTY characters are not inserted in the memory. Accordingly all lines from as are connected to OR'IZ to produce a low output when any line is high. This is inverted to give a high XEEiR INII which inhibits gate 63, thereby making DATA XIFER high to prevent the transfer from register 52 to 65. FEW is steered to be set by the next SYNC fl pulse, thereby giving a high write inhibit signal.

Returning to the memory transfer operation, the output of lFEtih is supplied to the sixth transfer gate in 64 and thus introduces the proper sixth bit in the memory register 65 at the time of data transfer. Shiftout of the register is timed with the memory cycle by W RITE C3, and this will now be described.

When is set to transfer data to the memory register. it steers lFEW-ll toward set and the next SYNC Ii pulse sets IFFM. The resultant high l-output resets EH52, counter 59, and input register 52., making them ready for a subsequent TTY character. The low O-output is inverted by gate 7d to make the A input of ElFl'ti high, provided WRITE [NH is low to indicate the absence of a special character. WRITE C3 (FIG. .ila) to the A input is low at this time, and EEl'b is set by the next SYNC 8 pulse to make the write request tl-output low. This indicates that the character in register 65 is ready for insertion in the memory at the proper time. PETA is reset due to the reversed steering from the reset FEM.

Referring to FIG. 3a, the WRITE REQ. signal is supplied to gate 7'7. IBUTT. IEILUW LD (FIG. 17s) is low when the proper memory row occurs, as will be described. CHAR. COINC goes low when the proper character slot is present at the memory input. This signal is produced by comparator 7%. Character address counter Til counts the characters as they are supplied from register tit-i to the memory. The states of the stages in counter 7%, designated lFSC, are supplied to comparator 7%. Inputs El /SIC to the comparator are obtained from a memory character counter (IFIG. '7). When the counts coincide, a low CI-IAIR. CUINC signal is produced. This actuates gate 77 to steer Elfhll toward set, and the next SYNC ti pulse sets it to make WRITE Cd low. The latter signal enables gate M. (FIG.

101023 mn'l

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U.S. Classification345/27, 340/4.51
International ClassificationG09G5/34, G09G1/00
Cooperative ClassificationG09G1/007, G09G5/343
European ClassificationG09G5/34A, G09G1/00W