US 3587560 A
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United States Patent  Inventor JacobA.Glasman 1680 Meridian Ave., Miami Beach, Fla.
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Primary Examiner-Richard A. Gaudet Assistant Examiner-Kyle L. Howell Attorney-Elmer L. Zwickel W 1 m 0 G4 We 1% MC om  BIOPSY INSTRUMENT AND METHOD OF  U.S. 128/2, ABSTRACT: A biopsy instrument comprised ofan inner tubu- 77/69, 128/310 lar bone piercing needle for obtaining a bone marrow  Int. A6lb 10/00 specimen, and an outer tubular bone penetrating needle, the [$0] 128/2,2 latter having saw teeth on its effective end for severing a (B), 310, 317, 305, 303.19, 303.15, 329; 77/69; specimen of bone; and the method of obtaining marrow and 30I( inquired); 83/(lnquired) bone specimens for biopsy study.
PATENTED JUH28 I971 1 Imfen. or.
Jami 14. Glass/Mn BIOPSY INSTRUMENT AND METHOD OF OBTAINING BIOPSY The invention relates to improvements in biopsy instruments and their method of use and is more particularly concerned with the arrangement of telescopically related tubular needles designed to obtain hard tissue biopsy specimens such as bone and its marrow. Heretofore, such biopsy specimens were obtained by initially forcing a heavy tubular needle through the bone and into the marrow. A second thinner needle was inserted into the lumen of the heavy tubular needle to cut or saw its way through the bone. This resulted in distortion or total destruction of the bony histological architecture.
In the present herein disclosed structure and method a relatively smaller bore tubular needle is pushed through the bone cortex into the marrow space or cancellous bone and the marrow aspirated into the interior of the needle. Following this, a sleeve is telescoped over the needle, while the latter remains in place, and is carried into abutment with the surface of the bone. A second or larger tubular needle then is telescoped over the sleeve. This second needle has sharp saw teeth on its effective end and upon rotation of the second needle, a circle of the bone cortex is sawed out. This cut circle of bone occupies the space'below the sleeve. The inner or first needle and the sleeve are then removed and the circle of bone is aspirated intact into the interior of the larger or outer needle which then is withdrawn. The marrow and bone circle are subsequently ejected from their respective needles by the force of the syringe.
It is therefore an object of the invention to provide a novel method of accomplishing bone and marrow biopsy.
Another object is to provide a novel needle structure to accomplish hard tissue bone and marrow biopsies.
Another object is to provide a novel inner needle for obtaining marrow biopsy.
Another object is to provide a novel outer needle for obtaining hard tissue and bony biopsies.
Another object is to provide a needle type of instrument useful for obtaining bone and marrow biopsies which is not expensive or difficult to manufacture, is simple to use, and very efficient in obtaining good biopsies with minimal injury to the histological architecture. I
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent with reference to the following description and accompanying drawings.
In the drawings: I
FIG. I is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view of the inner needle and contained stylet showing it thrust through the bone cortex and into the marrow.
FIG. 2 is a view similar to FIG. 1, showing the head portion and stylet removed and a sleeve telescoped over the needle.
FIG. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view of the inner needle and sleeve, showing the outer needle after its passage through the bone cortex.
FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of the outer needle after the inner needle and sleeve have been withdrawn.
Referring to the exemplary disclosure of the biopsy instrument as shown in the accompanying drawings, the skin over the bone area to be penetrated is anesthetized and the skin and flesh incised to admit access of the needle to the bone II. The inner needle I2, which is tubular, has its sharp effective end cut on a bias, as at 13. A head or hand portion 14 is screw threaded thereon and a stylet 15 is inserted into the needle. This stylet has a stem [6 that fills and extends the entire length of the needle I2 and it is prevented from rotation by a dowel I7.
This assemblage is inserted into the opening with its bias it is subsequently removed as described hereinafter.
The head 141s now removed and a snug fitting sleeve 19 is telescoped over the needle 12 until its lower end rests against the bone as shown in FIG. 2; A second hollow needle or circular saw member 21 is then telescoped over the sleeve. This saw member comprises a tubular body 22 having saw teeth 23 on its lower end and a substantially circular head 24 attached to its upper end. When the saw toothed end 23 contacts the bone cortex it is rotated about the sleeve 19 so as to cut through the bone cortex and thereby generate a circle of bone 25 having a width responding to the thickness of sleeve 19. This bone circle is trapped beneath sleeve 19 and outside the inner needle 12.
The inner needle 12 and sleeve 19 are then withdrawn and the large needle or saw member 21 is aspirated (FIG. 4) with a 50 cc. syringe 26 so as to draw the bone ring 25 up into the interior of needle 21. The needle 21 is now withdrawn from the bone and both the marrow specimen and the bone ring are ejected intact from the respective needles by any suitable means, such as by use of stylets.
It will thus be apparent that applicant has provided a novel instrument for withdrawing marrow and integral bone biopsies, and a novel method for accomplishing this result.
1. The steps of the method of obtaining bone and marrow biopsies which consists of penetrating the cortex of bone with a hollow needle, aspirating a mass of marrow into the interior of said needle, placing a sleeve telescopically over said hollow needle severing a ring of bone from the bone cortex with a hollow outer needle, aspirating said ring of bone into the interior of the last named needle, withdrawing the needles from the bone, and ejecting the marrow and ring of bone from the respective needles.
2. The steps recited in claim I, with the additional step of sawing the ring of bone from the bone cortex to obtain its severance.
3. The steps recited in claim I, with the additional step of incising the flesh surrounding the bone to obtain access to the bone.
4. The steps recited in claim I, with the additional step of withdrawing the inner needle prior to aspirating the bone biopsy from the outer needle.
5. The steps recited in claim I, with the additional step of withdrawing the inner needle and sleeve prior to withdrawal of the outer needle.
6. A biopsy instrument comprising, in combination, an inner tubular needle having a cutting edge, a sleeve slidably telescoped over said needle, an outer needle slidably telescoped over said sleeve, and a saw tooth edge on said outer needle.
7. The instrument recited in claim 6, in which the cutting edge of the inner needle is inclined.
8. The instrument recited in claim 6, in which a stylet is present in the inner needle.
9. The instrument recited in claim 6, in which the sleeve fits snuggly over the inner needle and the outer needle fits snuggly but rotatably over the sleeve.
10. The instrument recited in claim 6, in which the sleeve terminates short of the cutting end of the inner needle.