US 3486539 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 30, 1969 3 c. JACU ZZI 3,486,539
LIQUID DISPENSING AND METERING ASSEMBLY Filed Sept. 28, 1965 Z SheetS-Sheet 1 M/l/E/VTOR SAND/D0 JA GUZZ/ BY WARREM BROSLEECYPHER 8 ANGL/M .4 TTOENEYS Dec. 30, 1969 c) cum I 3,486,539
LIQUID DISPENSING'AND METERING ASSEMBLY Filed Sept. 28, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 a 400 r i" 9/ 2 E s00 USA BLE r 3 RAM E v 1' E 200 m @100 E 0 I0 20 a0 40 5o 60 VOLUME (00) //v VE/V r01? E2 8. OAA/D/DO JA 0022/ WA HREN, BR 08L E'R, crpnsn .9 AN 61. m
ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,486,539 LIQUID DISPENSING AND METERING ASSEMBLY Candido Jacuzzi, Lafayette, Calif., assignor to Jacuzzi Bros., Incorporated, a corporation of California Filed Sept. 28, 1965, Ser. No. 490,787 Int. Cl. B65b 1/04, 9/04; B67d /58 US. Cl. 141-329 11 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE My invention relates to a liquid dispensing and metering assembly, and more particularly to an assembly particularly adaptable for use in the medical field, insofar as it relates to the supplying of liquids, other than orally, to patients, or to the withdrawal of fluids from body cavities.
In the treatment of patients, it is often necessary to supply such patients with liquids other than by mouth. In intravenous feeding, for example, liquids are administered through a needle introduced into a vein. Ofttimes, in the treatment of localized cancers, solutions are introduced in concentrated form at th site of such condition. Other situations calling for the infusion of liquids into the body of a patient are Well known to the medical profession. In most cases where such is necessary or desirable, the flow rate should be held substantially constant over a substantial period of time, and at a pressure rate which in most instances would be quite low, for example, of the order of 400 millimeters of mercury or less. 7
Other conditions prevail Where instead of supplying liquid to a patient, withdrawal of fluids from a body cavity of a patient may become desirable in the treatment of a patient.
Among the objects of my invention are:
(1) To provide a novel and improved liquid dispensing and metering assembly;
(2) To provide a novel and improved liquid dispensing and metering assembly capable of supplying liquid at substantially a constant flow rate and pressure over a period of time;
(3) To provide a novel and improved liquid dispensing and metering assembly which can dispense liquid at low, substantially constant flow rate and pressure over a substantial period of time;
(4) To provide a novel and improved liquid dispensing and metering assembly capable of prolonged infusion of liquid into the human body at a slow but constant rate;
(5) To provide a novel and improved liquid dispensing and metering assembly capable of use in the production of a sub-atmospheric condition, and employable in the removal of fluids from an external source, such as a body cavity of a patient under treatment;
(6) To provide a novel and improved means for holding liquid under pressure, and adapted to discharge the same at a substantially constant pressure over a period of time;
(7) To provide a novel and improved means for holding liquid under pressure and capable of dispensing same at a substantially constant pressure despite a decrease in volume of said holding means during discharge;
(8) To provide a novel and improved metering assembly for a liquid dispenser;
3,486,539 Patented Dec. 30, 1969 (9) To provide a novel and improved metering assembly for a liquid dispenser, capable of metering liquid at low pressure and low flow rate;
(10) To provide a novel and improved liquid dispensing and metering assembly of light weight, and which can be manufactured sufliciently economically to justify discarding the same after one use thereof, and thus provide what is customarily referred to as a throwaway item.
Additional objects of my invention will be brought out in the following description of a preferred embodiment of the same, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein,
FIGURE 1 is a longitudinal view in section through a liquid dispensing and metering assembly of the present invention, depicting the same prior to filling and use thereof;
FIGURE 2 is a view similar to that of FIGURE 1 but illustrating the same in its filled condition and ready for use;
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged fragmentary view of section, through the coupling portion of the assembly of FIG- URE 2;
FIGURE 4 is a front end view in elevation of a receptacle assembly constituting a portion of the assembly of FIGURES 1 and 2;
FIGURE 5 is an end view in elevation of a hub constituting a component of a coupling involved in the apparatus of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 6 is a longitudinal view in section of an assembly utilizing the principle of the apparatus of FIG- URE 1 in the removal of fluids from a body cavity of a patient;
FIGURE 7 is a view similar to that of FIGURE 6, but depicting the assembly in a partially discharged condition; and
FIGURE 8 is a curve depicting dispensing characteristics of the apparatus of the present invention, when designed for use in the medical field where a discharge flow at low rate and substantially constant pressure over a prolonged period of time is a prerequisite.
Referring to the drawings for details of my invention in its preferred form, the same relates to a liquid dispensing and metering assembly made up of a unique receptacle assembly 1 and a novel metering assembly 3, connectable together in functional relationship by a disconnectable coupling 5.
The receptacle assembly comprises a receptacle 7 formed from a tube of expansible material such as a polymer, one end of the tube being closed off, preferably by a clamping ring 9, leaving the other end open for stretching over the neck 11 of a connector 13 which also forms one component of the coupling 5. An O-ring 15 about the attached end of the tube serves to anchor the same more securely, the neck portion of the connector having an O-ring recess 17 to assure retention of the tube about the neck portion of the connector.
The connector 13 comprises a head 19 from which the neck 11 extends, and has a passageway 21 therethrough. The neck end of the coupling is formed with a counter bore to receive a syringe type plug or stopper 23 which is held in its installed position against a shoulder formed by the counter bore, by a retainer sleeve 25 snugly fitting into the neck, and preferably adhesively secured or bonded therein. A wide diametrical slot 27 across the face of the conector, creates a pair of oposing side walls 29, 31, which are undercut to form interlock grooves 33, 35 respectively, while the floor of the slot is recessed about the passageway 21 to form a teat 32.
The plug or stoper 23, while it normally closes the entrance to the tube, is capable of being penetrated by the needle of a syringe, of the type conventionally employed in the medical field, and such type of syringe can be utilized in filling the tube with liquid under pressure, the tube expanding under such pressure as the liquid is forced into it. Upon withdrawal of the needle, the liquid will be trapped under pressure in the tube.
Surrounding the tube is a sheath or packet 39, which in the preferred form of the invention under consideration, may be of nylon film or other cheap flexible material, and such sheath will function to protect the tube and limit the radial expansion thereof as is filled.
The jacket, at one end, is preferably anchored about the head of the connector, to which it is retained by an O-ring 43, the opposite end of the jacket being left open.
In its unfilled condition, the receptacle assembly, as thus described, is limp and flexible, but when filled to capacity, the tube will inflate to the limit permitted by the jacket and become semi-rigid.
As an aid in filling the receptacle, a string 45 preferably of nylon, because of its inherent strength, is affixed to the closed off end of the tube, which can readily be accomplished during the application of the clamping ring, by looping the string through the clamping ring While applying the ring.
In filling such receptacle, care should be exercised to eliminate all air from the tube during the process, and this is particularly important in connection with the utilization of the device in the treatment of patients for certain conditions.
With this in mind, the receptacle is held upright with the connector end uppermost, and while so held, approximately twelve to fifteen cubic centimeters of the solution to be utilized, is forced into the tube from a syringe, the needle of which has been inserted through the plug or stopper. While retaining the syringe in its inserted position, the tube is manipulated to work all air to the space above the liquid level, whereupon, the syringe plunger is withdrawn to suck out the air. The syringe can then be removed leaving the unfilled portion of the tube evacuated and free of air.
The receptacle is then suspended from a hook by means of the loop of nylon string, following which a syringe containing the desired liquid, is again applied and the solution is slowly injected while the operator manually pinches the tube at a point close to the syringe needle, to assure starting a bubble forming at the entrance end of the tube.
As the bubble continues to grow with the increase of liquid into the tube, tension on the string is increased until the tube has expanded, along its length, into contact with the jacket.
The receptacle as thus filled is ready for use in discharging is contents and for this purpose I provide a hub 51 which constitutes the other half of the coupling. This hub at its coupling end, is formed with diametrically located cam fins 53, 55 adapted to fit into the interlock grooves 33, 35 of the connector component of the receptacle assembly, and by a partial turn of the hub, interlock and couple the hub to the receptacle asembly in a manner which, under normal conditions, will assure retention of the hub against accidental uncoupling.
The hub is preferably molded with an extension 57 terminating in a head 59 contoured to permit of forcible entry into an end of a discharge tube 60 of rubber or like material, to retain the same fixedly Secured to the hub against accidental dislodgment therefrom. A longitudinal passageway 61 through the hub is adapted to frictionally receive a cannula 63, such passageway, at the tube attachment end, being of a smaller diameter to match that of the inside diameter of the cannula, and at the same time form a shoulder 65 against which the cannula may abut, to permit pressure being applied to the cannula in puncturing the plug or stopper 23, and affect a flow connection with the interior of the rece tac e.
The coupling end of the passageway through the hub is preferably counter-sunk to provide suflicient flexibility during camming of the fins into the interlock grooves to facilitate such coupling.
Metering of the liquid as thus released from the receptacle under pressure, is accomplished by the meter ing assembly 3. Such metering assembly, in its preferred form, consists of a porous plug 71 in the tube and of such uniform porosity as to function as a meter in determining flow rate of liquid, such meter being preferably in conjunction with a porous fiber 73 also disposed in the tube 60 in spaced relationship to the meter, on the upstream side thereof. The calibration of the porous meter is a function of its built-in porosity, as well as its diameter and length, and these may be varied to meet required conditions. The meter plug 71 and filter 73 may be of ceramic or sintered metal, or any other suitable material capable of providing porosity having the desired characteristics.
The function of the filter is to assure that the liquid passing through the meter shall be entirely free of sediment or precipitates which might otherwise clog pores of the meter and alter the calibration value thereof. The present invention is particularly intended for use with liquids which are initially considered free of precipitate or sediment, and consequently the porous filter is really intended as a safeguard for the meter, against liquid which may accidentally have become slightly contaminated with solids, and to assure against clogging of the filter under such circumstances, the filter element is preferably of greater diameter than the meter element.
The plug 23 and cannula arrangement for withdrawing liquid from the receptacle 7, may be replaced by a needle valve assembly.
Inasmuch as the assembly of the present invention is intended for use but once before being discarded, it will be appreciated that the probability of impairment of the metering assembly through clogging or even partial clogging of the ceramic filter element can be effectively avoided.
In the device of FIGURE 5, for use in the withdrawal of fluids from external sources, such as fluids from a body cavity of a patient, advantage is taken of the fact that the receptacle of the assembly of FIGURES l and 2, contracts as it forces liquid therefrom, and consequently the basic structure of this assembly is included in the device of FIGURE 5.
In this device, an expandable tube 75 is housed in an airtight shell or jacket 79, through one end of which it discharges into a discharge line 81 through a metering means in the form of a manually controllable flow adjustable valve assembly 83 including a valve 85. This form of metering means may 'be utilized for this device in that flow of liquid is not required to be as precise and critical as when delivering liquid to a patient utilizing the assembly of FIGURES 1 and 2, and flow rates may be greater.
To the other end of the shell is connected an incoming line 84 through a similar manually controllable flow adjustable valve assembly 86 including a valve 87. The incoming line is connected to a source of fluid (not shown), from which it is desired to withdraw the fluid, and as liquid is discharged from the expandable tube 75, the reduction in volume thereof creates in the shell, a vacuum condition, which causes liquid or fluid to be withdrawn from the source into the shell.
The valve 87 in the incoming line may be adjusted to maximum permissible flow of the fluid to be withdrawn, while the actual rate of flow of such fluid will be determined by the adjustment of the valve in the discharge line.
The shell or jacket 79 may be of any suitable material, but should be sufficiently rigid to withstand the differential pressures developed during development of reduced pressures within the same, and preferably should be of a light transparent plastic to permit observation of the fluids drawn into it.
If a slow and precise evacuation of body fluids or liquids from other sources is desired, the coupling assembly and metering assembly of the apparatus of FIG- URE 1 may be relied on, otherwise the more conventional construction illustrated may be employed.
In connection with the many uses of the present invention in the medical field, and in certain other applica tions it is quite important that the flow rate in the discharge line shall be steady, and at a low and constant pressure. An important feature of the present invention accordingly lies in the ability to realize a discharge having these characteristics, and this I have been able to accomplish through the development of a receptacle which will discharge at a substantially constant pressure over a period of time, despite its decreasing volume during such discharge, and which when employed in co operation with the metering assembly, will provide a discharge flow to satisfy such requirements.
In FIGURE 8 of the drawings, I have depicted in phantom, the discharge characteristic curve 91 of an ideal receptacle, in terms of withdrawal performance, wherein I have plotted volume discharge from the receptacle against discharge pressure. From this curve it will be appreciated, that what is desired, is a discharge pressure which remains substantially constant throughout the entire discharge cycle.
I have discovered that this ideal curve can be approached through the use of pure gum rubber in the fabrication of the receptacle, for such rubber possesses the qualities required, namely low hysteresis, high tensile strength, high ultimate strength, high elasticity, and ,excellent recovery, besides being chemically compatible with liquids contemplated for use therewith. Such rubber is sometimes referred to as latex or surgical rubber.
The length and diameter of the tube used in the receptacle will determine the capacity of the receptacle assembly, while the thickness of the tube wall will establish the functioning pressure. The solid line curve 93 of FIG- URE 6 represents an actual curve obtained with a receptacle of pure gum rubber having a wall thickness of /32 of an inch, a length of 6 inches, an uninfiated diameter of of an inch and an inflated diameter of 1 inch.
From this curve, it becomes apparent that the specific receptacle considered, has a dispensing capacity of 50 cubic centimeters at a substantially constant pressure of approximately 414 millimeters of mercury, the slightly varying pressure at the beginning and end of the dispensing range, being acceptable in view of the relatively brief elements of time involved and the fact that the metering means, in throttling down the pressure, will tend to minimize such variations.
Being that the receptacle dispenses under positively applied pressure, as distinguished from gravity feed employed in conventional intravenous feeding procedure and the like, it no longer becomes necessary to maintain an elevated position of the receptacle with respect to the patient being treated, which in turn, required substantial immobilization of the patient.
The device of the present invention, can be strapped or otherwise attached to the patient, thus allowing the patient complete mobility and freedom of movement, with full assurance, due to the positive pressure involved in its operation, that the device will function smoothly and continpously, and will not require the repeated attention and adjustment demanded by apparatus which dispenses by gravity.
The receptacle and nylon jacket, being flexible will accommodate themselves to the body contour at the location of application, and thus may be readily concealed beneath ones clothing. To enhance this characteristics of the device, the connector, in lieu of being made circular, can be oval in contour.
While I have stressed the importance of the present invention in its use in the medical field, it will be apparent that the same may have use in other applications and fields, and accordingly while I have illustrated and described the same in its preferred form and in considerable detail, I do not desired to be limited in my protection to the specific details illustrated and described except as may be necessitated by the appended claims.
1. A liquid dispensing and metering assembly comprising a receptacle assembly having expansible characteristics, for holding liquid under pressure, and including a receptacle of a polymer having the characteristics of maintaining a substantially constant internal pressure in said receptacle throughout a range of decreasing volume of its contents, a flow passageway from said receptacle assembly, and means in said flow passageway for metering liquid from said receptacle assembly, and under pressure from said receptacle assembly.
2. A liquid dispensing and metering assembly in accordance with claim 1, characterised by a hypodermic type cap normally closing an opening in said receptacle, to enable filling thereof with a hypodermic type springe, and a flexible jacket surrounding said receptacle to limit expansion of said receptacle during such filling thereof.
3. A liquid dispensing and metering assembly in accordance with claim 1, characterised by said means for holding liquid under pressure including a receptacle of elastic material such as surgical rubber, adapted to maintain a substantially constant internal pressure in said receptacle throughout a range of decreasing volume of its contents, a hypodermic type cap normally closing an opening in said receptacle, to enable filling thereof with a hypodermic type syringe, and a flexible jacket of transparent plastic surrounding said receptacle to limit radial expansion of said receptacle during such filling thereof and permit observation thereof.
4. A liquid dispensing and metering assembly in accordance with claim 1, characterised by a disconnectable coupling between said receptacle means and said metering means, and having a flow passageway therethrough, said disconnectable coupling including a connector at an end of said receptacle having opposing interlock grooves on either side of said passageway, and a hub having oppositely located cam fins adapted to engage and frictionally lock in the interlock grooves of said connector.
5. A receptacle assembly for a liquid dispensing and metering assembly, comprising a receptacle of expansible material enabling said receptacle to expand under pressure of liquid forced into said receptacle and maintain pressure on such liquid upon completion of a filling operation, a closure for said receptacle having a flow passageway therethrough, means aflixing said receptacle at one end to said closure with said passageway in flow communication with said receptacle, and means for controlling flow through said passageway from a fully closed condition of said passageway, to enable one to maintain liquid in said receptacle under pressure of said receptacle, a collapsible jacket about said receptacle and affixed at one end to said closure and open at its other end.
6. A receptacle assembly in accordance with claim 5, characterised by said closure constituting a connector forming one component of a coupling.
' 7. A receptacle assembly in accordance with claim 5, characterised by said jacket being of transparent plastic.
8. A receptacle assembly in accordance with claim 5 characterised by said receptacle having means at its opposite end and accessible through the open end of said jacket for use in placing said receptacle under tension.
9. A receptacle assembly in accordance with claim 5, characterised by said jacket being of thin sheet plastic.
10. A receptacle assembly in accordance with claim 6, characterised by said connector including a head and neck portion, with said receptacle afiixed to said neck portion and said jacket being afiixed to said head portion.
7 8 11. A receptacle assembly in accordance with claim 6, 3,200,996 8/1965 Picatti 222--107 characterised by said connector having opposing interlock 3,303,898 2/ 1967 Bercaru 175228 grooves to either side of said flow passageway. 1,746,139 2/ 1930 Bijur.
2,480,558 8/1949 Dekiss 138-30 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 5 HOUSTON s. BELL, TR., Primary Examiner 10/1929 Gleason.
5/1931 cafpellter- 128--272; 141382, 383, 387; 222189, 386.5; 239- 5/1932 Wilkes. 323 10/1932 Morse. 10