Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3474791 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date28 Oct 1969
Filing date24 Mar 1966
Priority date24 Mar 1966
Also published asDE1589507A1
Publication numberUS 3474791 A, US 3474791A, US-A-3474791, US3474791 A, US3474791A
InventorsBentov Itzhak E
Original AssigneeBrunswick Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Multiple conductor electrode
US 3474791 A
Images(1)
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

6- 28, 1969 l. E. BENTOV MULTIPLE CONDUCTOR ELECTRODE Filed March 24, 1966 J5EE III/I0" jnuenz orx- Ill United States Patent 3,474,791 MULTIPLE CONDUCTOR ELECTRODE Itzhak E. Bentov, Belmont, Mass., assignor to Brunswick Corporation, a corporation of Delaware Filed Mar. 24, 1966, Ser. No. 537,031

Int. Cl. A61n 1/04; H01b 7/04 US. Cl. 128-418 11 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An electrode having high break-resistance and flexibility and particularly suitable for implantation in a human body for conducting heart stimulating electrical currents from a suitable current supply to the heart muscle. The electrode structure comprises a plurality of flexible electrical conductors wrapped longitudinally and coaxially around a break-resistant, flexible, electrically conductive core, with the opposite ends of the conductors electrically connected to the core. The conductors and core are enclosed by an outer coaxial flexible insulating sheath arranged to expose the conductors at a point intermediate their ends.

This invention relates to electrical conductors and in particular to an electrode for use such as a cardiac pacer.

A number of devices have been developed heretofore for external electrical stimulation of a heart which has stopped beating or which is beating improperly as one which is fibrillating. An early example of such a device is that shown in Hyman et al. Patent No. 1,913,595. The present invention comprehends an improved electrode structure for conducting heart stimulating electrical currents from a suitable current supply to the heart muscle in such pacer apparatus.

Thus, a principal feature of the present invention is the provision of a new and improved electrode structure.

Another feature of the invention is the provision of such an electrode structure comprising an improved heart pacer electrode.

A further feature of the invention is the provision of such an electrode structure having new and improved construction providing long life at relatively low cost.

Still another feature of the invention is the provision of such an electrode structure providing improved circuit redundancy for improved maintained conductive functioning of the electrode.

A yet further feature of the invention is the provision of such an electrode structure having new and improved means for facilitating connection thereof to the heart muscle by the implanting surgeon.

Another feature of the invention is the provision of such an electrode structure having new and improved means for preventing deterioration thereof by body fluids and the like.

Another feature of the invention is the provision of such an electrode structure having a new and improved axial core construction providing improved functioning thereof.

A further feature of the invention is the provision of such an electrode structure wherein the core construction is formed of a plurality of extremely fine metal filaments.

Other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing wherein:

FIGURE 1 is a fragmentary elevation of an electrode structure embodying the invention electrically connected between a suitable electrical current supply and a heart muscle;

FIGURE 2 is a fragmentary enlarged view of a portion of the electrode implanted in the heart muscle;

FIGURE 3 is a broken diametric section of the electrode prior to the installation of the stitching needle to one end thereof;

FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary, enlarged isometric view of a mid-portion of the electrode;

FIGURE 5 is a transverse section taken substantially along the line 55 of FIGURE 3;

FIGURE 6 is a fragmentary side elevation of the stitching needle attached to the end of the electrode with portions thereof shown in diametric section; and with a severing means shown fragmentarily for removing the stitching needle from the electrode upon completion of the implantation of the electrode in the heart muscle; and

FIGURE 7 is a schematic electrical wiring diagram of the circuit arrangement of the electrode.

In the exemplary embodiment of the invention as disclosed in the drawing, an electrode generally designated 10 is shown to comprise an elongated flexible structure having one end 11 connected by a suitable connector 12 to an electrical power supply 13 for providing suitable electrical current through the electrode 10 to a heart muscle, such as muscle 14. As shown in FIGURE 1, the opposite end 15 of the electrode is secured to the heart muscle 14 as by stitching 16. In the illustrated embodiment, a pair of electrodes 10 is provided for conducting the electrical current both to the heart muscle and back to the power supply 13; each of the electrodes is substantially identical and thus the following specific description thereof will be limited to a single electrode.

Referring now more specifically to FIGURES 2 through 5, the electrode 10 includes an axial elongated core 17 formed of a flexible, breakresistant material. In the illustrated embodiment, core 17 comprises a 300 end yarn formed of an electrically conductive material, such as 304 stainless steel filaments each having a cross-section of approximately 12 microns with the filaments having approximately 5 to 7 turns per inch twist therein. The filaments are impregnated with an elastomer, such as silicone rubber, which may be suitably cured as by heating in an oven at approximately 400 F. The core may be of suitable length, and in the illustrated embodiment, is approximately 28 inches long.

A silicone rubber sheath 18 is then provided over the core. As shown in FIGURE 3, a first end 19 of the sheath is spaced from one end 20 of the core to provide an exposed outer end 21 of the core, and the opposite end 22 of the sheath 18 is spaced from the opposite end 23 of the core. The end 23 may be twisted back upon itself to define an enlarged end suitable for connection thereto of a stitching needle, such as needle 24 shown in FIGURE 6. The silicone rubber sheath 18 may be provided on the yarn in any suitable conventional manner such as by extrusion thereonto, or by providing the sheath in a form of a tube which may be suitably cemented to the core after being drawn thereover. The sheath preferably is fixedly retained against axial slippage on the core.

A plurality of electrically conductive cables are wound helically about the sheath, herein a pair of cables 25 and 26 are provided degrees apart. Cable 25 has a first end 27 secured in electrical contact with the core 17, and cable 26 has a first end 28 secured in electrical contact with the core adjacent first cable end 27. Cable 25 has a second end 29 secured in electrical contact with the core end 23, and cable 26 has a second end 30 secured in electrical contact with the core end 23 adjacent cable end 29. Herein, cables 25 and 26 are formed of platinum and comprise seven strand cables wherein each strand has a diameter of approximately .001 inch.

The electrode further includes an outer sheath 31 having an outer end 32 coplanar with end 19 of sheath 18 and an inner end 32' spaced inwardly of the inner end 22 of the sheath 18 with the connections 29 and 30 of the platinum cables being disposed within the outer sheath 31 inwardly of the inner sheath end 22 and with the end 23 of the core extending outwardly therefrom. As best seen in FIGURES 2 and 3, the outer sheath 31 is provided with a gap 33 at a point outwardly of the inner sheath end 22. In the illustrated embodiment, the gap 33 may be approximately four inches outwardly of sheath ing to the right from gap 33 and portion 31b extending to the left therefrom. The sheath portions may be suitably provided as by extrusion thereof onto the subassembly of the core 17, sheath 18, and conductors and 26,

or by drawing of preformed tubular sheath structures onto the subassembly for positive retention thereon as by cementing. As shown in FIGURES 1 through 3, means are provided for indicating the location of the gap 33, herein in the form of a pair of black marks 34 and adjacent gap 33 on sheath 18 to be viewable through portions 31a and 31b respectively of sheath 31.

As indicated above, the electrode 10 may be provided with a stitching needle 24 secured to the end 23 of core 17 thereof for use by the surgeon in implanting the electrode suitably in the heart muscle .14. As best seen in FIGURE 6, the needle may comprise an arcuate needle having an attaching end 36 provided with an axial outwardly opening recess 37. An electrically conductive ferrule 38 is secured to the end 23 of the electrode core as by soldering and the core end 23 with the ferrule 38 secured thereto is retained in the recess 37 as by crimping of the needle end 36 illustratively shown at 39.

The electrode 10 may be utilized as follows. The surgeon may firstly install the power supply 13 under the patients skin in the abdomen or upper left chest cavity with the ends 11 of the electrode suitably secured to the connectors 12. The electrodes are drawn through the space between the internal organs of the patient and the rib cage to adjacent the heart. As shown in FIGURE 1, the distal ends of the electrodes are then stitched into the heart muscle 14 by means of the needle 24 to dispose the exposed cables 25 and 26 at gap 33 within the heart muscle thereby making electrical contact therewith. As shown in FIGURE 1, the ends of the electrodes are brought out from the heart muscle whereby the black marks 34 and 35 indicate to the surgeon the accurate centering of the gap 33 in the heart muscle. The exposed portions of the electrode adjacent the heart muscle may be suitably stitched thereto by surgical sutures 16. The needle 24 is removed from the end of the electrode as by cutting the end 15 by suitable means such as scissor blades as shown in FIGURE 6. The cut end of the electrode may be suitably capped if desired as by insulating cap 41. A loop is retained in the electrodes adjacent the heart to preclude tugging of the electrodes by the heart movements. In the illustrated embodiment, the heart muscle 14 is the left ventricle portion of the heart with the ends 15 of the electrodes extending toward the apex 42 thereof.

Illustratively, the power supply 13 may provide a current pulse of approximately 14 milliamperes at 6 to 7 volts and of approximately 2 millisecond duration. Referring to FIGURE 7, the current pulse is delivered to the exposed conductors 25 and 26 at gap 33 by three separate paths, thereby providing an improved long life characteristic of the electrode as a result of the circuit redundancy. More specifically, the current pulse may flow to the exposed portion of the wire 25 at gap 33 from the power supply 13 through the core portion 17 to the contact 4 27- and thence through the conductor 25. Similarly,'the current pulse may be delivered to the exposed portion of the conductor 26 at gap 33 by delivery of the current from power supply 13 through core 17 to the contact 28 and thence through the conductor 26. As the opposite ends of the conductors 25 and 26 are also electrically connected to the core 17 at points 29 and 30, a plurality of additional current flow paths to the exposed portions of the wires 25 and 26 is provided. More specifically, should a break in the wire 25 occur between the gap 33 and the point 27 the pulse could still be delivered to the portion of the conductor 25 at gap 33 through the core 17 to contact 30 and thence back to the exposed portion of the conductor at gap 33, as well as from the conductor 26 through contact 29 to contact 30. A similar supply of the current pulse to the exposed portion of conductor 26 at gap 33 would be provided in the event of a break in the conductor 26 between gap 33 and contact 28. Still further, should a pair of breaks occur, one each in conductors 25 and 26 between gap 33 and contact points 27 and 28, the current pulse could still nevertheless be delivered to the exposed portions of the conductors 25 and 26 at gap 33 by delivery thereof through the core 17 and thence through contact points 29 and 30 tothe exposed portions of the conductors. Still further, by virtue of the improved redundancy circuitry of the electrode, a break in one of the conductors 25 and 26 between the gap 33 and the contact point 29 or 30 thereof, in addition to breaks in each of the conductors between the gap 33 and the contacts 27 and 28 would still permit current flow to the other of the conductors in gap 33 through the core 17 and thence through the unbroken portion of the conductor extending backwardly to the gap 33.

Thus, electrode 10 provides an improved low cost, high reliability electrode adapted for use in such critical applications as heart pacer conductors.

While I have shown and described one embodiment of my invention, it is to be understood that it is capable of many modifications. Changes, therefore, in the constructions and arrangement may be made Without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.

I claim:

1. An electrode comprising: an elongated core of flexible, break-resistant, electrically conductive material; a plurality of flexible electrical conductors extending longitudinally of and coaxially about said core and electrically connected to said core at opposite end portions of said conductors; and an outer sheath of flexible insulating material coaxially about said core and electrical conductors and arranged to expose said electrical conductors at a point intermediate said opposite end portions of said conductors.

2. The electrode of claim 1 wherein said core is formed of a plurality of filaments having a diameter of under approximately one-half mil.

3. The electrode of claim 1 wherein said core comprises a yarn of metal filaments impregnated with an elastomer.

4. The electrode of claim 1 wherein said electrical conductors comprise a plurality of stranded cables.

5. The electrode of claim 1 wherein an intermediate sheath of flexible insulating material is disposed coaxially about said core, said electrical conductors being wrapped about said intermediate sheath.

6. The electrode of claim 1 wherein said conductors extend helically and are spaced from each other intermediate said end portions thereof.

7. The electrode of claim 1 wherein said electrical conductors comprise a pair of conductive elements extending helically degrees apart.

8. The electrode of claim 1 further including means adjacent said point at which said electrical conductors are exposed for indicating the location of the exposed portion References Cited of said electrical conductors.

9. The electrode of claim 1 further including a con- UNITED STATES PATENTS t 1 t 11 M h H t dt nd 1,687,912 10/1928 Wheeler 174-115 X iltezrgcrfe ec r1ca y a mec amca y connec e 0 one e 2,581,213 1952 pp 174 115 X 10. The electrode of claim 1 wherein said outer sheath 5 3,035,583 5/1962 Hlrsch et 128418 X is formed of two spaced portions defining between them 3,216,424 11/1965 Chadack 128-418 said point at which said electrical conductors are exposed. 3367339 2/1968 Sesslons 128418 11. The electrode of claim 10 wherein an intermediate sheath of flexible insulating material is disposed coaxially 1O WILLIAM KAMM Pnmary Exammer about said core, said electrical conductors being wrapped US, Cl, X R about said intermediate sheath. 174-114, 115

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1687912 *27 Mar 192416 Oct 1928Western Electric CoInsulated conductor
US2581213 *15 Dec 19491 Jan 1952Gen ElectricTemperature responsive signaling and locating system
US3035583 *27 May 195922 May 1962Hirsch WinfredConductive sutures
US3216424 *5 Feb 19629 Nov 1965Chardack William MElectrode and lead
US3367339 *9 Oct 19646 Feb 1968Robert W. SessionsImplantable nerve stimulating electrode and lead
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3664347 *25 Jul 196923 May 1972Dietrich HarmjanzElectric heart stimulation method and electrode
US3683933 *22 Jun 197015 Aug 1972Mansfield Peter BImplantable tissue stimulator with a porous anchoring enclosure
US3731376 *22 Jan 19718 May 1973Electro Catheter CorpMethod of making a catheter
US3750650 *13 Dec 19717 Aug 1973Hewlett Packard GmbhDouble spiral electrode for intra-cavity attachment
US3760812 *19 Mar 197125 Sep 1973Univ MinnesotaImplantable spiral wound stimulation electrodes
US3769984 *11 Mar 19716 Nov 1973Sherwood Medical Ind IncPacing catheter with frictional fit lead attachment
US4010756 *13 Feb 19768 Mar 1977Ethicon, Inc.Heart pacer lead wire with break-away needle
US4033355 *28 Nov 19755 Jul 1977Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Electrode lead assembly for implantable devices and method of preparing same
US4161952 *1 Nov 197724 Jul 1979Mieczyslaw MirowskiWound wire catheter cardioverting electrode
US4338947 *3 Nov 198013 Jul 1982Medtronic, Inc.Positive fixation heart wire
US4341226 *22 Sep 198027 Jul 1982Medtronic, Inc.Temporary lead with insertion tool
US4530368 *24 May 198423 Jul 1985Cordis CorporationTemporary bipolar pacing lead
US4538624 *8 Dec 19823 Sep 1985Cordis CorporationMethod for lead introduction and fixation
US4541440 *14 Nov 198417 Sep 1985Cordis CorporationBipolar epicardial temporary pacing lead
US4549556 *8 Dec 198229 Oct 1985Cordis CorporationImplantable lead
US4630617 *9 Oct 198023 Dec 1986American Cyanamid CompanyHeart pacer lead wire with pull-away needle
US4735205 *24 Feb 19865 Apr 1988Medtronic, Inc.Method and apparatus including a sliding insulation lead for cardiac assistance
US4763671 *25 Apr 198616 Aug 1988Stanford UniversityMethod of treating tumors using selective application of heat and radiation
US4817634 *18 Jun 19874 Apr 1989Medtronic, Inc.Epicardial patch electrode
US4832051 *27 Jun 198623 May 1989Symbion, Inc.Multiple-electrode intracochlear device
US4971070 *5 Dec 198820 Nov 1990Medtronic, Inc.Epicardial patch electrode
US5014721 *14 Nov 198914 May 1991Siemens AktiengesellschaftBipolar electrode lead for medical applications
US5217027 *30 May 19918 Jun 1993Medtronic, Inc.Temporary cardiac lead
US5241957 *18 Nov 19917 Sep 1993Medtronic, Inc.Bipolar temporary pacing lead and connector and permanent bipolar nerve wire
US5300106 *7 Jun 19915 Apr 1994Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Insertion and tunneling tool for a subcutaneous wire patch electrode
US5314463 *14 Apr 199324 May 1994Medtronic, Inc.Bipolar nerve electrode
US5366496 *1 Apr 199322 Nov 1994Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Subcutaneous shunted coil electrode
US5403353 *30 Jul 19934 Apr 1995Incontrol, Inc.Post-heart surgery cardioverting system and method
US5423876 *9 Dec 199313 Jun 1995Medtronic, Inc.Intramuscular lead having improved insertion
US5489294 *1 Feb 19946 Feb 1996Medtronic, Inc.Steroid eluting stitch-in chronic cardiac lead
US5928277 *19 Feb 199827 Jul 1999Medtronic, Inc.One piece defibrillation lead circuit
US5935465 *5 Nov 199610 Aug 1999Intermedics Inc.Method of making implantable lead including laser wire stripping
US5954759 *21 Apr 199721 Sep 1999Medtronic, Inc.Fracture resistant medical electrical lead
US6018683 *30 Apr 199825 Jan 2000Medtronic, Inc.Medical electrical lead having coiled and stranded conductors
US6061598 *10 Feb 19999 May 2000Medtronic, Inc.Fracture resistant medical electrical lead
US6119042 *13 Jan 200012 Sep 2000Medtronic, Inc.Medical electrical lead
US62656912 Jul 199924 Jul 2001Intermedics Inc.Method of making implantable lead including laser wire stripping
US6285910 *21 Apr 19974 Sep 2001Medtronic, Inc.Medical electrical lead
US632658730 Jul 19994 Dec 2001Intermedics Inc.Apparatus for removing an insulating layer from a portion of a conductor
US643443120 Jan 200013 Aug 2002Medtronic, Inc.Intramuscular medical electrical lead with fixation member
US678557625 Mar 200231 Aug 2004Medtronic, Inc.Medical electrical lead
US718484217 Sep 200327 Feb 2007Medtronic, Inc.Medical electrical lead anchoring
US71879828 Aug 20036 Mar 2007Medtronic, Inc.Medical electrical lead anchoring
US72128675 Dec 20011 May 2007Medtronic, Inc.Directional brain stimulation and recording leads
US73199049 Jun 200315 Jan 2008Medtronic, Inc.Percutaneous Surgical lead body
US741829822 Oct 200426 Aug 2008Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Myocardial lead with fixation mechanism
US749975722 Oct 20043 Mar 2009Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Absorbable myocardial lead fixation system
US749975922 Oct 20043 Mar 2009Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Distal or proximal fixation of over-the-tether myocardial leads
US751943229 Apr 200514 Apr 2009Medtronic, Inc.Implantable medical lead with helical reinforcement
US754616519 Dec 20059 Jun 2009Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Interconnections of implantable lead conductors and electrodes and reinforcement therefor
US75710106 May 20054 Aug 2009Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Cable electrode assembly for a lead terminal and method therefor
US7660635 *14 Jul 20009 Feb 2010Medtronic, Inc.Medical electrical lead
US776117029 Apr 200520 Jul 2010Medtronic, Inc.Implantable medical lead with axially oriented coiled wire conductors
US776198531 Jan 200627 Jul 2010Medtronic, Inc.Method of manufacturing a medical lead
US783131129 Apr 20059 Nov 2010Medtronic, Inc.Reduced axial stiffness implantable medical lead
US791722931 Aug 200629 Mar 2011Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Lead assembly including a polymer interconnect and methods related thereto
US800080831 Jan 200616 Aug 2011Medtronic, Inc.Medical lead with segmented electrode
US805535418 May 20098 Nov 2011Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Interconnections of implantable lead conductors and electrodes and reinforcement therefor
US836428213 Jan 201129 Jan 2013Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Lead assembly including a polymer interconnect and methods related thereto
US844264818 Jun 201214 May 2013Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Implantable medical lead having reduced dimension tubing transition
US85658936 May 201322 Oct 2013Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Implantable medical lead having reduced dimension tubing transition
USRE28990 *6 Feb 19755 Oct 1976Corometrics Medical Systems, Inc.Bipolar electrode structure for monitoring fetal heartbeat and the like
USRE35779 *28 Feb 199628 Apr 1998Incontrol, Inc.Post-heart surgery cardioverting system and method
WO1985002779A1 *24 Dec 19844 Jul 1985Univ Leland Stanford JuniorCatheter for treatment of tumors and method for using same
Classifications
U.S. Classification607/132, 174/114.00R, 174/115
International ClassificationA61N1/375, A61N1/05, A61N1/372
Cooperative ClassificationA61N1/0587, A61N1/375
European ClassificationA61N1/05P, A61N1/375
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
18 Apr 1983ASAssignment
Owner name: SHERWOOD MEDICAL COMPANY
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:SHERWOOD MEDICAL INDUSTRIES INC. (INTO);REEL/FRAME:004123/0634
Effective date: 19820412