|Publication number||US3419009 A|
|Publication date||31 Dec 1968|
|Filing date||9 May 1966|
|Priority date||9 May 1966|
|Publication number||US 3419009 A, US 3419009A, US-A-3419009, US3419009 A, US3419009A|
|Inventors||Ericson Richard E|
|Original Assignee||Kendall & Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (11), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Dec. 31, 19 R. E. ERICSON VENTED SURGICAL DRAINAGE TUBE WITH FLUSHING PROTECTIVE VALVE Filed May 9, 1966 State This invention is concerned with animal body-fluid drainage tubes. Specifically, it is concerned with those tubes which are left within an animal body for a considerable period of time.
A problem arises when fluid is drained from the body creating a suction in the drainage tube which suction persists after the fluid is exhausted whereby portions of the body cavity walls are drawn into the drainage tube orifices thus causing trauma and possible rupture of the protective tissue of the body cavity wall. Disruption of such protective tissue creates possible portals of entry for invading microorganisms.
It has been proposed that the suction may be eliminated and the traumatic effects of suction avoided by the provision of vacuum breaking devices which permit air to enter the drainage tubes. Obviously, such air should be bacteria-free to avoid introduction of bacteria into the body and the proposed vacuum breaking devices have included a bacterial filter.
When drainage tubes are used in draining body fluids their drainage lumens frequently become internally coated and often occluded with deposits from the body fluids. In order to restore drainage lumens to their normal functionality, it is common to use irrigating solution administered at relatively high pressures. Where bacterial filters are used as part of a vacuum breaking device, the filters which in themselves or by virtue of a porous shield are not wetted through under normal body fluid pressures, are wetted through by irrigating fluids at higher than normal body pressures. Following irrigation, commercially available bacterial filters lose their bacterial filtering function and may even cease to function as vacuum breaking devices.
The main object of this invention is the provision of a body fluid drainage tube having a vacuum breaking device consisting of a filter unit for entrance of bacterial-free air which unit may be subjected to irrigating pressures without destruction of function.
Another object of this invention is the provision of a body fluid drainage tube with a vacuum breaking device in which the bacterial filter thereof is kept free of internal fluids and body fluid deposits under normal and unusually high internal fluid pressures.
Other objects of this invention will be apparent upon an inspection of the specification and drawings.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 illustrates a drainage tube in the form of a retention catheter showing a typical vacuum breaking device in place.
FIGURE 2 illustrates the vacuum breaking device of FIGURE 1 in partial cross section to show its construction.
FIGURE 3 illustrates a modification of the vacuum breaking device of FIGURES 1 and 2 in which the air inlet slit-like opening has projecting fins which tend to keep the slit-like opening from gaping.
FIGURE 4 shows a modification of the vacuum breaking device of FIGURES 1 and 2 in which the air inlet slit is Y shaped.
FIGURE 5 illustrates a portion of a modification of FIGURE 1 in which the vacuum breaking device is P atent O ice equipped with an air inlet channel formed from two polymeric sheets sealed together and to the filter unit.
FIGURE 6 is an illustration of another typical vacuum breaking device in which the air inlet channel is formed by overlapping polymeric films into a slit-like air inlet opening.
FIGURE 7 illustrates how a plurality of films may be overlapped and sealed together to form an air inlet channel.
The objects of the invention preferably are attained by providing vacuum breaking devices which connect to air channels which in turn permit air to enter the drainage tube under negative pressure or suction. These air channels to not permit body fluid to pass outwardly and into contact with the bacterial filter, however, either at very low pressures approaching zero or at much higher irrigating fluid pressure. The filter is thus kept dry and functional. The air channels are operative because the minute separation or" their major walls permits air to enter but precludes flow of body fluids outwardly at pressures approaching zero which do not deform the Walls. With a great many materials of which the air channels may be made, the separation of the major walls may be up to .006 inch without leakage through the channel at pressures approaching Zero. Although with some materials the wall separation may be somewhat greater there is no advantage and as a matter of fact, the preferred separation is in the range of .001 to .003 inch. Body fluid pressures or irrigating fluid pressures which do deform the channel walls press them together, however, and the minute separation disappears thus closing the channel. The channels of the invention are effective therefore in permitting air to enter but in excluding outward passage of body fluids.
The channels are also effective in preventing occlusion of their passages and the pores or orifices of the bacterial filter by excluding outward passage of organic and inorganic matter.
Referring once more to the drawings:
In FIGURE 1, a typical drainage tube 10 of the invention in the form of a retention catheter is shown. The catheter has a main branch 11 including an insertion tip 13 and a bell 19. A side branch 12 containing a portion of the inflation lumen 16 connects with the main branch so that the lumen 16 is continuous from the side branch into the main branch and connecting with the inflatable retention means 28 through the opening 21. The main branch also contains the drainage lumen 14 which connects with the drainage orifice 15. On one side of the bell 14 a housing 18 provides a chamber 20 for a typical vacuum-breaking device 22. This device is shown more clearly in FIGURE 2. It consists of a filter retainer and air inlet channel 23 preferably unitary containing a slitlike inlet opening 25 and a bacterial filter 24 shown in cross section. Shown constructively in FIGURE 1 is an inflated reservoir 26 and a clamp 27 for retaining fluid in the reservoir until the catheter is inserted into the body cavity. Obviously, it is immaterial for purposes of this invention whether the catheter is the self-inflating type illustrated constructively or the ordinary Foley type which has its retention means inflated after insertion into the body cavity by a hypodermic needle and syringe through the combination stopper and inflation plug 17. Where the stopper 17 has a needleless valve, as is well known, the reservoir or alternatively the retention means may be inflated by a syringe alone.
In FIGURE 3, a modification 30 of the vacuum breaking device of FIGURES 1 and 2 is shown. The bacterial filter 32 may be in the form of a cotton or other simple fibrous plug or it may be any of the more sophisticated bacterial filter membranes and layers well known in the filter art. The filter container 31 and the connecting air inlet channel 33 may be substantially similar to that illustrated in FIGURE 2 with the modification that the air inlet channel has projecting fins 34 which keep the air inlet channel centered and out of contact with the housing walls.
FIGURE 4 illustrates still another modification 35 of the vacuum breaking device of FIGURES 1 and 2. Again the filter may be any suitable bacterial filter 37 contained in the filter container 36 which connects to the Y-shaped air inlet channel 38. This form is self-centering but is not the preferred device due to its more diflicult manufacture.
In FIGURE 5 is illustrated a portion 41 of a typical drainage tube illustrating a modified form of vacuum breaking device 48 contained in a housing 47 adjacent a connecting end of tube 40. The vacuum breaking device 48 consists of a filter cup 51 having an enlarged annular sealing edge 42 over which the housing 47 makes a hermetic seal 46. Within the filter cup which opens into a depending pipe-like portion, any fibrous or well-known bacterial filter 49 may be contained. An air inlet channel 44 is formed of two opposing polymeric film or film composites 44a and 44b sealed to each other and to the depending pipe-like portion of the filter cup 51 with hermetic seal 50. The housing 47 opens into the drainage lumen 43 of the drainage tube.
In FIGURE 6 is illustrated a vacuum breaking device including a modification of an air inlet channel composed of overlapping film sheets 63, 64 and 65 sealed hermetically to a tube 61 containing a conventional bacterial filter 62 hermetically sealed by the annular seal 66 to the tube 61. As a variation the air inlet channel may be sealed directly to the filter bottom it it is a unit including a tubular bottom.
FIGURE 7 is an enlarged perspective view showing how the overlapping sheets of FIGURE 6 are sealed together to form an air inlet channel.
The drainage tubes of the invention are preferably made of rubber latex and where such is the case the air inlet channel is also preferably of rubber latex. However, where the drainage tube is a synthetic polymer, it is preferable that the air inlet channel be of the same or a compatible polymer. Entirely suitable drainage tubes of rubber latex may be fitted with inlet channels which are made of any of the commonly known heat scalable or solvent sealable polymers. Conversely a synthetic polymer may be utilized in making the drainage tube while the air inlet channel is of rubber latex.
1. In a surgical drainage tube for use in conjunction with the draining of fluids from body cavities through a drainage channel in the tube, said tube having a first opening therein through which the fluid may pass into said channel and a second opening therein spaced from said first opening through which the fluid may pass from said channel, the improvement in combination therewith comprising an air channel communicating with the drainage channel, said air channel having an air filter and valve means positioned Within said air channel, providing a passageway therethrough communicating with the drainage channel, said valve means capable of passing air therethrough from the filter to the drainage channel and preventing the passage of body fluids in the reverse direction from said channel to said filter.
2. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 1 wherein the valve means comprises a portion of flexible tubing having two ends, one end of which is adapted to receive the air filter, and the other end of which is constricted having opposed body walls separated by a narrow passageway therebetween, whereby the opposed body walls are forced into contact with each other closing the passageway under fluid pressure, but freely permitting the passage of air therethrough from the filter into the drainage channel.
3. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 1 wherein the filter and the valve means are positioned intermediate said first opening and said second opening.
4. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 1 wherein the filter to pervious to air and impervious to bacteria.
5. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 1 wherein the filter is carried by a relatively rigid hollow retainer having an end adapted to carry said filter and the outer surface of which is adapted for fitment with the valve means.
6. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 1 wherein the filter is carried by a relatively rigid retainer having two ends and a passageway therethrough, one of said ends adapted to carry the filter for exposure to the outer environment and the other end adapted for fitment with the valve means.
7. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 2 wherein the distance between the oposed body walls of the valve means forming the narrow passageway is no greater than 0.006 inch.
8. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 2 wherein the distance between the opposed body walls of the valve means forming the narrow passageway is between about 0.001 and 0.003 inch.
9. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 5 wherein the one end of the valve means is adapted to receive the retainer in friction-fitting engagement.
lti. An improved surgical drainage tube for use in conjunction with the draining of fluids from body cavities through drainage channel in the tube, said tube having a first opening therein through which the fluid may pass into said channel and a second opening therein spaced from said first opening through which the fluid may pass from said channel, the improvement in combination therewith comprising:
(a) a chamber atlixed to the drainage tube intermediate said first and second openings, having an inner end and an outer end, said chamber communicating with the drainage channel at its inner end and the outer environment at its outer end;
(b) an air filter fitted within said chamber at its outer end;
(c) and valve means associated with the air filter providing a passageway therethrough and communicating with the drainage channel through the inner end of said chamber, said valve means capable of passing air therethrough from the filter to the drainage channel and preventing passage of body fluids in the reverse direction from said channel to the air filter.
11. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 10 wherein the valve means comprises a portion of flexible tubing having two ends, one end of which is adapted to receive the air filter, and the other end of which is constricted having opposed body walls separated by a narrow passageway therebetween, whereby the opposed body walls are forced into contact with each other closing said passageway when under fluid pressure but freely permitting the passage of air therethrough from the filter into the drainage channel.
12. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 10 wherein the air filter is carried by a relatively rigid hollow retainer having an end adapted to carry said filter and the outer surface of which is adapted for fitment with the valve means.
13. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 10 wherein the filter is carried by a relatively rigid retainer having two ends and a passageway therethrough, one of said ends adapted to carry the air filter and the other end adapted for fitment with the valve means.
14. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 12 wherein the end of the retainer carrying the air filter is fitted proximate the outer end of the chamber.
15. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 13 wherein the end of the retainer carrying the air filter is fitted proximal the outer end of the chamber, and the other end of the retainer carrying the valve means is positioned proximal to the inner end of the chamber.
16. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 12 wherein the retainer is friction-fitted within the chamber having the filter-carrying end proximal the outer end of said chamber.
17. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 13 wherein the retainer is friction-fitted Within the chamber having the air filter-carrying end proximal the outer end of said chamber and the valve means-carrying end proximal the inner end of said chamber.
18. A surgical drainage tube according to claim 10 wherein the chamber and flexible tubing are a unitary construction.
6 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 10/ 18-85 Gillette 137215 X 3/1938 Fennell 128-350 4/1952 Langdon 137-217 6/1956 Wallace 128-295 10/1956 Stilwell 137-217 3/1960 Buyers 128-350 US. Cl. X.R.
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|U.S. Classification||604/129, 137/217|
|International Classification||A61D1/00, A61D1/12, A61M27/00, A61F5/441|
|Cooperative Classification||A61F5/441, A61M27/00, A61D1/12|
|European Classification||A61F5/441, A61M27/00, A61D1/12|