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Publication numberUS3262412 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date26 Jul 1966
Filing date23 Nov 1964
Priority date23 Nov 1964
Publication numberUS 3262412 A, US 3262412A, US-A-3262412, US3262412 A, US3262412A
InventorsDantz Paul A
Original AssigneeDantz Paul A
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Pad-lock anchor system
US 3262412 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 26, 1966 P. A. DANTz 3,252,412

PAD-LOCK ANCHOR SYSTEM Filed Nov. 23, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 #fram/sag July 26, 1966 P. A. DANTz 3,262,412

PAD-LOCK ANCHOR SYSTEM Filed Nov. 25, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 gpm/L. rZUM/rz,

United States Patent O 3,262,412 PAD-LOCK ANCHOR SYSTEM Paul A. Dantz, Ventura, Calif., assigner to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy Filed Nov. 23, 1964, Ser. No. 413,381

Claims. (Cl. 114-206) The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government of the United States of America for governmental purposes without the payment of any royalties thereon or therefor.

The present invention relates to an underwater anchoring apparatus and more particularly to an anchoring apparatus which will provide upward, bearing and horizontal support at the floor of the ooe-an or at the bottom of any other body of water.

Anchors constitute one of the oldest arts known to man and have been used for anchoring all types of waterborne objects such as ships, ibuoys, towers, off-shore drilling rigs and platforms. Quite often these objects, such as towers, drilling rigs and platforms, require an anchoring device or devices which will withstand forces in all directions. The United States Navy is presently working on projects for the construction of underwater sea laboratories. These submerged laboratories must be anchored by an anchoring device which is capable of resisting uplift, bearing and horizontal forces. In order to provide such an anchoring device it has been necessary in the past to use driven or cast-in-place piles. While pilings provide a good support in all directions, they are very time consuming to install and are generally limited to depths of about three hundred feet, since the driving or boring operation must be carried on by a barge at the surface of the water. Y'

Three other known anchoring devices for mooring objects inthe ocean are the conventional drag type of anchor, the dead weight type of anchor and the propellent embedded anchor. The drag type anchor consists basically lof a stem and iiukes.- When the anchor is drawn along the ocean floor the flukes are tilted at a downward angle and embedded in the floor to provide holding resistance tov a connecting line. The holding power of the drag anchor is generally restricted to the direction in which it was drawn and there is only limited holding power in other directions. Other disadvantages of the drag type anchor is that it must be dragged a considerable distance before it finally embeds in the ocean door andeven after embedment a large area is required for its use because of the necessary catenary in the mooring line.

Dead weight anchors are masses of material which, when placed on the ocean floor, provide a resistance primarily to uplift and bea-ring forces. In order to provide the dead weight anchor with good horizontal holding power it must be made excessively large which materially increases the handling problems. Accordingly, this type `of anchor has been generally confined for anchoring small objects or installations.

The propellant embedded or explosive anchor includes an anchor which is driven into the ocean floor by an eX- plosive charge. After tiring, this type of anchor is usually set by applying an upward force on a connecting line so as to cause anchor flukes to open and embed in the ocean oor. The holding power of this anchor in the upward and horizontal directions is good, however, it provides a very poor bearing support. Because of the advantages of the explosive anchor it would be desirable to provide a means or apparatus which would be capable of combining the holding power of a plurality of explosive anchors as well as providing bea-ring supp-ort therefor.

The present invention provides an anchoring apparatus 3,262,4l2 Patented July 26, 1966 lCe which overcomes the aforementioned disadvantages of the prior art anchors. The present anchoring apparatus can be located at a precise area on the ocean'iloor to resist forces from all directions. This may be accomplished by providing a frame assembly having a top and a bott-om; a housing mounted within said frame assembly; support and anchor driving means mounted at a plurality of frame locations for providing bearing support and for driving anc-hors downwardly into the bottom -of the water; a cable connected to each respective anchor and extending therefrom into said housing; a cable winding assembly mounted within said housing, each of said cables being connected to said cable winding assembly so as to be capable of being wound thereon; and means within said housing for driving said cable winding assembly. Accordingly, after firing the anchor driving means the frame can be drawn tight against the bottom of the water by winding the cables on the cable winding assembly. The present anchoring assembly may be provided with additional advantages by pivoting each support means to the frame assembly so that the anchoring apparatus will automatically adjust to the irregular contours of the floor of the ocean and pulleys may be mounted at selected locatioiis on the frame assembly to cooperate with the cable so to greatly enhance the holding power of the anchoring assembly. Further, the construction of the present anchoring assembly enables it to be operated at practically any depth within the ocean. This may be accomp-lished by providing an actuation means, within the housing, which is responsive to remote control from the surface for actuating the anchor driving means and the cable winding assembly.

An object of the presen-t invention is to provide an underwater anchoring apparatus which overcomes the aforementioned disadvantages of prior art anchors;

Another object is to provide an anchoring apparatus which will resist upward, horizontal and downward forces with a greater holding power than that obtained with prior art anchoring devices;

A further object is to provide a simply installed anchoring apparatus which will resist forces from all directions, can be installed at a precise location on the oceans floor and which will automatically adjust to irregular iloor bottoms to provide a good bearing support;

Stil-l another object is to provide an anchoring apparatus which will resist forces from all directions and which can be remotely operated from a surface location; and

Other objects, advantages and novel features of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG.- l is a top plan view of the anchoring apparatus;

FIG. 2 is a side elevation view of the anchoring apparatus installed on an irregular floor of the ocean;

FIG. 3 is a vertical cross-sectional view through a cylindrical housing with some of the components therein shown in schematic form;

FIG. 4 is a side View of a portion of the frame and the support and anchor driving means prior to firing the anchor-and with portions cut .away to show the details thereof; and j FIG. 5 is a side view similar to FIG. 4 after the anchor has been fired into the floor of the Oce-an.

Referring now to the drawings wherein like reference numerals designate like or similar parts throughout the several views, there is shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 an anchoring apparatus 10 which may include a tripodial frame assembly having three legs 12 which are joined at their top ends to a cylindrical housing 14. The legs 12 may be connected lat their bottom ends to respective support and anchor driving means 15 for providing bearing support and for driving an anchor downwardly into the bo'ttom of the water. The frame assembly may include lateral bracing bars 16 which are connected between the legs 12. If desired, another series of legs 18 may be connected in tripodial relationship at their upper ends to the housing 14 and at their bottom ends to the support and anchor driving means 15. The cylindrical housing 14 may be positioned withits longitudinal axis lying along the central axis of the tripodial frame assembly. A top end of the housing 14 may be provided with a mooring eye 20 and the cylindrical wall may be provided at its lower end with three apert-ures 22 which are adapted to receive cables within thehousing, as will be fully described hereinafter.

The support and anchor driving means 15 may include a bearing plate 24 and an upstanding anchor tiring tube 26 which is connected at its bottom end to the top of the bearing plate. The bottom end of the firing tube 26 may open through the bearing plate 24 and housed within the tiring tube is an anchor 28 which is directed downwardly for tiring through the tube opening. plates 30 may be welded to the exterior of the firing tube 26 and the top of the bearing plate 24 so as to provide reinforcement.

The anchor 28 may include a lower cylindrical rod 32 which is rigidly connected to and aligned with an upper cylindrical tube 34. The lower cylindrical rod 32 may be partially inserted within the cylindrical tube 34 so as to close off the bottom end of the tube 34, leaving the remainder of the tube open. Connected to the bottom end of the cylindrical rod 32 is a conical shaped nose 36 which is capable of cutting through the material in the bottom of the water. A pair of ilukes 38 may be pivoted at their bottom ends to the bottom of the rod 32 immediately above the anchor nose 36 so that the flukes may be rotated between a closed position against the rod 32, as shown in FIG. 4, to an open position, as shown in FIG. 5. An arm 40 may be pivotally connected at one end to each respective fluke 3S and `may be slidably connected at an opposite end to rod 32 by -a crosswise bar 42 which rides within an internal slot 44 along the rod 32. The internal slot 44 may be terminated at a predetermined distance above the bottom end of rod 32 so that the ukes 38 will open at an acute angle with respect to the rod 32, as shown in FIG. 5. Accordingly, after driving the anchor 28 into the bottom of the water an upward pull on the anchor will cause the ukes 38 to open. If desired, the upper end of each uke 38 may be slightly ared so as to enhance the opening operation of the flukes.

At the upper end of the anchor rod 34 is pivotally connected a U-shaped swivel 46 which is capable of pivoting to one side of the tube 34 so as to leave the top end of the tube open. A cable 48 is connected by an eye 50 to the swivel 46 and may extend from the tiring tube 26 to a respective aperture 22 within the housing 14 for -a purpose which will be described fully hereinafter.

The anchor 28 may be driven into the floor of the water explosively as shown in FIGS. 4 and 5. This may be accomplished by providing a rod 52 which is mounted within the tiring tube 26 so as to extend downwardly and slidably within the anchor tube 34. The rod 32 terminates a distance above the bottom closed end of the anchor tube 34 so as to provide a space for a charge of propellant 54. An ignitor wire 56 is connected to a top end of the firing tube 26 and may extend downwardly within the rod 52 until it terminates at a squib 53 adjacent the `charge of propellant 54. The ignitor wire 56 may extend in an opposite direction from the tiring tube 26 along a respective frame assembly leg 12 'and then into the housing 14 to an actuator which will be described fully hereinafter. It is to be understood that while an explosive firing means has been described for driving the anchor 28 into the bottom of the water, other driving Triangular web means may be employed, such as pneumatic power or even the water .pressure itself.

A cable reservoir 58 may be mounted on the top of the bearing plate 24 adjacent to the tiring tube 26. The cable reservoir 58 may be open at its top as well as its bottom with the bottom opening being open through the bearing plate 24. A pulley 60 may be connected to a respective frame leg 12 by a pair of plates 62 so as to substantially overlie the top opening in the reservoir 58 as well as the bottom area in which the anchor 28 is to be driven. Prior to firing the anchor 28, as shown in FIG. 4, the cable extends from the anchor swivel 46 downwardly within the tiring tube 26, through the bottom opening in the firing tube 26, into the cable reservoir 58 where it is coiled to provide a suflicient length, over the pulley 60 and then into the housing 14 as described hereinabove. Accordingly, after tiring the anchor 28, as shown in FIG. 5, the holding power of the anchor 28 can be transferred substantially upward from the anchor to the pulley 60 and thereafter substantially horizontally to the housing 14.

Mounted within a lower portion of housing 14 is a cable winding assembly which is capable of winding each of the cables 48 until they are drawn tightly against the driven anchors 28. The cable winding assembly may include three separate drums 64 which are rotatably mounted within the housing 14 by a shaft 66. The shaft 66 extends along the longitudinal axis of the housing 14 and is journaled within a plurality of bearings 68 which are in turn mounted to transverse plates 70 within the housing. Each of the cables 48 is connected to a respective drum 64 and is capable of being wound thereon.

Mounted within the housing 14 above the winding as sembly is a motor 72 and a gear box 74, the motor having an output shaft which is connected to the gear box and the gear box having a nal stage gear (not shown) connected to the uppermost winding assembly shaft 66. The gear box may be` supported by one of the transverse plates 7) and another transverse plate 70 may support the motor 72. The plate 78 supporting the gear box 74l may also seal the gear box from the water environment. Mounted on still further transverse plates 70 and within the housing 14 is a pair of batteries 76 for providing the necessary current to operate the motor 74 and ignite the squibs 53.

Mounted on one of the transverse plates 70 is an actuation means 78 which may draw current from batteries 76 through batttery cables 80 and ymay be operatively connected to the motor 72 by a lead 82 and further may be operatively connected to the propellant ignitor squibs 53 by the ignitor wires 56. Accordingly, upon operation of the actuation means 78 the motor is driven so as to operate the cable drums 64 and current is fed through the ignitor wires 56 to ignite the propellant charge 54 and drive the anchor 28 into the floor of the water.

The actuation means may be remotely operated by radio control from a ship at the surface of the water. This may be' accomplished by providing the actuation -means 78 with a small receiver (not shown) which is responsive to a transmitter at the ship. The actuation means receiver may have two channels, one channel for operating the motor 72 and the other channel for igniting the propellant. Since remote control between a transmitter and a receiver is so well known in the art it will not be described in any more detail herein. If desired, leads could be run directly from the motor 72 and the propellant squib 53 to the surface ship, however, these leads may become quite long when the anchoring apparatus 10 is operated at great depths within the ocean.

A cable 84 may be connected between the `mooring eye 20 and a surface ship. This cable may be used for lowering the anchoring apparatus into the water until it comes to rest on the bottom thereof. The unitary compact construction of the anchoring apparatus enables it to be placed at a predetermined location on the bottom of the water.

Often the bottom of the water is irregular, as shown in FIG. 2. In order that the bearing plates 24 will provide l a good bearing support for the anchoring apparatus on an irregular bottom, the support and anchor driving means may be pivotally connected to a respective one of the frame legs 12. This may be accomplished by a ba-ll and socket joint, as shown in FIG. 4. A flange 86 may extend radially from the tiring tube 26 for the support of a ball 88 and a socket extension 90 may be mounted at the end of the frame leg 12 so as to receive the ball. Each socket extension 90 may be provided with a release mechanism so that the socket extension 90 may be released from the ball 88. Accordingly, the ball and socket joint enables the support and anchor driving means 15 to be pivoted in any vertical plane. As shown in FIG. 2, the left support and anchor driving means 15 is located on a lower portion of the bottom yof the water than the right support and Aanchor driving means 15. In spite of this irregularity in the bottom, both support and anchor driving means 15 rest .substantially llat on the bottom by the pivoting action described above.

In the `operation -of the anchoring apparatus the cable 84 may be used .to lower the anchoring apparatus 10 into the water until it 4comes to rest on' the bottom of the water. At that time the bearing plates 24 are pivoted until the anchoring apparatus provides a good bearing support. After the anchoring apparatus has come to rest at a desired location on the bottom of the water the radio transmitter at the support ship may be used to actuate a receiver channel in the actuation means 78 so as to re the anchors 28 into the bottom of the water. After the anchors 28 have been red the radio transmitter may be used to activate another receiver channel in the actuation means 78 so as to drive the motor 72. This will cause the cable drums 64 to reel in the cables 48. Upon applying a tension to the cables 48, the ukes 38 of the anchors 28 will open and secure the anchors 28 to the bottom material. The motor 72 can be of a predetermined power capacity so that it will stall out when the ukes 38 open or alternatively, a limiting switch may be used in conjunction with the motor to allow itto make only a specied number of turns. After the cables 48 have been tensioned the ancho-ring apparatus is fully operative for anchoring purposes. Various objects, whether oating or submerged, may then be anchored to the anchoring apparatus at the mooring eye or by connections to the frame legs 12 and 18.

It is to be noted that upon iiring the anchor 28 that the swivel 46 will be t-o one side of the anchor tube 34 and will not interfere therewith. After the anchor 28 is driven into the bottom of the water the cable 48 will follow the anchor out lof the firing tube 26 and will then commence to pay out of the cable reservoir 58. By locating the pulley 60 so as to substantially -overlie the cable reservoir 58 and the bottom area where the anchor 28 is driven, a substantially vertical pull is applied between the pulley 60 and the anchor 28, as shown in FIG. 5. This will provide for a maximum holding power at the pulleys 60 against any upward force.

It is now readily apparent that the present invention provides a unique anchoring apparatus and had advantages long sought for in the anchoring art. The anchoring apparatus is compact and yet has unusual holding power in all directions whether the forces be applied downwardly, horizontally or upwardly. The unique operation of the anchoring apparatus 10 enables it to be installed at any known depth within the ocean. By providing ball and socket joints between the frame legs 12 and the 4support and anchor driving means 15, the anchoring apparatus will providea good bearing support even on an irregular bottom of water. Further by locating the pulleys 60 in a predetermined location, maximum holding power is provided for the anchoring apparatus against upward pulls.

I claim:

1. An underwater anchoring apparatus which is fixable to the bottom of a body of water comprising:

a frame assembly having atop and a bottom;

a housing mounted within said frame assembly;

support and anchor driving mean-s mounted at a plurality of respective locations on said frame assembly for providing bearing support and for driving anchors downwardly into the bottom of the water;

a cable connected to each respective anchor and extending therefrom into said housing;

a -cable winding assembly mounted within said housing, each of said cables being connected to the winding assembly so as to be capable of being wound thereon; and

means within said housing for driving said cable winding assembly whereby after driving the anchors into the bottom of the water the frame can be drawn tight against the bottom by winding said cables on the cable winding assembly.

2. An underwater anchoring apparatus which is xable to the bottom of a body of water comprising:

a frame assembly having at least three legs which are joined at their tops and which slope downwardly and terminate at their bottom ends substantially in a common plane;

an elongated housing which is joined to the tops of the legs and which extends downwardly generally along the central axis of said frame;

support and anchor driving means connected to the bottom end of each respective leg for providing bearing support at each leg end and for driving a respective anchor downwardly into the bottom of the water;

a cable connected to each respective anchor and extending therefrom into said housing;

a cable winding assembly mounted within said housing, each of said cables being connected to the winding assembly so as to be capable of being wound thereon; and

means within said housing for driving said cable winding assembly whereby after driving the anchors into the bottom of the water the frame can be drawn tight against the bottom by winding said cables on the cable winding assembly.

3. An underwater anchoring apparatus as claimed in claim 2 wherein:

the support and anchor driving means is pivotally connected to the bottom end of each respective leg.

4. An underwater 4anchoring apparatus as claimed in claim 2 wherein:

a pulley is connected to each leg so as to substantially overlie the bottom area in which the respective anchor will be driven; and

each of the cables extending over a respective pulley.

5. An underwater anchoring apparatus as claimed in claim 2 wherein:

the support of the support and anchor driving means includes a bearing plate which is adapted to rest on the bottom of the water;

the anchor driving means includes an upstanding blast tube mounted on said4 bearing plate and opens downwardly therethrough;

each of said anchors being located within a respective one of the blast tubes;

a cable reservoir mounted on said bearing plate adjacent said blast tube and opening upwardly as well as downwardly through said bearing plate; and each of said cables extending into a respective reservoir and into a respective blast tube where it is connected to one of the anchors.

6. An underwater anchoring apparatus as claimed in claim `5 wherein:

each of said blast tubes is pivotally connected to a respective end of one of said legs.

7. An underwater anchoring apparatus as claimed in claim 5 wherein:

a pulley is connected to each leg so as to substantially overlie a respective cable reservoir; and each of the cables extending over a respective pulley. 8. An anchoring apparatus as claimed in claim 2 wherein:

the cable winding assembly includes drum means mounted with its axis of rotation along the longitudinal axis of said housing; and the driving means is connected to the drum means so as to be capable of simultaneously winding the cables on said drum means. 9. `An anchoring apparatus as claimed in claim 2 iucluding:

means responsive to remote control, mounted within said housing and operatively connected to each anchor driving means and the cable winding drive :means for selective actuation thereof. 10. An underwater anchoring apparatus which is xable to the bottom of a body of water comprising:

a tripodial frame assembly having three legs which are joined at their tops and which slope downwardly and terminate at their bottom ends substantially in a common plane;

an elongated housing which is joined to the tops o f said legs and which extends downwardly generally along the central axis of said frame, said housing having a mooring eye mounted at a top thereof;

support and explosive anchor driving means connected to the bottom end of each respective leg for providing bearing support at each leg and for driving a respective anchor downwardly into the bottom of the water;

the support of the support and explosive anchor driving means including a bearing plate which is adapted to rest on the bottom of the water;

said explosive anchor driving means including `an upstanding blast tube mounted on said bearing plate and opening downwardly therethrough;

each of the anchors being located within a respective blast tube;

a cable reservoir mounted on said bearing plate adjacent said blast tube and opening upwardly as well as downwardly through said bearing plate;

a pulley connected to each leg and located so as to substantially overlie a respective cable reservoir;

a cable winding assembly mounted within said housing;

a cable connected to each respective anchor, wound within a respective cable reservoir, extending over a respective pulley and connected to said cable winding assembly;

means within said casing for driving said cable winding assembly; and

means responsive to remote control, mounted within said housing and operatively connected to each explosive anchor driving means and the anchor assembly driving means for selective actuation thereof.

No references cited.

MILTON BUCHLER, Primaly Examiner'.

T. M. BLIX, Assistant Examiner.

Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1 *None
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3465356 *22 Jan 19682 Sep 1969Dresser IndApparatus and methods for use in well bores
US4576521 *30 Dec 198318 Mar 1986Joseph ConradPermanent mooring method and arrangement
US6895884 *27 Feb 200424 May 2005Velazquez Victor EliAnchoring systems and methods for anchoring an object
WO2006112821A1 *15 Apr 200526 Oct 2006Victor Eli VelazquezAnchoring systems and methods for anchoring an object
WO2011147482A1 *5 Nov 20101 Dec 2011Siemens AktiengesellschaftGround anchor, offshore foundation using a ground anchor and method of establishing an offshore foundation
WO2014011725A1 *10 Jul 201316 Jan 2014Asplung KyleSea floor anchoring apparatus
Classifications
U.S. Classification114/295, 405/234
International ClassificationB63B21/28, B63B21/24
Cooperative ClassificationB63B21/28
European ClassificationB63B21/28