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Publication numberUS3229417 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date18 Jan 1966
Filing date29 Apr 1963
Publication numberUS 3229417 A, US 3229417A, US-A-3229417, US3229417 A, US3229417A
InventorsVictor Stanzel
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Pressure fluid jet propelled model vehicle
US 3229417 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 18, 1966 v. STANZEL PRESSURE FLUID JET PROPELLED MODEL VEHICLE 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed April 29, 1963 V/c far Jzanz e INVENTOR.

BY 4M4 KW Jan. 18, 1966 v. STANZEL 3,229,417

PRESSURE FLUID JET PROPELLED MODEL VEHICLE Filed April 29, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 We for 670/72 9 INVENTOR.

A T TOR/V5 K United States Patent 3,229,417 PRESSURE FLUID JET PROPELLED MODEL VEHICLE Victor Stanzel, P-O. Box 171, Schulenhurg, Tex. Filed Apr. 29, 1963, Ser. No. 276,605 11 Claims. (Cl. 4676) This application is a continuation-in-part of a prior copending application, Serial No. 250,642, filed January 10, 1963, by the same applicant.

This invention relates to model vehicles and more particularly to jet propelled model aircraft, or the like, of the type in which pressure fluid for propulsion is supplied from an elastic walled expansible pressure fluid container of relatively heavy-walled construction.

The invention is capable of application for the propulsion of various kinds of toy or model vehicles and finds particular utility in connection with the propulsion of model aircraft by means of a jet which is supplied with pressure fluid from an elastic walled container, such as a relatively thick-walled rubber tube, which may be inflated from any suitable source of fluid under pressure, and in which a high pressure of the fluid supplied to the jet is maintained during the deflation of the container.

In the use of elastic walled pressure fluid containers of the thick-walled type, such as rubber tubing in which the ratio of wall thickness to the internal diameter of the tube in its deflated condition ranges from 1:4 to 1:1, the repeated inflation and deflation of the container often results in weakening of the container wall to the extent that the same may suddenly burst. The use of pressure fluid containers of this type requires the employment of relatively high pressures ranging from to 50 pounds per square inch, so that the bursting of a thick-walled container at such a pressure may result in destruction of the model and possible danger to the user.

The present invention has for an important object the provision of a model vehicle which is jet propelled by pressure fluid from an elastic walled, expansible pressure fluid supply container and in which means is embodied for preventing damage to the vehicle or the user in the event that the container should burst while in use.

Another object of the invention is to provide means for confining and releasing the explosive effect resulting from the bursting of a thick-walled elastic pressure fluid container of the kind mentioned.

A further object of the invention is the provision of means for preventing the over-inflation of an elastic-walled pressure fluid supply container of the type referred to.

Another object of the invention is the provision in a model vehicle of the jet propelled type, of a pressure fluid supply source including a thick-walled, elastic, expansible pressure fluid container, and an expansible, relatively thin, elastic-walled enclosure surrounding the container into which fluid from the container may escape upon bursting of the container and which has an opening through which fluid entering the enclosure may readily escape without disruption of the closure.

The above and other important advantages of the invention will be readily apparent from the following detailed description of a preferred embodiment of the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, wherein:

FIGURE 1 is a perspective view, on a somewhat reduced scale, illustrating a preferred embodiment of the invention, the same being shown as applied to a model vehicle of the jet propelled aircraft type;

FIGURE 2 is a side elevation view, partly in longitudinal, central, cross-section, of the jet propulsion mechanism of the invention, including the pressure fluid supply container, separated from the the surrounding parts of the vehicle;

FIGURE 3 is a view, similar to that of FIGURE 2 illustrating the jet propulsion mechanism with the pressure fluid supply container in an inflated condition and showing in dotted lines the effect of sudden bursting of the inflated container;

FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary, longitudinal, central, cross-sectional view of the forward end portion of the pressure fluid container with its safety enclosure, showing details of construction and arrangement of the over-inflation preventing means of the container in closed condition;

FIGURE 5 is a view similar to that of FIGURE 4 showing the over-inflation preventing device in an open or inflation limiting position;

FIGURE 6 is a fragmentary side elevational View partly broken away and partly in cross-section and on a somewhat reduced scale to the views of FIGURES 4 and 5 showing the pressure fluid container, with its safety enclosure and inflation limiting liner in position in the fuselage of the model aircraft, the container being shown in its inflated condition, preparatory to placing the craft in flight; and

FIGURE 7 is a fragmentary, longitudinal, central, cross-sectional view of the front end portion of the housing 18, as illustrated in FIGURE 1, showing details of structure of the releasable nose cone structure thereof.

Referring now to the drawings in greater detail the invention is illustrated herein in connection with its use in the propulsion of model aircraft of the jet propelled type, it being understood that the invention is capable of other uses where it may be desirable to provide a source of pressure fluid to be discharged from an elastic walled container at a relatively constant rate during the deflation of the container.

The model aircraft of the present illustration is of the type which is solely aerodynamically supported in flight, such as the airplane shown in FIGURE 1, having a fuselage 10 provided with wings 12, 12 and a tail structure 14 including stabilizers 16 of usual construction. The fuselage is provided at its forward portion with a forwardly extending tubular portion or housing 18, which is open at its forward end and formed at its rear end with an external, longitudinally rearwardly extending, open, outwardly flaring neck 20.

The body or fuselage of the aircraft is preferably of very light weight, hollow construction, made of thin sheet plastic material formed in two halves which may be vacuum molded, shaped to be cemented together along a central, longitudinal plane. Each of the halves of the body is formed with an external, outwardly extending peripheral flange 19, so that when the parts are assembled an external, longitudinal reenforcing and rigidifying rib extends centrally about the body.

The propulsion mechanism of the aircraft comprises an elongated, tubular, elastic walled, expansible fluid container 24, located in the tubular portion 18 of the fuselage, and which is formed of suitable elastic material such as latex, rubber, or the like. The container in its unexpanded or deflated condition is preferably of relatively small diameter, as compared with the diameter of the housing 18 and is also of strong thick-walled construction designed to hold pressure fluid, such as air or other gaseous fluid under substantial pressure when inflated. The ratio of the wall thickness of the container to its inside diameter may be as high as 1:1, but may vary substantially from about 1:1 to about 1:4, to provide a container having ample contractive strength to provide a relatively high working pressure while presenting only a minimum lateral cross-sectional area when inflated.

Thus, the elastic walled container will be expanded by the introduction of fluid at a predetermined pressure, and will continue to expand under the application of pressure but the pressure in the container will not increase beyond that required for expansion. During the inflating of the container the container will .expand to a uniform diameter throughout substantially its entire length. By way of example, a latex tube having a wall thickness of and an inside diameter of 1 4 providing a ratio of wall thickness to inside diameter of 1:2 will expand uniformly throughout its length to an outside diameter of approximately 1 /2" when inflated and will provide a uniform pressure of about thirty pounds per square inch during deflation. Similarly, a latex tube having an internal diameter of A and a wall thickness of to provide a ratio of wall thickness to internal diameter of 1:3, will also expand uniformly throughout its length to an outside diameter of approximately 1 /2" with a constant working pressure of about twenty pounds per square inch until deflated. As a further example, a latex tube having a wall thickness of 7 and an inside diameter of 4;", a ratio of wall thickness to inside diameter of 1:1.3, will expand uniformally throughout its length to an outside diameter of approximately 1%" when inflated and provide a working pressure of approximately thirty pounds per square inch, while a latex tube having a wall thickness of and an inside diameter of /8", a ratio of wall thickness to inside diameter of 1:4, will expand throughout its length to an outside diameter of approximately 1%, when inflated, and will provide a working pressure of approximately twelve pounds per square inch. In the present illustration it is preferable to make use of an elastic latex tube having an inside diameter of /8" and a wall thickness of Me which will expand uniformally to an outside diameter at approximately 1 /8" and produce a working pressure of approximately forty pounds per square inch.

The above examples illustrate that the working pressure that a given latex tube will provide when inflated is more or less proportional to the wall thickness of said tube in the un-inflated state, while the outside diameter to which a latex tube will expand when inflated is more or less proportional to the inside diameter of said tube in the un-inflated state.

The elastic container is closed at its forward end by a plug 26, having a central bore 28 which is open at its outer end and which is closed at its inner end by an externally enlarged head 30. The plug 26 is also provided with a side port 32 which opens into the interior of the container beneath the head 30 and which is in communication with the bore 28. The plug 26 is retained in the forward end of the container by a band or tie 34, extending exteriorly about the forward end portion of the container to press the same into fluidtight engagement with the exterior of the plug.

At its rear end the container is attached to a jet device, through which fluid under pressure in the container may flow outwardly, when the container is inflated, to exert a forward propulsive force on the aircraft. The jet device comprises a tapered plug 36, having a forwardly extending tubular neck portion 38, provided at its forward end with an external annular enlargement 40, which neck is extended into the rear end of the container and attached thereto by a band or tie 42, extending externally about the rear end portion of the container to bind the same to the neck, at a location beneath the enlargement 40, to form a fluidtight connection between the jet device and the container. The plug 36 may also be provided with a rear end nozzle portion 44, which is formed with a restricted passageway 46 in communication with the interior of the neck 33 through an internal bore 48 in the plug, whereby fluid under pressure in the container may flow outwardly through the nozzel 44 to provide a jetting effect by which the aircraft is propelled.

The propulsion mechanism includes a relatively thinwalled, elastic, expansible, safety tubing or enclosure 50, surrounding the container 24 and extending from end to end thereof throughout its entire length and somewhat beyond the forward end of the container. This enclosure has an internal diameter approximately the same as the exterior diameter of the container, when deflated, is open at its forward end as indicated at 52, and is attached at its rear end to the container, as by means of a band or tie 54, extending about the exterior of the enclosure to bind the same securely to the exterior of the container to form a fluidtight seal therewith. The enclosure is of relatively thin-walled easily expansible construction, so that it will expand readily with the container, and in the event that the container should burst when inflated, the enclosure will be forward expanded, as indicated in dotted lines in FIGURE 3, by the sudden outflow of fluid from the container, the force of the escaping fluid being allowed to flow from the enclosure through the open forward end 52 thereof, so that fragments produced by the bursting of the container will not be violently scattered about, and the force of the bursting container will be absorbed and released without danger to the user.

The invention further embodies an internal liner or sleeve 56, positioned in the housing 18, in surrounding relation to the pressure fluid container and safety enclosure, as illustrated in FIGURE 6, which liner is preferably formed of a relatively inelastic, non-stretchable material such as a polyester plastic, such as Mylar, or the like. The liner is suitably attached to the interior of the housing, which may be provided in its forward, open end, with an internal reenforcing ring or plug 58. The liner is for the purpose of preventing overexpansion of the container and safety enclosure to an extent to burst or damage the housing and to prevent damage to the housing in the event of bursting of the container, the internal diameter of the liner being sufficiently large to permit expansion of the safety enclosure to an extent to allow the expanding fluid to flow out of the open end of the enclosure.

The plug 26, located within the forward end of the container 24 serves as a safety valve to prevent over-inflation of the container. Upon inflation of the container the container will be expanded to a substantially uniform external diameter, throughout the major portion of its length, as best seen in FIGURE 4, the outer end portion of the container being in sealing Contact with the plug 26 about the head 30 of the plug and the shank thereof to close the port 32. When the container has been fully inflated, however, the wall of the container will be extended away from the head 30 and port 32, as illustrated in FIG- URE 5, to open the port to allow the escape of fluid from the interior of the container through the bore 28, thus limiting the inflation of the container and preventing overinflation by the application of too high a pressure or too great a volume in filling the container. When the excess of fluid in the container has leaked off through the port 32 the wall of the container will contract into sealing engagement with the head 30 and port 32, as shown in FIGURE 4, to prevent further escape of fluid through the plug 26. By this means the loading of the container to a bursting pressure will be effectively prevented.

As illustrated in FIGURES l and 7, the forward end of the housing 18 may have an internal plug 58 therein which is provided with openings 60 therethrough for the rapid escape of pressure from the housing in the event of bursting of the container 24 or the opening of the port 32 of the plug 26, and also having a central, forwardly extending lug or projection 62. A nose cone 64, formed of light, resilient plastic foam is attached to the plug 58', by means of a central recess 66 into which the projection 62 is pressed. The nose cone provides a cushion or shock absorber to protect the aircraft from being damaged by impact against some object while in flight. In the event of bursting of the container 24 or sudden opening of the overinflation preventing valve 26, the resulting pressure within the housing will blow off the nose cone to permit the rapid escape of pressure through openings 60 without injury to the housing.

In making use of the invention, constructed as described above, the jet apparatus is inserted in the housing 18 through the neck 20 at the rear end of the housing, the container being in its deflated condition, as seen in FIG- URE 2, and the tapered plug 36 is tightly fitted into the neck, as best illustrated in FIGURE 6. With the container thus inserted in the housing the container may be inflated from any suitable source of fluid under pressure substantially higher than the pressure to which the container is to be inflated, as by means of a flexible tube, or the like, into which the nozzle 44 may be tightly inserted. When the container has been fully inflated, the supply tube may be removed from the nozzle 44 and the outer end of the nozzle closed by the users finger preparatory to launching the aircraft. The aircraft may then be released, opening the nozzle 44, whereupon the outflow of pressure fluid from the container through the jet will propel the craft forwardly in flight.

Because of the uniform expansion of the container when inflated, the pressure of the fluid discharged through the jet will be maintained substantially constant during the deflation of the container, so that the aircraft will be propelled in flight by a substantially constant propulsive force for a relatively long period.

The model aircraft is adjusted, aerodynamically to fly in a level path, commonly referred to as a flat glide when not being propelled by the power of the jet. Model aircraft of this type, however, when so adjusted, have a tendency to climb sharply or loop upwardly under the propulsive force of the jet. This tendency is counteracted in the present invention by fixing the rear end of the elastic container 24 to the housing by the plug 36, so that when the container is inflated the center of gravity of the craft is shifted longitudinally forwardly sufliciently to offset the excessive climbing or looping tendency of the craft during the propulsion of the craft forward by the jet. As the fluid is discharged during propulsion of the craft the length of the container will gradually diminish, so that the center of gravity is progressively shifted rearwardly, whereby the craft is maintained in a more or less level condition during propulsion and when the container has been deflated the center of gravity will then be such that the craft will continue its flight in a substantially flat glide.

It will thus be seen that the invention, constructed as described above, provides jet propulsion mechanism for model vehicles and the like which is relatively safe in use, and in which means is provided for eflectively preventing over-inflation of the elastic pressure fluid container from which operating fluid is supplied to the jet.

The invention is disclosed herein in connection with certain preferred embodiments of the same, but it is to be understood that these are intended by way of illustration only, and that various changes may be made in the construction and arrangement of the various parts within the spirit of the invention and the scope of the appended claims.

Having thus clearly shown and described the invention, what is claimed as new and desired to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. In propulsion mechanism for a jet propelled model vehicle having an elongated hollow body and rearwardly directed jet means on the body positioned to propel the vehicle forwardly upon the discharge of pressure fluid through the jet, a tubular, elastic, flexible-walled pressure fluid container in the body having a discharge outlet in communication with said jet to discharge fluid under pressure rearwardly through the jet, and an enclosure member formed of expansible material in the body surrounding the container, one end of said enclosure member being closed and means at the other end of said 6 enclosure member for discharging pressure fluid only upon rupture of said container.

2. In propulsion mechanism for a jet propelled model vehicle having an elongated hollow body and rearwardly directed jet means on the body positioned to propel the vehicle forwardly upon the discharge of pressure fluid through the jet, a tubular, elastic, flexible-Walled pressure fluid container in the body having a discharge outlet in communication with said jet to discharge fluid under pressure rearwardly through the jet, an enclosure member formed of expansible material in the body surrounding the container, one end of said enclosure member being closed and means at the other end of said enclosure member for discharging pressure fluid only upon rupture of said container, and a sleeve formed of non-stretchable material in the body surrounding said member and whose ends are open.

3. In propulsion mechanism for a jet propelled model vehicle having an elongated hollow body and rearwardly directed jet means on the body positioned to propel the vehicle forwardly upon the discharge of pressure fluid through the jet, a tubular, elastic, flexible-walled pressure fluid container in the body having a discharge outlet in communication with said jet to discharge fluid under pressure rearwardly through the jet, an enclosure member formed of expansible material in the body surrounding and in contact with the external surface of said container throughout substantially the entire length of the container, one end of said enclosure member being closed and means at the other end of said enclosure member for discharging pressure fluid only upon rupture of said container.

4. In propulsion mechanism for a jet propelled model vehicle having an elongated hollow body and rearwardly directed jet means on the body positioned to propel the vehicle forwardly upon the discharge of pressure fluid rearwardly through the jet, a tubular, elastic, flexiblewalled pressure fluid container in the body having a discharge outlet in communication with said jet to discharge fluid under pressure rearwardly through the jet, said container having a ratio of wall thickness to internal diameter of from about one to one to about one to four in its unexpanded condition and a thin-walled enclosure member formed of expansible material in the body surrounding the container, one end of said enclosure member being closed and means at the other end of said enclosure member for discharging pressure fluid only upon rupture of said container.

5. In propulsion mechanism for a jet propelled model vehicle having an elongated hollow body and rearwardly directed jet means on the body positioned to propel the vehicle forwardly upon the discharge of pres-sure fluid rearwardly through the jet, a tubular, elastic, flexiblewalled pressure fluid container in the body having a discharge outlet in communication with said jet to discharge fluid under pressure rearwardly through the jet, said container having a ratio of wall thickness to internal diameter of from about one to one to about one to four in the unexpanded condition of the container, a thinwalled closure member formed of expansible material in the body surrounding the container, one end of said enclosure member being closed and means at the other end of said enclosure member for discharging pressure fluid only upon rupture of said container, and a sleeve formed of non-stretchable material in the body surrounding said member and whose ends are open.

6. In propulsion mechanism for a jet propelled model vehicle having an enlogated hollow body and rearwardly directed jet means on the body positioned to propel the vehicle forwardly upon the discharge of pressure fluid through the jet, a tubular, elastic, flexible-walled pressure fluid container in the body having a rear end discharge outlet in communication with said jet to discharge fluid under pressure rearwardly through the jet, closure means for the forward end of the container having a longitudinal bore whose inner end is closed and whose outer end is open to the exterior of the container, said closure means having a port located in the container, in communication with said bore in position to be closed by the surrounding wall of the container when the container is deflated and to be opened when the pressure in the container exceeds a predetermined pressure.

7. In propulsion mechanism for a jet propelled model vehicle having an elongated hollow body and rearwardly directed jet means on the body positioned to propel the vehicle forwardly upon the discharge of pressure fluid through the jet, a tubular, elastic, flexible-walled pressure fluid container in the body having a rear end discharge outlet in communication with said jet to discharge fluid under pressure rearwardly through the jet, an elongated plug extending into the forward end of the container and having an externally enlarged head at its inner end of larger diameter than the internal diameter of the container when the container is deflated and a longitudinal bore whose outer end is open, said plug also having a port in communication with said bore and opening into the interior of the container longitudinally outwardly of said head and means forming a fluidtight seal between the plug and container longitudinally outwardly of said port.

8. Jet propulsion mechanism comprising an elongated, inflatable, elastic walled pressure fluid container having a discharge outlet at one end, jet forming means connected to the container in communication with said outlet and through which fluid under pressure may flow out of the container, means for securing the container to an object to be propelled, an external expansible enclosure member surrounding the container, and means for securing the member at one end to said one end of the container to close the member at one end, and means at the other end of said enclosure member for discharging pressure fluid only upon rupture of said container.

9. Jet propulsion mechanism comprising an elongated, inflatable, elastic walled pressure fluid container having a discharge outlet at one end, jet forming means connected to the container in communication with said outlet and through which fluid under pressure may flow out of the container, means for securing the container to an object to be propelled, an external expansible enclosure member surrounding the container, means for securing the member at one end to said one end of the container to close the member at one end, the other end of the member being open, and means for allowing an outflow of fluid from said other end of the container when the container reaches a predetermined condition of inflation.

10. Jet propulsion mechanism comprising a tubular, elastic, flexible-walled pressure fluid container having a discharge outlet at one end, jet forming means connected to said outlet and through which fluid under pressure may flow out of the container, said container having a ratio of wall thickness to internal diameter of from about one to one to about one to four in the deflated condition of the container, an enclosure member formed of expansible material surrounding the container, one end of said enclosure member being closed and means at the other end of said enclosure member for discharging pressure fluid only upon rupture of said container and means for securing the container to an object to be propelled.

11. Jet propulsion mechanism comprising a tubular, elastic, flexible-walled pressure fluid container having a discharge outlet at one end, jet forming means connected to said one end and through which fluid may flow out of the container through said outlet, an elongated plug extending into the other end of the container and having an externally enlarged head at its inner end of larger diam ter than the internal diameter of the container when the container is deflated and a longitudinal bore whose outer end is open, said plug also having a port in communication with the bore and opening into the interior of the container longitudinally outwardly of said head and means forming a fluidtight seal between the plug and container longitudinally outwardly of said port.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,505,526 4/1950 Costea 4644 RICHARD C. PINKHAM, Primary Examiner. LOUIS R. PRINCE, Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2505526 *17 Oct 194725 Apr 1950Louis CosteaInflated elastic body within another inflated elastic body
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4096660 *2 Sep 197627 Jun 1978Ralph William HBalloon powered airplane
US6158619 *5 Jan 199912 Dec 2000D'andrade Bruce M.Bladder gun with body mounted nozzle and quick-charged system
US62574485 Jan 199910 Jul 2001D'andrade Bruce M.Backpack externally chargeable bladder gun assembly
Classifications
U.S. Classification446/56
Cooperative ClassificationA63H27/06