US 3226134 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec- 28, 1965 E. BREIDTHARDT 3,226,134
SETS OF REPRODUCTION TRANSFER SHEETS Filed D66. 10, 1962 I I Il l Il l Il l COLOR LAYER tm/MMM United States Patent O 3,226,134 SETS F REPRDUC'HN TRANSFER SHEETS Edgar Breidthardt, Dusseldorf, Germany, assigner to Firma Ancar A.G., Aarau, Aargau, Switzerland Filed Dec. 10, 1962, Ser. No. 243,466 Claims priority, application Germany, Dec. 14, 1961, R 31,693 7 Claims. (Cl. 282-48) This invention relates to copying sheets and a method of transferring typewriting and handwriting by means of these sheets which are made in such a way that the writing is transferred without the use of a carbon paper or copying paper placed between the sheets.
Copying processes are already known in which copying papers, for example carbon papers of various kinds, hectograph paper and the like, are used, whose reverse sides are provided with a specially hard ink layer or with a resin coating over the usual ink layer and therefore do not transfer any copies on to ordinary writing paper. These copying papers are intended to be used in conjunction with paper whose surface carries a wax coating which is intended to receive the copy. Such a process involves the use of the ordinary carbon paper ink mixtures which are only slightly suitable for the said purpose.
Transfer sheets are also known for multiple reproduction by the pressure of the writing, in which a transfer composition is applied to the reverse side -of the writing sheet and a similar or contrasting composition is applied on the upper surface of the next sheet. When the first sheet is written on, the writing is supposed to be transferred without using special intermediate layers, for instance sheets of carbon paper, on to the top surface of the sheet lying below. The said process is in fact only a very primitive one, as on the reverse side of the original writing sheet clay, chalk or a similar material is applied in powder form and the surface of the second sheet is provided with a darker coating of a contrasting colour. A layer so formed is not very stable; for instance it is exposed to attack by moisture, under the influence of which it alters.
A kind of paper has also been described which rst im- -parts copies by heating and pressure, after which any normal kind of paper is used for taking the copies. In this process therefore a heat-active ink coating is softened by raising the temperature and transferred by pressure in the form of a copy. The kind of heat-active substances which are supposed to be used are resins, synthetic plastic substances and the like. To these are further added plasticizers and solvents, while printing inks, pigments and methyl violet are used as colouring agent. Such a process is extraordinarily laborious in actual practice, as for example the material used for transferring the writing must first be made capable of transfer action by raising the temperature.
A carbon paper is also known in which an ink layer kept soft, whose composition is similar to that of a carbon paper ink, is bonded by means of film-forming synthetic plastic substances. By exerting a writing pressure this ink layer is acted on, so that copies are transferred, for the receipt -of which likewise an ordinary paper is used. As constituents for the ink layer of the original sheet synthetic plastic substances, piasticizers, solvents and the usual carbon paper ink substances are used. In this process there are therefore two constituents in action, one being a conveyor means or transfer means for the ink, and further an essentially liquid ink composition, which is mechanically -held fast in the conveyor means.
According to the present invention a copying process for transferring typewriting and handwriting from sheets or foils and also a writing and transfer sheet suitable for performing this process is proposed, which, apart from the continually sought properties, which in practice however particularly when using the usual carbon paper inks are only attainable with difficulty, of xed adhesion and resistance to rubbing, offers the advantage of special cheapness of material and a particularly prolific yield of sheets with `sharply defined lettering. As a special advantage it may be mentioned that even though white sheets are used, not differing in appearance from ordinary paper sheets, it is made possible to transfer a writing appearing coloured, for example black, on the receiving sheet, in the sharpest definition even with a large nurnber of copies.
According to the invention a sheet suitable for writing on and for transfer purposes is produced by providing a white or lightly coloured paper sheet on its upper side, that is, the side turned towards the writing instrument, with an ink layer, consisting for example of a polyvinyl acetate or a high-acetylised compound derived from such an acetate in a strongly coloured condition, for example black, by painting on or impregnating. This ink layer is covered with a white or coloured layer c011- trasting with it, fast to handling or rubbing, consisting `of a polyvinyl chloride, to which if necessary there can be added to deepen the white or coloured colour tone such suitable substances as titanium dioxide, aluminium spar, silicon spar and also dissolved or pigmented colouring agents.
On the reverse side the white or lightly coloured paper sheet receives a coating consisting of a polyethylene coloured white for example, of given molecular range, preferably of a molecular weight from 2000 to 5000. Polyethylenes of this molecular range with a melting point of about to 110 C., preferably 97 to 102 C. have proved to be particularly suitable, the hardness being about 0.3 to 0.5 and the density about 0.92; a high viscosity up to about 4000 cps. with a ow point of C. is preferably to be kept in View. The above mentioned properties make possible a particularly advantageous treatment of the polyethylenes in question and give a particularly satisfactory and sharp image of the writing when a large number of copies is taken.
When using several superimposed sheets of the kind in question, in which the polyacetate or polyacetal side is turned towards the writing instrument or typewriter, the writing pressure results in a removal of the comparatively brittle polyvinyl covering layer of the receiving sheet so that in the places where this covering layer is removed the strong colouration of the acetate or acetal layer lying underneath becomes visible. The rst sheet of a writing pad can be formed on the front side without the two layers in accordance with the invention, while the last sheet on the reverse side can remain untreated.
As a colour impregnation for the upper side of the paper other layer-forming substances are also suitable provided they are not water-soluble.
In order to produce such a paper, a raw material of suitable quality and weight, for example a 20 to 60 gram paper, which may be sized or unsized, but is preferably translucent, is coated or impregnated on the upper side with the aforesaid acetates or acetals. The impregnation or coating may be applied by means of a solution of the acetate or acetal in question.
After this colour coating has dried, the white or coloured covering layer is applied. The thickness of this covering layer may be about 2 to 6 grams per square metre.
Only then is the white or coloured reverse layer, consisting of a polyethylene or polyethylene mixture, for example an A-C-polyethylene, applied. The thickness of the reverse layer may be suitably about 3 to 7 grams per square metre.
Embodiments of the invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawing, in which:
FIGURE 1 shows diagrammatically and in section a copying sheet embodying the invention,
FIGURE 2 shows in diagrammatic representation a writing pad consisting of three superimposed writing sheets in accordance with FIGURE l, and
FIGURE 3 shows diagrammatically a telewriter roll with four superimposed copying papers formed as in FIG- URE 1, which are rolled up in roll form.
In FIGURE l the reference numeral 1 designates a sheet of white or lightly coloured paper. The sheet is covered on the side turned towards the typewriter or pen with a coloured layer 2, for example black, consisting of polyvinyl acetate. On this layer is applied a white covering layer 3, of polyvinyl chloride, while the underside of the paper sheet 1 is provided with a layer 4 consisting of a polyethylene with a molecular range of about 2500.
In FIGURE 2 like reference numerals indicate the same components as in FIGURE 1. Here three sheets of paper 1a, 1b, 1c formed as in FIGURE 1, are superimposed in such a way that the brittle White covering layer 3a, 3b, 3c of the colour layers 2a, 2b, 2c in each case is applied against the polyethylene layer 4a, 4b, 4c of the superimposed sheet.
In FIGURE 3 four sheets 5, 6, 7, 8 of the kind shown in FIGURE 1 are superimposed and rolled up in the form of a roll 9, from which they are gradually drawn off in the course of the writing.
Polyethylenes of the abovementioned molecular range and the other characteristic properties have been found to be particularly suitable as materials for the reverse coating of papers or foils. Certain synthetic resins have also been found to be suitable for transfer of writing in accordance with the invention, for example resins with a chlorodiphenyl or chloro-rubber base, light-resistant phenoland aldehyde-free modified resin esters and their variants, and nitro-compounds of polyvinyl methyl ether or polyvinyl ethyl ether.
The proposed construction of copying sheets offers, by contrast with the usual copying processes, the advantage of dispensing with separate carbon papers or copying papers. This makes itself particularly felt in writing sets of individual forms or endless forms, for example fan-folded sets or telewriter rolls, as here both the insertion of the carbon papers and their removal after the writing is iinished, is completely dispensed with. In producing the copysheets the coating can be applied in the ordinary way, for example by painting on, spraying on, rolling on and so on, on the appropriate side of the foils, for example the sheets of paper.
The layers may be full surface, in strips as desired, or may be applied so as to leave gaps. Furthermore, undesired copyings and imprints can be prevented at given places, by covering, for example at will, the front or reverse side with suitable means, for instance by pressing over.
An interchange of the sides of the foil can be prevented by providing one or both sides with a suitable identifying mark at the margin. In assembling the set of forms it is then only necessary to take care that the layer 4 of the upper sheet always lies on the layer 3 of the writing sheet placed underneath as in FIGURE 2. This method also permits the production of transfer sheets in many coloured variations. In particular it may be mentioned for example that by leaving out the layer 2 and strong colouring layers 3 and 4 a white image of the writing can be obtained.
Suitable compositions for `forming the layer 2 in FIG- URE 1 are:
Example I Parts Polyvinyl acetate 10 to 25 Pigment colouring matter 5 to 20 Ethyl alcohol to 200 Example II Polyvinyl acetal 8 to 15 Pigment colouring matter 5 to 20 Ethyl alcohol 85 to 200 Example III Polyvinyl acetate 7 to 20 Polyvinyl acetal 8 to 15 Pigment colouring matter 5 to 20 Ethyl alcohol 80 to 200 Suitable compositions for forming the layer 3 in FIG- URE 1 are:
Example IV Parts Polyvinyl chloride 10 to 40 Titanium dioxide 15 to 60 Aluminum silicate l0 to 30 H2O 100 to 300 Example V Polyvinyl chloride 10 to 40 Titanium dioxide 5 to 30 Silicon spar 5 to 20 Aluminum spar 10 to 30 H2O 100 to 300 The mixtures of Examples IV and V may also be produced on a basis of ethyl alcohol.
Suitable compositions for forming the layer 4 in FIG- URE 1 are:
Example VI Parts Polyethylene, molecular weight 200G-5000 lOto 40 Chlorodiphenyl resin 25 to 40 Polyvinyl methyl ether 30 to 60 Example VII Polyethylene, molecular weight 20005000 70 to 90 Polyvinyl ethyl ether 15 to 40 Rosin ester resin 15 to 35 I claim:
1. Set of superimposed sheets provided with colour layers and transfer layers serving for multiple reproduction under writing pressure, in which at least two directly superimposed sheets are present, of which the lower sheet is provided on its upper side with a colour layer, which carries a covering layer comprising an organic polymeric film containing polyvinyl chloride as the film forming material made fast to handling and rubbing, and contrasting with the colour of this layer, while the directly superimposed sheet is provided on its side in contact with the said covering layer of the lower sheet with a lifting layer which at the places under writing pressure lifts olf and holds fast the said covering layer of the lower sheet in such a way that at these places the colour layer, which covers the sheet lying under the said covering layer becomess visible, said lifting layer being comprised of polyethylene having a molecular weight of 2000-5000 and a melting point of -ll0 C.
2. Set of superimposed sheets provided with colour layers and transfer layers, serving for multiple reproduction under writing pressure, in which at least two directly superimposed sheets are present, of which the lower sheet is provided on its upper side with a black colour layer containing polyvinyl acetate, which carries a covering layer comprising an organic polymeric iilm of polyvinyl chloride made fast to handling and to rubbing and contrasting with the colour of this layer, while the directly superimposed sheet is provided on its side in contact with the said covering layer of the lower sheet with a lifting layer which at the places subjected t0 writing pressure lifts off and holds fast the said covering layer of the lower sheet in such a way that at these places the colour layer, which covers the sheet, lying under the said covering sheet, becomes visible, said lifting layer being comprised of polyethylene having a molecular weight of 2000-5000 and a melting point of 90-110 C.
3. A set of superimposed sheets as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that a polyethylene with a hardness of about 0.3 to 0.5 is used.
4. Set of superimposed sheets provided with colour layers and transfer layers, serving for multiple reproduction under writing pressure, in which as least two directly superimposed sheets are present, of which the lower sheet is provided on its upper side with a black colour layer containing polyvinyl acetal, which carries a covering layer comprising an organic polymeric film of polyvinyl chloride made fast to handling and to rubbing and contrasting with the colour of this layer, while the directly superimposed sheet is provided on its side in contact with the said covering layer of the lower sheet with a lifting layer which at the places subjected to writing pressure lifts oif and holds fast the said covering layer on the lower sheet in such a way that at these places the colour layer, which covers the sheet, lying under the said covering layer, becomes visible, said lifting layer being comprised of polyethylene having a molecular weight of 2000-5000 and a melting point of 90-110 C.
5. A multiple reproduction set as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that it is formed in roll form in the shape of an endless set.
6. A multiple reproduction set as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the same is made endless as a fanfold set.
7. A manifold copy sheet which neither receives nor transfers coloring matter to or from an adjacent sheet, said manifold copy sheet comprising:
(a) a paper base;
(b) superimposed on said paper base, lifting layer means for lifting olf and holding fast a color covering layer on an adjacent sheet, the functions of lifting off and holding fast being accomplished in only those areas where writing pressure occurs, said lifting layer being comprised of polyethylene having a molecular weight of 2000-5000 and a melting point of -110 C.;
(c) on the other side of said base, a color layer containing coloring matter and a polyvinyl compound for holding the color fast to handling and to rubbing; and
(d) a covering layer superimposed on said color layer,
said covering layer having a contrasting color compared to said color layer, being comprised of an organic polymeric film of polyvinyl chloride and having a preferential affinity for a lifting layer in those areas where writing pressure is applied.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 627,229 6/1899 Foster 117-36.3
680,637 8/1901 Brown 117-363 1,845,568 2/1932 Strawn 117-36.3 2,035,768 3/1936 Sherman et al 117-361 2,153,553 4/1939 Fawcett et al. 2,318,096 5/1943 Quick 117-36.4 2,508,725 5/1950 Newman 117-364 2,626,884 1/1953 Ewing 117-36.1 2,924,538 2/ 1960 Nadelman. 2,984,342 5/ 1961 Smith.
FOREIGN PATENTS 1,067,680 10/1959 Germany. 1,074,604 2/1960 Germany.
549,887 12/1942 Great Britain.
WILLIAM D. MARTIN, Primary Examiner.
MURRAY KATZ, Examiner.