Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3106244 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date8 Oct 1963
Filing date20 Jun 1960
Priority date20 Jun 1960
Publication numberUS 3106244 A, US 3106244A, US-A-3106244, US3106244 A, US3106244A
InventorsParker Harry W
Original AssigneePhillips Petroleum Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process for producing oil shale in situ by electrocarbonization
US 3106244 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 8, 1963 H. w. PARKER 3,106,244

`PROCESS FOR PRODUCING OIL SHALE IN SITU BY ELECTROCARBONIZATION Filed June 20, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 28 lNJBrloN PRODUCTION D-Q30 AIR PRODUCTION INJECTION INJACIION 28 PRODUCTION 243 .Z( LDq-@BO INVENTOR. H.W. PARKER BY g A T7' ORNE YS O.- 8, 1963 H. w. PARKER 3,106,244

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING OIL SHALE IN SITU BY ELECTROCARBONIZATION Filed June 20, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 32 AIR OR 2e STEAM SHALE oll.

4 AND GASES OXIDIZING PRODUCTION GAS F/G.5 I4 INVENTOR. 15 H. w. PARKER A TTORNE Ys United States Patent O 3,105,244 PRCESS FR PRDDUCNG @IL Si-IALE IN SlTU BY ELECTROCARBONIZATIN Harry W. Parker, Bartlesville, Gkla., assigner to Phillips Petroleum Company, a corporation of Delaware Filed June 20, 1960, Ser. No. 37,451 11 Claims. (Cl. 16S-11) This invention relates to Van improved process for producing oil shale in situ.

The production of oil from oil shale without removing the shale from the deposit is rendered difficult by the impermeable `character of the shale. This is particularly true with reference to recovery of the oil by in lsitu combustion or other heating processes. One method of producing oil shale in situ is disclosed in my copending application S.N. l27,627, hled May 9, 1960, wherein electrocarbonization of the shale is utilized as a means of distilling hydrocarbons from the shale bed. This invention is concerned with an extension and modiication of the electrocarbonization process disclosed in said application.

Accordingly, it is an object of the invention to provide an improved process for producing oil from oil shale in situ. Another object is to provide an improved process for producing shale by electrocarbonization and in situ combustion. A yfurther object is to provide a method of extending the zone in which electrocarbonization is effected when utilizing this method for the in situ production of oil shale. Other objects of the invention will become apparent to one skilled in the art upon consideration of the accompanying disclosure.

In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a substantial section of a shale bed is electrocarbonized around a production well therein so as to distill hydrocarbons therefrom and produce hot permeable coke therein at combustion supporting temperature; thereafter a free-oxygen-containingV gas is injected into an offset injection well from which fractures lead to the carbonized section so that the injected gas passes into the hot section thereby igniting the hot carbon; the combustion is continued by continuing the injection `of said gas; and the lluids produced by lthe electrocarbonizing step and the combustion step are recovered thru the production well. In this process the shale surrounding the electrocarbonized section radially outwardly therefrom is radially fractured by the expansion of said section during the electrocarbonizing step.

The method of effecting the electrocarbonizaltion step is disclosed in the above-identified copending application and comprises, broadly, positioning a pair of electrodes in a well in contact with the shale and insulated from each other except thru the shale, and passing current thru the shale Ibetween the electrodes by establishing sufficiently high voltage potential across the electrodes. Broadly, this method is well defined in the prior art as applied to carbonaceous deposits containing a conducting medium, such as salt water.

One embodiment of the invention comprises injecting the (D2-containing gas thru the injection well at suicient concentration and rate to move the combustion front established in the permeable coke at the outer periphery of the coked section to the wall of the production Well. This burns out the coke from the permeable area and renders the burned out area electrically non-conductive so that reestablishment of a high potential difference across the electrodes forces a current to flow thm the shale more remote from the production well and thru the shale surrounding the previously coked section. This has the effect of expanding the produced and coked zone farther into the sha-le from the produc- 3,1%,244 Patented Get. 1963 tion well. In order to facilitate current flow across the fractures, particulate conductive media, such as copper, iron, alumina, etc., may be injected with a suitable fluid.

Another embodiment of the invention comprises injecting Oz-containing gas thru either the injection well or the production well so as to ignite the coke in the electrocarbonized section and move a combustion zione or front thru the coke into the shale adjacent the fractures leading to the injection well, thereby producing hydrocarbons from the shale `adjacent the fractures. After the shale is burned in this manner and the unproduced shale deeper in the stratum from the fractures is heated to elevated temperatures, further electrocarbonization is readily effected by placing one of the electrodes in the injection well in contact with the shale and flowing current thru the hot shale from one well to the other. This me-thod produces additional oil from the shale and can be followed by another burning step. This additional burning step is effected by injecting OZ-containing gas into the shale fromeither one of the we-lls and producing from the other.

A further embodiment of the invention comprises injecting particulate Isolid conductive material such as particles o-f metal, graphite, iron, zinc, magnesium, aluminum, etc., into the fractures between the wells after the electrocarbonizat-ion step, and placing one of the electrodes in the injection Well. The establishment o-f high potential between the electrodes now has the effect o-f passing current thru the fractures from conductive particle to conductive particle, thereby heating the adjacent shale so as to render the same conductive. Continued passage of current electrocarbonizes the shale adjacent the fractures and distills hydrocarbon material therefrom. This step is then followed by a combustion step effected by injecting O2-containing gas thru either one of the wells and producing thru the other. After the coke is burned out in this manner, further electrocarbonizing is effected in the hot shale adjacent the denuded area.

Another material which can be utilized in the process to make it possible to pass current thru the fractures comprises a slurry of carbon particles in brine. "It is helpful to incorporate in the brine a dissolved organic compound which is carbonizable, such as sugar or molasses. Graphite powder wet with oil is also a successful conducting material for electrocarbonizing in the fractures.

-In shale beds in which the fracturing due to swelling 0f the electrocarbonized section around the production well is of such small magnitude as to render operation difcult, it is feasible to artificially fracture the intervening shale between the injection wel-l, or a plurality of wells in a ring around the production well, and the production well so that the fractures formed by the electrocarbonization are expanded and/or new fractures are formed extending from the injection wells into the eleotrocarbonized section.

A more complete understanding of the invention may be had by reference to the accompanying schematic drawing of which yFIGURE l is a vertical section thm an oil shale bed showing an arrangement of apparatus for effecting one embodiment of the invention; FIG- UREZ is a similar view showing another arrangement of apparatus; FIGURE 3 is a similar view showing a further arrangement of apparatus `for effecting another embodiment of the invention; lFIGURE 4 is a similar View showing aonther embodiment of the invention; and FIGURE 5 is a plan view of a well pattern useful in effecting the invention.

Referring to FIGURE l, a subterranean shale bed lll is penetrated by wells 12 and 14 closely spaced therein (about to 5G feet). he wells are provided with casings 1o and 1S extending substantially to the upper level of the shale. Casing is provided with well head 2G thru which tubing 22 extends. An air injection conduit 214 passes thru the upper end of the casing. Casing 1S is provided with weil head 26 thru which tubing 28 extends and the conduit 31B passes thru the upper end of the casing. Conduits 23 and 31? provide air injection and product takeoff means. Casing 15 is connected by lead line 32 to generator 33 or other power source to serve as one electrode, and electrode 34, positioned in well 12 in contact with a shale or with conductive material forming a path to 'the shale, is connected by lead 36 with generator 33.

In operation with the arrangement shown in FIG- URE l, the shale adjacent Well 12 is heated by any suitable means so that it becomes conductive and a high potential is established between casing 16 and electrode 34 so as to heat the intervening shale and distill hydrocarbons therefrom. In instances in which the shale ccntains suiicient electrolyte (salt water), or is otherwise conductive, the preliminary heating step may be omitted. In most instances shales are substantially dry and nonconductive and the heating step is essential before the shale `intermediate the electrodes can be eiectrocarbonized. In dry `oil shale, the method of my above-identi .fied application may be utilized to provide the essential heat step. This method comprises packing well 12 between electrode 34 and the lower end of casing 16 with a conductive material in particulate form and placing at an intermediate level therein a high resistance section which melts after the heating step has continued sufficiently to heat the wall of the well, thereby cutting oif ow thru the conductive material and requiringr the current to flow thru the shale at the periphery of the well. The conductive material may comprise iron filings or steel wool on which copper sulfate solution has been flushed, or [steel wool wet with graphite brine paste. In this type of operation it is essential to insulate lead 36 from the conductive packing material.

After the heating step has been effected, the electrocarbonization of the shale around well 12 is commenced and continued until a substantial section 42 bounded by lines 38 has been carbonized and rendered permeable. During the electrocarbonizaticn step, fractures 40 are extended radially outwardly from the carbonized section 42. This is caused by the swelling of section 42 during the electrocarbonizing step. Fractures 40 include both vertical and horizontal fractures. Well 14 is within the pattern of fractures 40 surrounding well `12 Aand this opens up the formation to well 14 so that injection of air thru either well 12 or well 14 forces air thru the shale via the fractures to the opposite well. By injecting air thru well 14 at -a suflicient rate, a combustion `front or zone is established in section 42 in the hot coke therein and the front is moved by inverse drive to well 14 with production being recovered thru `well 12.

By injecting air or other Ogicontaining gas such as diiuted air, oxygen-enriched air, or pure oxygen, thru well .12 into the hot coke in section 42, a direct drive combustion front is established `and moved thru the shale via the fractures to well 14 from which the produced fluids are recovered in conventional manner thru tubing 28 or line 30.

Referring to FIGURE 2, the arrangement shown therein is similar to that of FIGURE l, but in addition to the electrodes in well 12, an additional electrode 50 is positioned in well 14 and connected by lead 53 with the same lead from generator 33 as connects with lend 36. Switches 54 and 56 are provided for changing the voltage application from electrode 34 to electrode 5t). The arrangement shown in FIGURE 2 is intended to be utilized after the electrocarbonization step and the in situ combustion step described in rel-ation to FIGURE l have taken place. The in situ combustion step burns hydrocarbon in the 4 shale and distills additional hydrocarbon along the fractures so as to heat the unprcduced shale between the fractures sufliciently high to render electrocarbonization effective when high potential is applied to electrodes 16 and 5t). In this manner additional oil is distilled from the shale to increase the production therefrom.

Referring now to FIGURE 3, electrode 58 comprises a tubing string extending substantially to the bottom of the shale bed. The lower section of the well is packed around tubing 5S with a conductive material 66 so that by application of high voltage to electrodes 16 and 553 the surrounding shale is electrocarbonized to 'for-rn a porous hot coked section of shale 42. In order to drive the produced yand coked section 42 farther into the shale, a fracture system is established from Well 14 to section 42 as by placing packers 62 and 64 in well 14 and exerting fluid fracturing pressure thru tubing 28. Fracturing system 66 is thus formed extending from well 14 to Iwell 12, .preferably after the electrocanbonizing step or during the final phase thereof. While the coke in section 42 is at cornbustion supporting temperature, air is injected thru tubing 28 and thru fracture system 66 into the hot coke at a relatively slow rate so that a direct drive combustion zone is moved from the outer periphery of the hot coke to the wall of well 12, thereby producing a clean, :burnedout section of shale 63 within section 42. A direct drive combustion zone always burns the formation clean so that it is no longer a conducting medium for an electric current. Now, by again establishing a lhigh potential between electrcdes 16 and 53 the current is forced to flow therebetween around coked section 42 because of the non-conducting section 68. In this manner electrocarbonization of an additional outer section 70 of the shale bed is produced and coked. This operation can be repeated `by again propagating a direct drive combustion front from the outer boundary of the coked section 70 along the fracture to the previously denuded section 68.

Another embodiment of the invention effective with the arrangement shown in FIGURE 2, comprises injecting solid particulate yconductive material, such as metal tilings, into the fracture system 40 extending from well 14 to woll 12 so that a conductive passageway is provided along the fractures to burned and carbonized section 42. By applying high potential 'across electrodes 34 and Si) the shale adjacent the fractures is heated to distill hydrocarbons therefrom, leaving a hot cc-ked residue in the shale which is permeable and amenable to in situ combustion to further heat the intervening shale. Here again, alternate combustion and electrocarbonization is effected in producing ,the remaining carbonaceous material in the shale between wells 12 and 14.

The direction of moving the combustion front when injecting O2containing gas thru well 14 with the arrangement shown in FIGURE 3 is determined by the rate at which the gas is injected and/ or by the composition (O2 content) of the gas. High ilow rates, usually 20 standard cubic lfeet per hour per square feet cross sectional area of the front, produce inverse or countercurrent drive of the front. At lower rates of air injection, the resulting drive is direct (concurrent). The direct drive of the front is also effected by reducing the O2 concentration in the injected gas as by diluting air with combustion gas. Increasing the O2 concentration in the injected gas above the normal 2O volume percent favors inverse movement of the front. A combination of these .two factors, viz., injecting rate and O2 concentration, can be utilized to control the direction of the fron-t movement. A convenient method of moving the front from the outer periphery of the coked section 42 to well 12 is to inject an admixture of air and steam such as an admixture containing from 10 to 50 volume percent steam. Steam in adrniXture with air burns the hot coke yand effects the water gas reaction.

FiGURE 4 shows the stratum 1G carbonized around each of wells 12 and 14 in the area within the boundaries alessia carbonization has been effected `as shown, the stratum may be produced further by igni-ting the shaile around either well and feeding combustionsupporting gas, such as air,

to the combustion zone to move the combustion front thru the stratum to the other well. This drive may be effected by either inverse or direct injection of air. The combustion front goes thru the `fractures in the impermeable uncarbonized section so vas to produce hydrocarbons from the shale adjacent the fractures.

In ya. further embodiment of the invention, fractures 40 in FIGURE 4 may be rendered conductive by introducing thereto particulate conductive material. Suchl conductive materialincluding powdered metals is disclosed in the prior art such asin the patent to Dixon2,818,ll8 issued December 31, 1957. After the conductive Inlaterial -is disposed in .the fractures, current is passed between electrodes in wells 12 and 14, as shown in FIGURE 2, so xas to heat the shale adjacent the fractures whereby the hot shale becomes conductive and oil is produced from the shale. The passage lof current thru the fractures is continued so as to electrocanbonize shale deeper into the formation above and below the fractures and thereby expand the carbonized zone. Fluids produced during preceding steps are recovered thru either Well or in the manner illustrated in FIGURE 5` where well 14 represents a welll in a ring of wells and well 12 is a central well. Of course, a combustion front can be passed thru the carbonized shaile following the preceding sequence of steps.

In any of lthe figures of the drawing, Well 14 may represent a wvell in a ring of wells surrounding welll 12. FIG- URE 5 illustrates such `a well pattern wherein gas, such as air, for supporting combustion is injected thru line 211 into a distributing ring 15 Yfor injection into wells 14 thru feed lines -17 extending from ring 15 to each weil. The production is recovered from well 12 thru line 19 and passed to product separation means not shown. It is also Ifeasible to inject ythe combustion-supporting gas thru line -19 and recover production thru wells 14 by means of lines 17, ring 15 and line 21.

lCertain modifications of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art `and the illustrative details disclosed are not to be construed as imposing unnecessary limitations Ion the invention.`

'I claim: Y

1. A process for producing oil shale in situ which comprises heating -a section of said shale around a production well therein to render said section electrically conductive;

while the section is hot, electrocarbonizing said section so as to distill hydrocarbons therefrom and lproduce hot permeable coke therein at a combustion supporting ternperature; continuing the electrocarbonizing step until shale `in said section is fractured radially outwardly from the carbonized section; thereafter injecting a free-oXygen-containing gas into an offset injectionwell from which at least one fracture leads to said section so that `said gas passes into said section and ignites said hot carbon; continuing the combustion; land recovering fluids produced by the electrocarbonizing step and the combustion step thru said production well.

2. The process of claim 1 wherein said shale is fractured radially outwardly to said injection well from the carbonized section by expansion of said section during the electrocarbonizing step.V

3. The process of claim 2 wherein a ring of injection wells surround said production well within the fractured area and said gas is injected thru said ring of wells.

4. The process of claim 1 wherein at least one of the flow rate of said gas `and the concentration of O2 therein is regulated so as to move la combustion front thru said fractures toward said injection well.

5. A process compris-ing heating a dry, nonconducting oil shale to a sufficiently high temperature to render same electrically conductive; electrocarbonizing a section of the vheated shale around a first Well therein; continuing the electrocarbonizing step until said shale is fractured radially outwardly from the carbonized section by expansion of said section; electrocar-bonizing a second section of said shale around an offset well therein; continuing the electrocarbonizing step until the shale surrounding the second carbonized section is also fractured to rform a ow path with aforesaid fractures between the wells; thereafter ignitng and moving a combustion front thru said shaleV between said wells; and recovering fluids produced 'by the electrocarbonization and combustion steps.

6i. The process of claim 5 wherein said combustion front is initiated around one of said Wells by injecting air into same and moving said front by direct drive to the opposite well.

7. The process of claim 5 wherein the hot carbon in the carbonized section `around one Well is cooled below combustion supporting temperature and air is injected thru said one well so that it passes to the hot carbon in the carbonized section around the opposite well, thereby igniting saine Iand moving said combustion front by inverse drive to said one well.

8. A process -for producing an `oil shale in situ which comprises electrocarbonizing a substantial section of said shale `around a first well therein so as to distiill hydrocarbons therefrom and produce hot permeable coke therein atcombustion supporting temperature; continuing the electrocarbonizing step until fractures extending radially outwardly from said section are produced by expansion of said section; providing -a second well in said shale within the fractured yarea; injecting free-oxygen-containing gas into the hot coke so as to ignite same and establish in situ combustion; `continuing the injection of said gas so as to move a combustion zone thru said shale to said second well; and recovering fluids produced by the carbonization and combustion steps.

9. The process `of claim 8 wherein air is injected thru said first well so `as to move said combustion front by direct drive.

10. The process of claim 8 wherein air is injected thru said second well so las to move said combustion `front by inverse drive.

ll. A process comprising electrocarbonizing a section of shale around la iirst well; continuing the electrocarbonizing step until said shale is fractured radially outwardly from the carbonized section by expansion of said section during the'electrocarbonizing step; electrocarbonizing aV second section of said shale around an offset well therein; continuing the ellectrocarbonizing step until the shale surrounding the secondwc'arbonized section is also fractured to form a flow path with aforesaid fractures between the wells; thereafter depositing particulate conductive material in said fractures; and passing current between an electrode in said first well 'and an electrode in said second well thru and along said fractures solas to heat the adjacent shale whereby the hot shale becomes conductive; continuing the passage of current to electrocarbonize the shale adjacent the fractures |and to expand the carbonized Zone; and recovering produced fluids from one of said wells.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,795,279 Sarapu June ll, 1957 2,818,118 Dixon Dec. 3l, 1957 2,967,052 Crawford Jan. 3, 1961k OTHER REFERENCES Mining Congress Journal October 1949, page 57.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2795279 *17 Apr 195211 Jun 1957Electrotherm Res CorpMethod of underground electrolinking and electrocarbonization of mineral fuels
US2818118 *19 Dec 195531 Dec 1957Phillips Petroleum CoProduction of oil by in situ combustion
US2967052 *31 Mar 19583 Jan 1961Phillips Petroleum CoIn situ combustion process
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3208674 *19 Oct 196128 Sep 1965Gen ElectricElectrothermal fragmentation
US3211220 *17 Apr 196112 Oct 1965Electrofrac CorpSingle well subsurface electrification process
US3303883 *6 Jan 196414 Feb 1967Mobil Oil CorpThermal notching technique
US3428125 *25 Jul 196618 Feb 1969Phillips Petroleum CoHydro-electropyrolysis of oil shale in situ
US3507330 *30 Sep 196821 Apr 1970Electrothermic CoMethod and apparatus for secondary recovery of oil
US3578080 *10 Jun 196811 May 1971Shell Oil CoMethod of producing shale oil from an oil shale formation
US3620300 *20 Apr 197016 Nov 1971Electrothermic CoMethod and apparatus for electrically heating a subsurface formation
US3642066 *13 Nov 196915 Feb 1972Electrothermic CoElectrical method and apparatus for the recovery of oil
US3696866 *27 Jan 197110 Oct 1972Us InteriorMethod for producing retorting channels in shale deposits
US3739851 *24 Nov 197119 Jun 1973Shell Oil CoMethod of producing oil from an oil shale formation
US3862662 *12 Dec 197328 Jan 1975Atlantic Richfield CoMethod and apparatus for electrical heating of hydrocarbonaceous formations
US3931856 *23 Dec 197413 Jan 1976Atlantic Richfield CompanyMethod of heating a subterranean formation
US3946809 *19 Dec 197430 Mar 1976Exxon Production Research CompanyOil recovery by combination steam stimulation and electrical heating
US3958636 *23 Jan 197525 May 1976Atlantic Richfield CompanyProduction of bitumen from a tar sand formation
US4046194 *3 May 19766 Sep 1977Mobil Oil CorporationElectrolinking method for improving permeability of hydrocarbon formation
US4223734 *9 Nov 197823 Sep 1980Geokinetics Inc.Process of breaking and rendering permeable a subterranean rock mass
US4382469 *10 Mar 198110 May 1983Electro-Petroleum, Inc.Method of in situ gasification
US4412585 *3 May 19821 Nov 1983Cities Service CompanyProducing a coked zine electrode, and applying a voltage
US4415034 *3 May 198215 Nov 1983Cities Service CompanyElectrode well completion
US4473114 *29 Sep 198225 Sep 1984Electro-Petroleum, Inc.In situ method for yielding a gas from a subsurface formation of hydrocarbon material
US4653697 *3 May 198531 Mar 1987Ceee CorporationMining, well drilling
US4667738 *29 Apr 198526 May 1987Ceee CorporationOil and gas production enhancement using electrical means
US4705108 *27 May 198610 Nov 1987The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of EnergyMethod for in situ heating of hydrocarbonaceous formations
US4776638 *13 Jul 198711 Oct 1988University Of Kentucky Research FoundationUsing probes; spraying air, steam, electrolytes, catalysts; electric arcs
US4886118 *17 Feb 198812 Dec 1989Shell Oil CompanyPyrolysis; enhanced oil recovery
US5255742 *12 Jun 199226 Oct 1993Shell Oil CompanyHeat injection process
US5297626 *12 Jun 199229 Mar 1994Shell Oil CompanyOil recovery process
US5316411 *21 Dec 199231 May 1994Battelle Memorial InstituteApparatus for in situ heating and vitrification
US619963427 Aug 199813 Mar 2001Viatchelav Ivanovich SelyakovMethod and apparatus for controlling the permeability of mineral bearing earth formations
US658168424 Apr 200124 Jun 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce sulfur containing formation fluids
US658850424 Apr 20018 Jul 2003Shell Oil CompanyConversion of hydrocarbons to produce hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and/or novel product streams from underground coal formations; pyrolysis
US659190624 Apr 200115 Jul 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected oxygen content
US659190724 Apr 200115 Jul 2003Shell Oil CompanyPyrolysis
US660703324 Apr 200119 Aug 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a condensate
US660957024 Apr 200126 Aug 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation and ammonia production
US668838724 Apr 200110 Feb 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a hydrocarbon condensate
US669851524 Apr 20012 Mar 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US670201624 Apr 20019 Mar 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with heat sources located at an edge of a formation layer
US670875824 Apr 200123 Mar 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US671213524 Apr 200130 Mar 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation in reducing environment
US671213624 Apr 200130 Mar 2004Shell Oil CompanyProviding heat to the formation; controlling the heat from the heat source such that an average temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation is less than about 375 degrees c.
US671213724 Apr 200130 Mar 2004Shell Oil CompanyHeat exchanging to superimpose heat
US671554624 Apr 20016 Apr 2004Shell Oil CompanyChemical and/or physical properties of hydrocarbon material within a subterranean formation may need to be changed to allow hydrocarbon material to be more easily removed
US671554724 Apr 20016 Apr 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to form a substantially uniform, high permeability formation
US671554824 Apr 20016 Apr 2004Shell Oil CompanyElectrical heaters may be used to heat the subterranean formation by radiation and/or conduction
US671554924 Apr 20016 Apr 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected atomic oxygen to carbon ratio
US671904724 Apr 200113 Apr 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a hydrogen-rich environment
US672242924 Apr 200120 Apr 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US672243024 Apr 200120 Apr 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected oxygen content and/or selected O/C ratio
US672243124 Apr 200120 Apr 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively permeable formation
US672592024 Apr 200127 Apr 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to convert a selected amount of total organic carbon into hydrocarbon products
US672592124 Apr 200127 Apr 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US672592824 Apr 200127 Apr 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a distributed combustor
US672939524 Apr 20014 May 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US672939624 Apr 20014 May 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US672939724 Apr 20014 May 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US672940124 Apr 20014 May 2004Shell Oil CompanySynthesis gas may be produced from the formation. synthesis gas may be used as a feed stream in an ammonia synthesis process. ammonia may be used as a feed stream in a urea synthesis process.
US673279424 Apr 200111 May 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US673279524 Apr 200111 May 2004Shell Oil CompanyProviding heat from one or more heat sources to at least one portion of formation; allowing heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; controlling the heat; producing a mixture from the formation
US673279624 Apr 200111 May 2004Shell Oil CompanyHeating section of formation with heat sources to temperature allowing generation of synthesis gas, providing synthesis gas generating fluid to section, removing synthesis gas generated, repeating for second section, blending for desired ratio
US673621524 Apr 200118 May 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation, in situ production of synthesis gas, and carbon dioxide sequestration
US673939324 Apr 200125 May 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation and tuning production
US673939424 Apr 200125 May 2004Shell Oil CompanyProviding heat and a synthesis gas generating fluid to the section to generate synthesis gas
US674258724 Apr 20011 Jun 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to form a substantially uniform, relatively high permeable formation
US674258824 Apr 20011 Jun 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce formation fluids having a relatively low olefin content
US674258924 Apr 20011 Jun 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US674259324 Apr 20011 Jun 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat transfer from a heat transfer fluid to heat the formation
US674583124 Apr 20018 Jun 2004Shell Oil CompanyMixture of hydrocarbons, h2, and/or other formation fluids may be produced from the formation. heat may be applied to the formation to raise a temperature of a portion of the formation to a pyrolysis temperature.
US674583224 Apr 20018 Jun 2004Shell Oil CompanySitu thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to control product composition
US674583724 Apr 20018 Jun 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a controlled heating rate
US674902124 Apr 200115 Jun 2004Shell Oil CompanyPyrolysis
US675221024 Apr 200122 Jun 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US675826824 Apr 20016 Jul 2004Shell Oil CompanyHeat exchanging, pyrolysis; monitoring temperature
US676121624 Apr 200113 Jul 2004Shell Oil CompanyPyrolysis temperature
US676388624 Apr 200120 Jul 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US676948324 Apr 20013 Aug 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor in conduit heat sources
US676948524 Apr 20013 Aug 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation through a heat source wellbore
US678962524 Apr 200114 Sep 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using exposed metal heat sources
US680519418 Oct 200219 Oct 2004Scotoil Group PlcGas and oil production
US680519524 Apr 200119 Oct 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US682068824 Apr 200123 Nov 2004Shell Oil CompanyHeat exchanging after pyrolyzation to support synthesis gas generation
US686609724 Apr 200115 Mar 2005Shell Oil CompanySuperpositioning of heaters for pyrolysis to form mixture of hydrocarbons and hydrogen; controlling pressure; heat exchanging
US687170724 Apr 200129 Mar 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US687755424 Apr 200112 Apr 2005Shell Oil CompanyPyrolysis
US687755524 Apr 200212 Apr 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking
US688063324 Apr 200219 Apr 2005Shell Oil CompanyIncludes shutting-in an in situ treatment process in an oil shale formation may include terminating heating from heat sources providing heat to a portion of the formation; hydrocarbon vapor may be produced
US688063524 Apr 200119 Apr 2005Shell Oil CompanyMethods and systems for production of hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and/or other products from underground coal formations
US688976924 Apr 200110 May 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected moisture content
US689605324 Apr 200124 May 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US690200324 Apr 20017 Jun 2005Shell Oil CompanyAllowing heat to transfer from heaters to a formation selected for heating using a total organic matter weight percentage of > 5% and recirculating hydrogen
US690200424 Apr 20017 Jun 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a movable heating element
US691053624 Apr 200128 Jun 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US691307824 Apr 20015 Jul 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn Situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively impermeable formation
US691585024 Apr 200212 Jul 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections
US691844224 Apr 200219 Jul 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ conversion of hydrocarbons to produce hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and/or novel product streams from underground oil shale formations
US691844324 Apr 200219 Jul 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US692325724 Apr 20022 Aug 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a condensate
US692325812 Jun 20032 Aug 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processsing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US692906724 Apr 200216 Aug 2005Shell Oil CompanyHeat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US693215524 Oct 200223 Aug 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation via backproducing through a heater well
US694856224 Apr 200227 Sep 2005Shell Oil CompanyProduction of a blending agent using an in situ thermal process in a relatively permeable formation
US694856324 Apr 200127 Sep 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen content
US695124724 Apr 20024 Oct 2005Shell Oil CompanyControl the heat exchanging, pyrolyzing hydrocarbons, enhancing oil recovery
US695308724 Apr 200111 Oct 2005Shell Oil CompanyThermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a permeability of the formation
US695976124 Apr 20011 Nov 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US696430024 Apr 200215 Nov 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with backproduction through a heater wellbore
US696637224 Apr 200122 Nov 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce oxygen containing formation fluids
US696637424 Apr 200222 Nov 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility
US696912324 Oct 200229 Nov 2005Shell Oil CompanyUpgrading and mining of coal
US697396724 Apr 200113 Dec 2005Shell Oil Companyhydrocarbons within a coal formation are converted in situ within the formation to yield a mixture of relatively high quality hydrocarbon products, hydrogen, and other products; the coal is heated to to temperatures that allow pyrolysis
US698154824 Apr 20023 Jan 2006Shell Oil Companyheating and pyrolysis of heavy hydrocarbon sections in subterranean wells to produce light hydrocarbons; reduced viscosity improves movement; fluid removal in liquid and/or vapor phase
US699103124 Apr 200131 Jan 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to convert a selected total organic carbon content into hydrocarbon products
US699103224 Apr 200231 Jan 2006Shell Oil CompanyHeat sources positioned within the formation in a selected pattern raise a temperature of a portion of the formation to a pyrolysis temperature.
US699103324 Apr 200231 Jan 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation
US699103624 Apr 200231 Jan 2006Shell Oil CompanyThermal processing of a relatively permeable formation
US699104524 Oct 200231 Jan 2006Shell Oil CompanyForming openings in a hydrocarbon containing formation using magnetic tracking
US699416024 Apr 20017 Feb 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US699416124 Apr 20017 Feb 2006Kevin Albert MaherIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected moisture content
US6994168 *24 Apr 20017 Feb 2006Scott Lee WellingtonIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen to carbon ratio
US699416924 Apr 20027 Feb 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US699725524 Apr 200114 Feb 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a reducing environment
US699751824 Apr 200214 Feb 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing and solution mining of an oil shale formation
US700424724 Apr 200228 Feb 2006Shell Oil CompanyConductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US700425124 Apr 200228 Feb 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing and remediation of an oil shale formation
US701115424 Oct 200214 Mar 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a kerogen and liquid hydrocarbon containing formation
US701397224 Apr 200221 Mar 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a natural distributed combustor
US701766124 Apr 200128 Mar 2006Shell Oil CompanyProduction of synthesis gas from a coal formation
US7032660 *24 Apr 200225 Apr 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US703658324 Sep 20012 May 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a porosity of the formation
US704039824 Apr 20029 May 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation in a reducing environment
US704039924 Apr 20029 May 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate
US704040024 Apr 20029 May 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation using an open wellbore
US705180724 Apr 200230 May 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control
US705180824 Oct 200230 May 2006Shell Oil CompanySeismic monitoring of in situ conversion in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US705181124 Apr 200230 May 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing through an open wellbore in an oil shale formation
US705560024 Apr 20026 Jun 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate
US706314524 Oct 200220 Jun 2006Shell Oil CompanyMethods and systems for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation in situ with an opening contacting the earth's surface at two locations
US706625424 Oct 200227 Jun 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a tar sands formation
US706625724 Oct 200227 Jun 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from lean and rich zones in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US707357824 Oct 200311 Jul 2006Shell Oil CompanyStaged and/or patterned heating during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US707719824 Oct 200218 Jul 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers
US707719924 Oct 200218 Jul 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil reservoir formation
US708646524 Oct 20028 Aug 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ production of a blending agent from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US708646824 Apr 20018 Aug 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US709001324 Oct 200215 Aug 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US709694124 Apr 200129 Aug 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation with heat sources located at an edge of a coal layer
US709694224 Apr 200229 Aug 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation while controlling pressure
US709695324 Apr 200129 Aug 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US710099424 Oct 20025 Sep 2006Shell Oil Companyinjecting a heated fluid into the well bore, producing a second fluid from the formation, conducting an in situ conversion process in the selected section.
US710431924 Oct 200212 Sep 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a heavy oil diatomite formation
US711456624 Oct 20023 Oct 2006Shell Oil CompanyHeat treatment using natural distributed combustor; oxidation of hydrocarbons to generate heat; pyrolysis
US712134124 Oct 200317 Oct 2006Shell Oil CompanyConductor-in-conduit temperature limited heaters
US712134223 Apr 200417 Oct 2006Shell Oil CompanyThermal processes for subsurface formations
US712815324 Oct 200231 Oct 2006Shell Oil CompanyTreatment of a hydrocarbon containing formation after heating
US715617624 Oct 20022 Jan 2007Shell Oil CompanyInstallation and use of removable heaters in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US716561524 Oct 200223 Jan 2007Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor-in-conduit heat sources with an electrically conductive material in the overburden
US721973424 Oct 200322 May 2007Shell Oil CompanyInhibiting wellbore deformation during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US722586631 Jan 20065 Jun 2007Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US732036422 Apr 200522 Jan 2008Shell Oil CompanyInhibiting reflux in a heated well of an in situ conversion system
US735387222 Apr 20058 Apr 2008Shell Oil CompanyStart-up of temperature limited heaters using direct current (DC)
US735718022 Apr 200515 Apr 2008Shell Oil CompanyInhibiting effects of sloughing in wellbores
US736058817 Oct 200622 Apr 2008Shell Oil CompanyThermal processes for subsurface formations
US737070422 Apr 200513 May 2008Shell Oil CompanyTriaxial temperature limited heater
US738387722 Apr 200510 Jun 2008Shell Oil CompanyTemperature limited heaters with thermally conductive fluid used to heat subsurface formations
US742491522 Apr 200516 Sep 2008Shell Oil CompanyVacuum pumping of conductor-in-conduit heaters
US743107622 Apr 20057 Oct 2008Shell Oil CompanyTemperature limited heaters using modulated DC power
US743503721 Apr 200614 Oct 2008Shell Oil CompanyLow temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes
US746169123 Jan 20079 Dec 2008Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US748127422 Apr 200527 Jan 2009Shell Oil CompanyTemperature limited heaters with relatively constant current
US749066522 Apr 200517 Feb 2009Shell Oil CompanyVariable frequency temperature limited heaters
US750052821 Apr 200610 Mar 2009Shell Oil CompanyLow temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing
US751000022 Apr 200531 Mar 2009Shell Oil CompanyReducing viscosity of oil for production from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US752709421 Apr 20065 May 2009Shell Oil CompanyDouble barrier system for an in situ conversion process
US753371920 Apr 200719 May 2009Shell Oil CompanyWellhead with non-ferromagnetic materials
US754687321 Apr 200616 Jun 2009Shell Oil CompanyLow temperature barriers for use with in situ processes
US755609520 Oct 20067 Jul 2009Shell Oil CompanySolution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent
US755609620 Oct 20067 Jul 2009Shell Oil CompanyVarying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations
US755936820 Oct 200614 Jul 2009Shell Oil CompanySolution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US756270620 Oct 200621 Jul 2009Shell Oil CompanySystems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations
US756270719 Oct 200721 Jul 2009Shell Oil CompanyHeating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process
US757505221 Apr 200618 Aug 2009Shell Oil CompanyIn situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US757505321 Apr 200618 Aug 2009Shell Oil CompanyLow temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers
US758158920 Oct 20061 Sep 2009Shell Oil CompanyMethods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid
US759714720 Apr 20076 Oct 2009Shell Oil CompanyTemperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US763168920 Apr 200715 Dec 2009Shell Oil CompanySulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US7631691 *25 Jan 200815 Dec 2009Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyMethods of treating a subterranean formation to convert organic matter into producible hydrocarbons
US763502320 Apr 200722 Dec 2009Shell Oil CompanyTime sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US763502419 Oct 200722 Dec 2009Shell Oil CompanyHeating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures
US763502520 Oct 200622 Dec 2009Shell Oil CompanyCogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US764476519 Oct 200712 Jan 2010Shell Oil CompanyHeating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US767368119 Oct 20079 Mar 2010Shell Oil CompanyTreating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US767378620 Apr 20079 Mar 2010Shell Oil CompanyWelding shield for coupling heaters
US767731419 Oct 200716 Mar 2010Shell Oil CompanyMethod of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations
US768329620 Apr 200723 Mar 2010Shell Oil CompanyAdjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters
US771717119 Oct 200718 May 2010Shell Oil CompanyMoving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US77359351 Jun 200715 Jun 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation containing carbonate minerals
US778542720 Apr 200731 Aug 2010Shell Oil CompanyChromium, nickel, copper; niobium, iron manganese, nitrogen; nanonitrides; system for heating a subterranean formation;
US779372220 Apr 200714 Sep 2010Shell Oil CompanyNon-ferromagnetic overburden casing
US779822018 Apr 200821 Sep 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US779822131 May 200721 Sep 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US783113421 Apr 20069 Nov 2010Shell Oil CompanyGrouped exposed metal heaters
US784140119 Oct 200730 Nov 2010Shell Oil CompanyGas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US784140818 Apr 200830 Nov 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US784142518 Apr 200830 Nov 2010Shell Oil CompanyDrilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US784992218 Apr 200814 Dec 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US786037721 Apr 200628 Dec 2010Shell Oil CompanySubsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US791235820 Apr 200722 Mar 2011Shell Oil CompanyAlternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US798686921 Apr 200626 Jul 2011Shell Oil CompanyVarying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US802757121 Apr 200627 Sep 2011Shell Oil CompanyIn situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
US808299514 Nov 200827 Dec 2011Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyOptimization of untreated oil shale geometry to control subsidence
US80874607 Mar 20083 Jan 2012Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyGranular electrical connections for in situ formation heating
US810453715 Dec 200931 Jan 2012Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyMethod of developing subsurface freeze zone
US812295518 Apr 200828 Feb 2012Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyDownhole burners for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations
US814666421 May 20083 Apr 2012Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyUtilization of low BTU gas generated during in situ heating of organic-rich rock
US815187718 Apr 200810 Apr 2012Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyDownhole burner wells for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations
US815188410 Oct 200710 Apr 2012Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyCombined development of oil shale by in situ heating with a deeper hydrocarbon resource
US819268226 Apr 20105 Jun 2012Shell Oil CompanyHigh strength alloys
US822416324 Oct 200317 Jul 2012Shell Oil CompanyVariable frequency temperature limited heaters
US822416424 Oct 200317 Jul 2012Shell Oil CompanyInsulated conductor temperature limited heaters
US823092917 Mar 200931 Jul 2012Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyMethods of producing hydrocarbons for substantially constant composition gas generation
US823873024 Oct 20037 Aug 2012Shell Oil CompanyHigh voltage temperature limited heaters
US832768118 Apr 200811 Dec 2012Shell Oil CompanyWellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes
US835562322 Apr 200515 Jan 2013Shell Oil CompanyTemperature limited heaters with high power factors
US854002021 Apr 201024 Sep 2013Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyConverting organic matter from a subterranean formation into producible hydrocarbons by controlling production operations based on availability of one or more production resources
US859635510 Dec 20103 Dec 2013Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyOptimized well spacing for in situ shale oil development
US860609120 Oct 200610 Dec 2013Shell Oil CompanySubsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
US860824926 Apr 201017 Dec 2013Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US86162797 Jan 201031 Dec 2013Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyWater treatment following shale oil production by in situ heating
US861628017 Jun 201131 Dec 2013Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyWellbore mechanical integrity for in situ pyrolysis
US862212717 Jun 20117 Jan 2014Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyOlefin reduction for in situ pyrolysis oil generation
US86221337 Mar 20087 Jan 2014Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyResistive heater for in situ formation heating
US864115011 Dec 20094 Feb 2014Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyIn situ co-development of oil shale with mineral recovery
US877028419 Apr 20138 Jul 2014Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanySystems and methods of detecting an intersection between a wellbore and a subterranean structure that includes a marker material
US20120085535 *7 Oct 201112 Apr 2012Weijian MoMethods of heating a subsurface formation using electrically conductive particles
USRE35696 *28 Sep 199523 Dec 1997Shell Oil CompanyHeat injection process
WO2001081723A120 Apr 20011 Nov 2001Davidson Ian David FarquharEnhanced oil recovery by in situ gasification
WO2013106205A1 *28 Dec 201218 Jul 2013Conocophillips CompanyHeavy oil production with em preheat and gas injection
Classifications
U.S. Classification166/248, 166/271
International ClassificationE21B43/16, E21B43/24
Cooperative ClassificationE21B43/2401
European ClassificationE21B43/24B