US 2780882 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
L. M. TEMPLE ELECTRICALLYL POWERED FIRE CONTROL MECHANISM FOR FIREARMS Filed Nov. 16, 1955 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 N FFL.
Feb. 12, 1957 L. M. TEMPLE ELECTRICALLY POWERED FIRE CONTROL MECHANISM FOR FIREARMS Filed Nov. 16. 195s 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Hafer/.7545,
Feb. 12, 1957 L. M.- TEMPLE 2,780,882
ELECTRICALLY POWERED FIRE CONTROL MECHANISM FOR FIREARMS Filed Nov. 16,1953 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 v (24a 2.156 ff@ TQ- i Feb.12, 1957 M. TEMPLE 2,780,882
' ELECTRICALLY P\^AIEI-'4E.D FIRE CONTROL MECHANISM FOR FIREARMS Filed Nov. 16. 1953 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 United States Patent N ELECTRICALLY POWERED FIRE CONTROL MECHANISM FOR FIREARMS Lemuel M. Temple, North Haven, Conn., assignor to (Elin Mathieson Chemical Corporation, a corporation of This invention relates generally to rearms, and more particularly to electrically powered lire control mechanisms for firearms.
v An electrically powered re'control mechanism for firearms of the bolt-action type is shown and described in the patent to Albree, No. 2,337,145, dated December 2l, 1943. This prior re control mechanism comprises the customary sear which is normally held in interlock with the cocked tiring plunger by a toggle device, and is retracted from interlock therewith when the toggle device is broken by a solenoid that is energized on pulling a` trigger. The trigger, Von being pulled, operates aV switch which closes the circuit of the solenoid that has for its power source adry battery or batteries. While this prior fire control mechanism will, despite the usual varying mechanical friction between the operatingv parts thereof, achieve the highly desirable uniformity of trigger pull which will least disturb a marksmans aim, and will permit facile -assembly of the mechanism and also assure its reliable performance even if the parts thereof have some tolerances and are tighter in their mounting or their action, or both, than is permissible in hand-powered recontrol mechanisms, it has nevertheless Vsome serious deficiencies. Thus, .the currentrrequired by the solenoid to overcomethe considerable load encountered by the same in the release of the cocked tiring plunger`is,""at the low Vvoltages of dry batteries, comparatively high, withA the result Vthat the batteries are soon exhausted to the `point where their current is no longer sufficient to operate the tire control mechanism, and require frequent replacement. Low voltage with resultant high current operations, as in this` prior tire control mechanism, is incompatible with dry battery characteristics as well as more demanding on the electrical contacts of lthe system, as any increase in resistance'at these points robs the system of voltage through the increased IR drops. Moreover, dry batteries are incapable, due to their in- 'mechanism shouldivfail to perform in the marksmans personal defense from any-conceivable danger.` Also, the toggle deviceof this prior tire control mechanism willfat "its operation by the ,solenoid retract the sear from interlock with the cocked tiring plunger comparatively slowly, with the result `that the locking surfaces of the `sear and ring plunger will vbecome rapidly Worn, especially at their run-off edges, and may in consequence become interlocked incompletely Vand give rise to` the v 2,780,882 Patented Feb. l2, 1957 danger of accidental self-release of the cocked tiring plunger under shock or vibration.
It is the primary object of the present invention to provide an electrically powered re control mechanism for firearms which has all the important advantages of the aforementioned prior tire control mechanism, but has none of the explained deficiencies of the same.
Thus, it is an object of the present invention to provide an electrically powered re control mechanism in which a' cocked tiring member is released by the action of an electromagnetic device, the electric circuit of which is closed by a nigger-operated switch and includes as its direct power source a high capacity capacitorthatgis charged from a dry battery between cartridge discharges, thereby to obtain from the capacitor a quicksurge of a powerful current which is assuredly adequate for` the electromagnetic device to overcome the considerable load which it encounters in the release of the cocked firing member.
Since it is important that the electrical tire control mechanism be capable of firing the gun immediately upon closing the circuit between the capacitor andy the and the capacitor is charged by the battery at a relatively low rate of charge as compared to the rate at which the battery would be required to furnish current if connected directly to the electromagnetic device as has been proposed for instance inV the patent to Albree referred to hereinabove. Reduction in the rate of discharge of the battery, even though extended over a longer period of time, results in prolonging the useful life of the battery which, therefore, requires only infrequent replacement. In addition to such an arrangement providing the optimum in battery eiciency, the resistance at the various contact points in the charge circuit of the capacitor becomes less critical than in the case where the battery must discharge at a relatively high rate in order to suticiently energize the electromagnetic device with which it is directly connected.
It is another object of' the present invention to provide an electrically powered re control mechanism in which the aforementioned trigger-operated switch is the only switch in the discharge and charge circuits of the capacitor, andthis single switch is a single-pole doublethrough snap switch of which the fixed contacts are in the discharge and charge circuits, respectively, of thev capacitor and the movable switch blade is normally urged into position to close the charge circuit, thereby to obtain a simple control over these electric circuits and provide for closure of the charge circuit at all times'except during the discharge of a cartridge, with only such drain on the battery as will not appreciably shorten the useful life of the same.' t Y 'y s It is also an object of the present inventionto provide an alternative circuit arrangement for the capacitor by interposing in the charge ,circuit a normally openl snap switch of the single-pole single-throw variety -which will be closed by the breech bolt when the sameis retracted, thereby to disconnect the battery from the capacitorv at all times, except when the firearm is being reloaded'or when the breech bolt is intentionallyor accidentally left in its retracted position, and accordingly reduce, if not s prevent, even the small drain on the battery which occurs znsosss with the aforementioned singleswitch circuit arrangement for the capacitor.
In any event, whether the battery is or is not Ynormally connected with the capacitor', it is essentialforV satisfactory operation of fire control mechanisms' according 't`o this invention that the' capacitor' be s'iiiiic'iently' charged prior to actuation of the trigger-operated s"wit'cl1` 'to en? sure, upon actuation of said switch' by the tri'gg'e'nsbstantially instantaneous release of Vthe retaining means which lock the firing member in cocked position. An'y delay vinflrin'g' the gun duc to lag" in the' fire-control mechanism is' of course disconcerting' to themarks'nrari and may completely destroy hifsiaim.
vide'a f ir'e control mechanism' df thefaforemcntioncd electricallypowe'red type whichfonlyin case o'f failure 'of the electric system for. vany reason wliatever will,v on Vthe pull ofthe trigger, perform mechanically to tiren c'a'rtridge", thereby to assure' the tiring' vof a vcar't'ridg'e' in 'any event-when' the trigger ispulled; i
Anothe'robj'ect of the present invention is tojprvi'cl'e a rire control mechanism o f the aforementioned electrically powered type in wliiclra` scar. is 'held' in relesable locking engagement with the cockedVV ring'plun'ger byV a scar latch" which through intermediation of a tripping member is operatively Aconnected with the triggerfor'retraction of `4the latch vfrom -they ySear and, hence, release of the Vlatter `from the cocked firing plunger, when Vthe trigger is'pulled and thel electric system fails4 to perform.
A further object'of the present invention is`to"provide an 'electrically powered tire control mechanism which an electromagnetic device acts directly on the aforementioned tripping member in retracting the same fromY the associated sear latch with such great speed that the locking surfaces ofthe scar latch and'tripping member will Show hardly anyl `wear evenafter long use.
Further objects and advantages will appear to those skilled in the art from the'following, considered inconiun'ction withl the accompanying drawings.
,Inthe accompanying drawings, in which certain modes of carrying' out the present invention are shown for illustrative purposes: Y
Fig. l is a fragment-ary longitudinal section through a firearm having a lire control mechanism which embodies thepresent invention;-
Fig. 2 isan enlarged fragmentary longitudinal section through thesame iirearm,`showi`ng the `'ring plunger relasedffor the discharge of a cartridge;
Flg. 3 is aV view similar to'Fig. 2, but showing the rire control mechanism in elevation rather than ins'ectio'n;
Fig. 4 is a. view similar to Fig. 3,'bu't showing the rtire control mechanism as though viewed from Vthe oppositek side ofthe rearm; Y f
'Fig'. 5 isa' fragmentary horizontal section through fthe re'arm,ltakensubstantially on the line 5"-5'o'f Fig. 1'; Y
Fig. 6 is' 'a cross-section through the rearmfas taken on. the line 6416 of. Fig.' 2;
Fig. 7` is a cross-section vthrough the -tirearrn as 'taken on the line 7-7 ofrFig. 3;
Figs. 8 and 9 are cross-sections throughtheirearm as taken `on* the lines '8-8 and 959, respectively, of Fig.' l;
FigflO shows a wiring diagram 'ofathe electric system used inthe present lire control mechanism;
Fig. l-l is a fragmentary section through avrrearm having .Aa'rnodied 'lire `control `mechanism;
It is a further object of are @regar invention :repro vmay also be introduced in the receiver.
of firearm in which' av spring' loaded Afiring plunger or striker is used, the invention is also applicable in other types of irearms in which a hammer, for instance, may be employed. The rearm, designated by the reference numeral 20, comprises a stock 22, a barrel 24, Iand a receiver 26. The barrel 24" and receiver 26 are ttedly received with part of their circumference in;v 'a troughlike recess Z5 in the; stock 22 (Figs. 6,. 7 and 8), and are releasably secured therein by screws of which two are shown at 27 in Figs. 1 and 2.
The receiver 26'receives in its forward end'll the threaded shank 32 of the barrel 24 which has a cartridge chamber 34. The receiver 26 -is alsov provided with a lateral opening 36 through which the shells of fired cartridgeswill be ejected and through which fresh cartridges sutiable in a longitudinal passage 38 in the receiver 26 is a breech bolt 40 which, in turn, slid'abl'y receives a 'tiring pin` 01'. plunger 42. A rear'l'ength ofthe tiring plunger ,IZ'S centrally recessed at 44 (Fig. l) for the reception of a compression-type tiring spring 46 which is seated with one' end 4against the bottom 48'of'the recess 44 and'bears with its other end against a cross pin S0` in the reduced rear end S2 of the bolt '40. The cross pin extends through opposite longitudinal slots 54 in the firingplunger yfSZso'that the latter may move axially in .the bolt 40'but isv prevented from rotating relative to the latter. The rear'endY of the ring'pluugcr 42 carries a head 56'having forwardly extending nibs 56 which are'adapted to venter diametrically opposite notches 6ft in 'the rear faceV of' a bolt-operating sleeve 62 that is rotatably mounted on the reduced rear end 52 of the bolt 411i. The sleeve 62 is thatshownfand 'described' in the npatent toY-Sefrie'dpNo,
2,584,299, 'datedgFebruary 5, 1952, 'It lwillJbeuinde'rstood, however, that while the 'specific Yembodim'e'ntsfof the invention hereinafter disclosed show Ia bolt-action type provided with the usual ball grip handle 64'(Fig. 3),.
lThe ring plunger 42 is intermediate its length Vprovided with a cocking shoulder `66 which is adapted to be engaged, when the firearml is'cocked', by'a; shoulder '68 on the'nose 70 of a sear 72 that is pivoted on a cross pin "I4 in'a mounting bracket`76. The mounting bracket 76,'Which is received in an aperture 77 in'the stock `22 (Figs. V5Y to 7), comprises opposite'side plates 78 andj'l! which are held in spaced parallel relation bya'plurality 0f spacer posts82 and a spacer 1ug 84on a block 85 (Figs. v2 to Y'14).- The mounting bracket '76*is-also' ttedly received ina longitudinal slot 86- in the receiver 26 (Figs.
6 and 7),*and is secured therein by acrossv pinl'88rin the receiver and a screw-90 which isthreadedly received byathe'aforementioned block 85 (Fig. 2). Asy shown in Figs. 2 and 7, the transverse pin 88 extends through *a clearance hole 9er-in the sear 72 so as-not to interfere with the'swing of the `latterwithin a range required for the `performance of its designated function. vAsffut'ther shown in Figs. Zand 7, the nose 70 of the-sear72 is adapted tolproject through a longitudinal clearance-'slot 96 inthe breechv bolt itlV for the interlock of itsshoulder tiS/:fwith` the opposed cocking shoulder 66-.on-the'ring plunger 42 when the latter is in its cocked position'('Fig.` l). The forward face of nose 70 of the scar isinposition to be engaged by afstop shoulder 97'y at the forward extremity' of slot 96 in the. breech bolt in order-to-limi thenormal rearward movement of the bolt. Aswill be The-scar 72 is .with its shoulder unormally-grgcd ntointerlock with the shoulder 66V on ,the cockediiriug' plungerV 42 by means of, a torsion-type spring 9,8 which anchored on va cross pin 16th in lthe.mounting""bracket 7 6 and'bea'rs With its legs 102 andldlagainst thennd'er.- 'side-'of the scar 72and one ofthe described 'space'rpost's 52 -iu -the, bracket 76, respectively (Fig. '2).` Preferably,
the l'egl102 of the spring '93 projectsiin'toarctainingslot' 168 inthe `underside of the Isear'72. The coordination between the firing 'plungerfiZ/in its cocked -po'sitionand the interlocked scar 72 is such that the former will, un-
. S der the force of its spring 46, `snap thevsear from interlock with the ring plunger when the sear is not positively arrested in its locking position (Fig. l). Hence, the spring-urged sear 72 is in and of itself only in yielding interlock with the cocked firing plunger 42. In order to arrest the sear 72 against yielding from interlock with the firing plunger 42 until just before a cartridge is tired, the tire control mechanism further includes a sear latch 110 (Figs. 1 and 2) which is pivotally mounted on aV cross pin 112 in the mounting bracket 76. 'Izhe searlatch 110 is provided with a notch 114 with which a toc portion116 on the scar 72 is adapted to interlock and prevent retraction of the latter from interlock with the cocked firing plunger 42 (Fig. 1). f
While it has already been explained that the springurged sear 72 is in and of itself only in yielding interlock with the cocked tiring plunger 42, it will be noted from Fig. 1 that the sear latch 110 also is only 1n yielding interlock with the sear 72 and will not hold the latter in interlock with the cocked firing plunger 42 unless the sear latch is arrested in its lock-ed position. To this end, there is pivoted on a cross pin 118 in the mounting bracket 76 a tripping member or lever 120, having remotely from its pivot axis a shoulder 122 which is posi tively interlocked withV the heel 124 of kthe Sear latch 110 when the latter is in its locked position (Fig. l). The tripping member 120 is normally urged into interlock with the sear latch 110 by a compression spring 126 which is anchored on the reduced shank 128 of a screw 130 that is received between and threaded into the opposite side plates 78 and Si) of the mounting bracket 76 (Fig. 2). The scar 72, sear latch 110, and tripping lever 120 form releasable means for retaining the tiring plunger 42 in cocked position until the tripping lever 120 is retracted to permit yielding of the sear and sear latch under the force of the spring-urged ring plunger, which may then snap forward to lire a cartridge.
Forming another part of the tire control mechanism is a trigger 136, the shank or body 134 of which is pivoted on a cross pin 132 in the mounting bracket 76 (Figs. 2 and 6). The shank 134 of the trigger 136 extends through an aperture 133 in a trigger guard plate 135, and
the trigger itself extends in a trigger guard 138 which is formed by a bottom plate 140, secured by a screw 142 to the stock 22 and by one of the previously mentioned screws 27 to the forward end 30 of the receiver 26 (Fig. 2). The bottom plate 140 closes the' aperture -77 in the stock 22 in which the aforementioned parts of the re control mechanism 28 and also a removable cartridge Ymagazine 148 and holder 150 therefor are received.-
agradece (see also Fig. 5). The electromagnet 170 has the usual winding in a protective case 176, and a corre 178 (Fig. 5) which is surrounded by the winding. In order that the relatively narrow aperture 77 in the stock 22 may accommodate the cross-sectionally larger electromagnet 170, the aperture 77 is enlarged at 180 (Fig. 5). i
The electromagnet 170 is, on closure of its energizing circuit to be described, adapted to draw the tripping member 120 from interlock with the sear latch 110 (Fig. 2) and thereby immediately release the ring plunger 42 in its cocked position for 'the firing of a cartridge.` To this end, the tripping member 120 is at its shouldered end 181 provided with an armature 1-82 which may be in the form of a disc of non-permanent magnetic material and which extends into the magnetic eld of Vthe elec-A tromagnet 170. The tripping member V120 is convenient# ly blanked from steel plate stock, and in order that thesame and other adjacent parts of the tire control mechanism may notvbe magnetized by the electromagnet 170, the armature 182 is carried by the tripping member 120 in magnetically insulated fashion. This may readily be accomplished by brazng the armature 182 to the tripping member 120 with any suitable magnetic insulating material, such as brass, for instance.
The immediate power source for the electromagnet 170 is a capacitor 184l (Figs. l, 5, 9 and l0) whose charge is discharged through the electromagnet 170 for the energization of the latter and, hence, release of the tiring plunger 42 in its cocked position, when the trigger 136 is pulled. Between discharges of the capacitor 184 Y' through the electromagnet 170, the former is charged The pull required on the trigger 136 for tiring a cari rtridge is against Va compression spring 156 on the reduced .head of the screw 160 is within the confines of the trigger guard 138 accessible with a screw driver for varying :the compression of the spring 156 and, hence, the force of the pull required by a marksmans triggerrnger on the trigger 136 for tiring a cartridge.
In accordance with the present invention, the mechai'iical` means for releasing the tiring plunger 42 is intended to be powered electrically ratherthan manually, and theV pull on the trigger is initially for the purpose of controlling the electric power relied onvtoactuate the parts of theretaining means, and more particularly the release `ol?l its parts Vfrom interlock with each other for the tiring of a cartridge. The electrical device which, inl the exemplary form of the lire control mechanism in Figs. l and .2, is reliedV on directly to achieve the release of the interlock'ed'parts 120, 110, 72 a'ndN42 when the trigger 136 is pulled, is an electromagnet 170. 'This electromagnet 178 is' suitably carried by a bracket 172 of which a 'lug' 173,p`rojects .into the mounting bracket 76 and is.l secured therein by onev or more screws 174 preferably from a dry battery 186. This battery may be of any standard make, and is preferably of the standard 22% volt type. Y
The energizing circuit of the electromagnetr170 includes, besides the capacitor 184, a snap-type switch 188 which is suitably mounted by screws 190 and nuts 192 on the sideplate of the mounting bracket 76 (Figs. 1 to 5). The switch 188 is of the single-pole double-throw type (Fig. l0) and its movable blade 194 is through a lead 196 connected with the positive or discharge side of the capacitor 184. One xed contact 19S of the switch 18S is connected through a lead 2th) with one end of the winding 282 of the electromagnet 176 and the other end of this winding has through a lead 204 a ground connection with the mounting bracket 76 and, hence, also with the barrel 24 (Figs. 4 and l0). The charge or nega-4 tive side of the capacitor 184 also has a ground connection to be described with the barrel 24.
The other xed contact 266 of the switch 188 is connected through a |lead 208 with `the lpositive side of the battery 186,` and the negative side of the latter has fa ground connection to be described with the barrel 24. The movable blade 194 ofthe switch 188 is normally spring-urged into engagement with the xed contact 206 to close the Vcharging circuit of the capacitor, as will be readily understood from Fig. l0. Y
The shank 134 of the trigger 136 has a finger exten? sion 210 (Figs. 1 to 3) which, preferably through intermediation of a set screw 212 therein and aexible shim 214 on the housing 216 of the switch 188, throws the movable blade 194 of the latter from its normal engagement with the xed contact 206 into `vengagement with the opposite fixed contact 198 (Fig. 10) `when the trigger is pulled from its normal positionin Fig. 1 into the tiring position shown in Fig. 2. On thus pulling the trigger 136 and in consequence thereof bringing the movable blade 194 of the switch 188 into engagement with the ixed contact 198 thereof, the energizing circuit of the electromagnet is closed and the latter is energized by a powerful current surge from the capacitor, resulting'in immediate magnetic attraction of the armature 182 and release of the tripping member 120 from interlock' with the sear latch 110 and, hence, l in release of the tiring plunger 42 in its cocked position for the r ingof a vcartridge. Y Immediately on release ofi the.trig, ger 136 thesame. is urged by the spring 156 into itspor-f mal position1.(. lig. 1) thereby permitting the. movable blade 19.4 of the switch 188 to return into engagement with the.l tixedcontact 2,06 thereof andre-close the charging circuit of the` capacitor 184. Y
The shank Y13.4 ot the trigger 1'36 is provided with another tnger extensioirZZtl` which, on abnormal .manual rotation ofthe trigger counter-clockwise -as viewed lin in Fig. 2 beyond gth-e tiring position vthere shown, will engage` a tail-piece; 222 on the sear 72 and rock the latter with its nose '70 out of the longitudinal clearance slot 9.6- inA the `breech holt` 40.10 permit removal of the latter from the receiver 26. Y In order normally to A,stop the-re.- leased. trigger, 4under the urge .ofl its spring 15.6 in its normalposition (Fig. 11) i. e. short of its abnormall positionin which its. linger extension 224) wouldrock the nose 70 ofthe sear 72 outof the clearance slot 96-inthe breech boltdt) for the removal of the latter from the receiver 26 there is; provided a spring-urged. stop-plunge'r1224 in. a hollow screw 22:6 which inA thisrnstance is received between andthreadedinto they sideplates 7.8 and 80 of the mounting bracket 76 (Figs. 1i, 2 and-6l). The spring 228, which bears against the stopv plunger 224, has su'icientycompression to counteract the tendency of the trigger spring 156 to turn the trigger counterclockwise, with the result that the trigger spring 156 will not overcome. the force of the plunger spring 228 and the released trigger will be forced by its spring '156into the normal position shown in Fig. 1 in which the trigger extension V2,20 bears against but does not depressthe stop plunger 224. Hence, it is only when the trigger-is manually forced counterclockwise as viewed in Fig. 1; beyond its; normalposition that the stop plunger 224 will be depressed yfor the before-described actuation of thesear V72 tol permit removal of the breech bolt 49 from the receiver 26.
The capacitor 134 and the battery 186 are removably car-riedby a bracket 23th (Fig. l) which is suitably secured, as/by rive-ts 2.32, for instance, to a cover plate 234 that is. pivotally mounted at 236 on a hinge plate 238 at the bottom side of the forepart 244) of the stock 22. The hinge plate 235 is secured to the forepart 24) of the stock 22by one of the screws 27 by which the 'barrel 24 is mounted on the stock (Figs. vl and 2), and thecover plate. 234 is releasaoly closed over an aperture 242 in the stock by, a screw 244 which is threadedly received in an insert M6 'in the stock (Fig. l). As shown in Figs. 5, 8 and 9, the aperture 242 in the stock is of a size 'to accommodate lthe capacitor 184 and battery 186 in well concealed fashion when the-cover'plate -234'is closed. On-removingr thescrew 24d, the cover plate234 maybeswung open and the lcapacitor-184 and battery 186 will move. therewith out of the ',apertureZdZ for ready-accessing) thesame for replacement or other purposes. The bracket 236 is provided WithspaCeduprght leaves. 2.43 which form a spring clip for releasably holding the capacitor ld (Figs. l, 5 and y9). The bracket 239 isffurther provided with uprightendwalls 250 andi252 Whichxontheir innerfaces carry insulating-liners 254 and 256, respectively. ,The positive terminal 25S 1 of the capacitor, which'bears against thel insulating liner 256 on the endwall J2520i; the bracket 23%; (Fig. l), is connected bythe aforementioned lead 3.96. with the movable bladey 19.14 ofthe triggerswitchlt (Fig. l). The positive terminal 2.69 of the'battery 136 bears against a conductive leaispring 262 which is carried bythe insulating liner 254.10mA the; endwall `250' ofthe bracket 23@ (Fig. l)y and connected bythe aforementioned lead 2tlgv with the tired contact ilftltyfoil the trigger switch Miti, (Fig. 10).. V'Ille negative,;terminals ofi the` capacitor 15.4. and batteryY 136 are ccmnectedY with each other, in this instance rby `a conductive capf264 over the adjacent end ofjthe` battery 18.6.. The conductive cap 26d' is inecntact lwith Athe metallic cover plate 234 which has a groundl connection withthe barrel 24 throughthehingepin 236hinge plate 238:a-metallic sleeve V2.66 Vandf't'he -screvv 27 passing` therethrough-(Eiga l and 2).
'Eheeap 26d serves topreventf harmful contact between the -positiveterminal 2,6ilfof'the battery and the capacitor. To.-t his endgproper instructions (not shown) are prefer- ,ably printedcn thev battery 186 or on the cap 2.64 to` passathelatter over that endof the battery from which theA negative terminal extends. lf these instructions are followed, the cappedy battery, when correctly mounted in the bracket 239, mayfenterthe aperture 2.42 in the lstock when ,the coverp-laterzd is closed. This is. due to the fact that the cap 264 is provided with opposite ribs or lugs268gwhicl'nl asshownin Eig. V5, will ittedly be received in laterally enlarged portions'27t) Vof theaperture y242, only when the cap 264, and, hence, also the negative terminal Iof 4the battery 18,6. are next to the mounted capacitor 184.
:En operation, thering plunger 452, is cocked, i. e.V held inthe slight-ly retracted position 'showninV Figs. 1, 3V and 4y hythef cooperating sear 7-2, searlatch 1:10 and tripping member-120i, when the breech bolt d!) is advanced and locked in. breech-closing position by the customary manipulation of the handlev 64. When the marksman ,usingv the firearm :is satisfied with his aim, he merely pulls the trigger :136 aashort distance until the set screw 212 on the trigger extension 210; a'etuates theswitch 1&2 and closes the. energizing circuit of the electromagnet 174) in the before-described manner. On energization of the electromagnet 1.76,.. the armature v1,82. on the tripping member 12) is immediately attracted and'.y the, latter released from interlockwith the Sear latch Mil (Fig.V 2),. As,l soon as the tripping member 120 is re1eased.frominterloek with 'the sear-.latchullth the lring spring 46 is free to force thefscar 72.1fromxnterlock. with the firing plunger p42 and advance the latter'intothe ring position shown in Fig; Zinfwhicha cartridge c in the breech chamber34 is tired ini consccplencel thereof. Whenjthe trigger-136 is released, the same will immediately be returned by its spring -156into its normal position (Fig. 1), but the other mechanical operating parts 120, and '72 of the re control mechanism will not be restored into interlock with eachother and with the tiring Vplunger d2 until the breech bolt 4@ is retracted from its breech-closing position. Whenthe breech bolt 40 is being retracted, the shell sof the red' cartridge will in the conventional manner be. retracted from the breech chamber 34 and ejected through-the aperture 36 in the receiver 26, and the scar 72 will 0e-returned by its spring 98 into the plunger1 lockingposition shownv iny Fig. l as soon asV the cooking shoulder'o of' the tiring plunger 42 clears the shoulder 68 ofthefsear. 'Return motionrof the sear'72 into locking position will cause its toe M6 to turn the sear latch 110 into interlock' therewith, Ymoving thereby the heel 124 of thefla-tter into positionto be interlocked with the shoulder 122.on the spring-urged tripping member 124i (Fig. l). Onthe following advance/ofthe breech bolt l40 into breech-closing position, the `shoulder 66 on the firing plunger 42 will'engage the sear shoulder 68 and the former -will inconsequence-beheld in the slightly retracted or cockedl position shown in Fig. l. The rearnl is now ready for tiring the next cartridge on pulling the trigger'136. I Y 1 In acordancewith another important aspect of the present invent-icm'provisions are made whereby the vtire control mechanism will, on the trigger pull, function mechanically'and `tire a cartridge if for any reason whatever Athe,.electromagnet ltltl should fail to perform its designated function of retracting the trippingmernber 120,-fronr-interlock, with the sear latch 110. To this end, the tripping member Y12,0. is near its pivot mounting 11,8 provided. with a'short. arm; 272, which, on the pull of thc. triggerzslightly beyondits norma1 ring position in which the trigger switch 188 is actuated (Fig. l), is engaged by the trigger extension 220 and rocks the tripping member out of interlock with the sear latch 110. Thus, assurance is given that a cartridge will be fired on pulling the trigger 136 even if the electromagnet 170 should for any reason whatsoever fail Yto retract the tripping member 120.
While the lire control mechanism described hereinbefore relies on magnetic flux from the electromagnet 170 for the retraction of the tripping member 120 from interlock with the Sear latch 110, Fig. 11 shows a modified fire control mechanism, in which the.tripping member 120 is positively linked at 280 with the movable core 282 of a solenoid 284 which is used in lieu of the hereinbefore described electromagnet 170.
In the hereinbefore described lire control mechanism the charge circuit of the capacitor 184 is closed except during the brief interval of each trigger pull, resulting in some drain on the battery 186. However, this drain on and then falls to a value of one to two microamperes or less. This small residual drain actually is beneficial to both the capacitor and the battery as it keeps the capacitor charged, thus keeping its resistance at the very maximum and also conditioning the battery by its extremely small current. Thus the life of the battery, while the rie is not in' use is practically equivalent to its guaranteed shelf life by the battery manufacturer. feature of this battery-capacitor circuit is that the battery may be used down to less than half of its nominal voltage` and the circuit is, therefore, neither current norvoltage sensitive.
Fig. 12 shows another modified lire control mechanism in which the aforementio-ned drain on the battery is sub- Another important stantially eliminated. This modified lire control mechanism is in all respects like the hereinbefore described fire control mechanism of Figs. l and 2, except that an additional snap switch 290 is provided which, as shown in Fig. 13, is of the single-pole single-throw type and interposed in the lead 208 which connects the positive side of the battery 186 with the xed contact 206 of the trigger switch 188. As shown in Fig. 12, this additional switch 290 is well concealed in a recess 292 in the stock'22, and is threadedly mounted at 294 in the base 296 of the receiver 26. The switch 290, which is normally open, is closed by a lug 298 on the bolt-operating sleeve 62 when the breech bolt 40 is retracted from its breech-closing position. Accordingly, it is only during the usually brief interval lwhen the breech bolt 40 is held in its retracted position that the charge circuit of the capacitor is closed.
The present rearm with its tire control mechanism secures many important advantages. Thus, the present re control mechanism in its several forms does not in the least interfere with or disturb a marksmans accurate aim and is wholly safe and reliable in its performance for a long time. This is due to several factors among which the most uniform trigger pull against only the force of the trigger spring ranks high. By having to pull only against the accurately calibrated trigger spring, the trigger action will be smooth, rather than snappy, and a marksman will have perfect control over the entire trigger pull without being in the least disturbed in his aim until the cartridge is actually iired. In releasing the lire control mechanism by the action of the electromagnet or solenoid as described, rather than by finger power, the highly desirable objective of quick and unfailing release of the tripping member from the sear latch is achieved despite a substantial contact area at the interlock between them for safetys therein.
arsdse some tolerances and are tighter than usual in their mounting or their action, or both. The use of a capacitor as the direct power source for the electric system and the use of a dry battery for charging the capacitor is highly advantageous in that the capacitor delivers a quick surge of powerful current which is assuredly adequate for the electromagnet or solenoid to overcome the considerable load encountered in the release of the cocked tiring plunger. Moreover, the battery charges the capacitor at such a low rate as compared to the rate of battery discharge necessary where it is connected directly to the electromagnet that the battery will, because of the present arrangement, have a longer useful life and require replacement less frequently than heretofore. The coordination of the trigger and tripping member such that the former will, on being pulled slightly beyond its normal firing position, mechanically release the tripping member from interlock with the sear latch, is highly advantageous in that the fire control mechanism will perform mechanically and assuredly fire a cartridge if the electrical system should for any reason whatever fail to d-o so during the same trigger pull. Moreover, the highly advantageous feature of the mechanical safety action of the fire control mechanism if its electrical action should rfail is achieved without adding a single part to the mechanism. By having the electromagnet or solenoid act directly on the tripping member, the latter is retracted from the associated sear latch with such great speed that the locking surfaces of the sear latch and tripping member will show hardly any wear even after long use. parts, including the power source, of the electric system in the firearm, the latter is left with no indication of the electrically powered aspect of its lire control mechanism.-
In this connection, the releasable mounting of the capacitor and battery on a hinged cover plate at the forepart of the stock is further advantageous from the viewpoint of gaining ready access to the capacitor or battery, or both, for replacement or other purposes.
The invention may be carried out in other specic ways than those herein set forth without departing from the spirit and essential characteristics of the invention, and the present embodiments are, therefore, to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, and all changes coming within the meaning and equivalency range of the appended claims are intended t'o be embraced What is claimed is:
bination with a ring member and retaining means for releasably locking said firing member in cocked position; of electrical means for releasing said retaining means, and a trigger controlling said electrical means, said electrical means comprising an electromagnetic device adapted when energized Vto operate said retaining means to unlock said iring member, a capacitor operatively connected with said electromagnetic device for discharging a relatively high electrical charge therethrough upon actuation of said trigger, trigger-operated means for effecting such discharge, and charging means operatively connected with said capacitor for charging the latter prior to actuation of said trigger-operated means so that said retaining means is released by said electromagnetic device immediately upon actuation of said .trigger-operated means.
2. The combination defined in claim 1, wherein said charging means comprises a dry battery.
3. The combination defined in claim 2 wherein said l trigger-operated means comprises a single-pole double- By concealing the electric triggertodisconnectzsaid :capacitor from fsaidzchargecir-v cuitrand vtog connectethersgame into said i discharge; circuit;
.4. Thea combination: defined in-.fclai-m. 3,1 Vwhich further includes:afretractablel breech bolt and another switch in said charge. circuit-associatedy withv said breech-bolt, said other switch being,V normally, open and adaptedto-be closedl ony retractionr of,said breechebolt.
5: Inv a fire control mechanism'for'irearms,` thecom-l bination'with a tiring mernberiand retaining-means,` for releasablylockingsaid firing; member in cocked position; of v-electricalmeans 'for operating said retaining means to unlock said firing member, and-aftrigger controllingrsaid electricalmeans, said electrical meansbeingoperable on; pulling saidtrigger through .af predetermined distance" to: release'esaid retainingmeansf and said trigger having aportion engageable- 1 with `said retaining means when said trigger ispulled'beyondsaidlpredetermined distance for mechanically releasing saidv retaining meansif said electricalmeans fails to operate properly.`
6'. In aiire control mechanism forz'rearms, the com-A bination with a spring-urged ring plunger and releasable` atively connected with said electromagneticy devicefordischarging a relatively high electrical. charge' there; through upon actuation ofsaid trigger, trigger-operated means' for effecting such discharge,.and charging means operatively connected with said. capacitor for charging the latter prior to actuation ofsaid trigger-operated means sothatsaid retaining means is released by said'electromagnetic device immediately upon actuation: of'` said trigger-operated means.
7; The combination defined in claim 6', wherein said latch means comprises a latch yieldingly interlocking with said sear to arrest the latter against yielding. from interlock with said plungerl and a' tripping member normally'resiliently urged into positive interlock with; said latch-.to arrest the latter against yielding from interlock with said sear, said tripping member being retractable by means of said electromagnetic device to permit'said latch and searl to yield under the springl force of saidplunger whereby'fsaid plunger is unlocked, said' trigger-operated meansvbeing actuated upon pulling said trigger through a predetermined distance, and said-trigger having a portio'n` engageable with. said' tripping member when: saidtrigger ispulled beyond saidfpredetermined distance fory mechanically retracting said tripping member ifv said electromagnetic device fails to retract said'tripping member.
8. The combination defined' in claim 6, whereinA said latch means comprises a latch yieldingly interlocking with said Sear to arrestfthelatter against yielding from interlockwith said-plungerand a trippingmember of'magnetic material normally resilientlyurgedinto positive interlock withsaid latch ltoxarrest thewlatter against yielding lfrom` interlock with said sear,Y and wherein 1said;electromagnetic. device is-an electromagnet, said tripping member. beingg provided withl an armature ofl non-permanent magnetic material iixed thereto adjacent said electromagnet, and within thef magnetic iield thereof '-said armature=andttrip ping: member being retractable by said electromagnet when energized to permit said latch and searv to yieldJ underv the spring: force of said plungerv whereby said plunger is unlocked, said armature being, magnetically insulated from said tripping member to prevent said tripping member from being magnetized.
9. The combination defined in claim 6, whereinsaidrv latclr means comprises; alatchY yieldingly interlocking with said sear to arrest the.latter against yielding'. frominterlock with said plunger anda tripp ing-l member norf mally resiliently urged intoV positive interlock with-saidlatch to arrest thelatter against yielding from interlock with said sear, and wherein said electromagnetic device is a solenoid having a movableplunger; linked withsaid tripping member to retract said member from interlockT with said latch.
10. In a iirearm, the combination of a stock; a barrel and ,receiver mounted on said stock; firing; means located within said receiver; said ringvmeans comprising a firing.,
member, retaining means for releasably holding saidiiring member'in cocked position, electricaljmeans for releasing:
said firing member, and a trigger controlling said elecL tricalV means; said electrical means including `an electrornagnetic'deviceY adapted when energized tov operateasaid retaining -meansto releaseisaidp'ring member, a capacitor, for;storing1 anv electrical charge; for delivery to; said; elec-Yr tromagnetic device upon actuationrof said trigger and a battery for charging said; capacitor; saidstock havingia recess' withinv which said capacitor and batteryare,-
mounted; andaplatepivoted onsaidstock and releas: ably held in closing relation with said recess, said plate; removably carrying-said capacitor and battery normally conceal'edfwithin said recess, said capacitor* and battery',` moving-.out of saidrecess when said plateA is swungV into.
open position. Y
11; The combination in a firearm as set forth in claim 10, in which said recess is provided in the forepart ofi said stock and said plateV isat the bottom of said stock.
12; Thefcombination in aV firearm as set forth in claim 10, inwhich said capacitorv and battery,y are carriedi in. end-toend relation on said plate and there is further.-
provided a conductive cap which ttedly receives*l the battery. end with. the negative terminal and connects thelatter withthe adjacentterminal end of said capacitor, and said recessin the stock. is so shaped' as to admit said capacitor andcapped` battery` only when said cap iszinterposed between the adjacent terminalends of said capacitorv and battery.
References-Cited in the le of`A thisl patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,331,058 Stick Oct. 5, 1943 2,337,145 Albree Dec2l, 1943' 2,448,024 Golden Aug. 3l, 1948