US 2591112 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
ApriH, 1952 V A. zwlRzYNsKl 2,591,112
VEST POCKET FLASHLIGHT, INCLUDING ELECTRIC SYSTEM AND LOCK SUBASSEMBLY 2 SHEETSSHEET 1 Filed April 27, 1948 INVENTOR.
A TTOQNE'Y April 1, 1952 A. ZWIERZYNSKVI 2,591,112 VEST POCKET FLASHLIGHT, INCLUDING ELECTRIC Filed April 27, 1948 SYSTEM AND LOCK SUBASSEMBLY 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 18o 15 I g 3 v 50 INVENTOR. 178 WLE'XIZWIERZYNSKI A 7'7'OENEY Patented Apr. 1, 1952 OFFICE,
VEST POCKET FLASHLIGHT, INCLUDING.
ELECTRIC SYSTEM AND LOCK SUBAS- SEMBLY Alex Zwierzynski, Bronx, N. Y., assignor to Henry Hyman, New York, N. Y,
Application April 27, 1948, Serial No. 23,445
This invention relates to portable electric flashlights. More particularly, the invention pertains to miniature portable electric flashlights of the type known as vest pocket flashlights in which the battery casing is transversely elongated and squat rather than lon and slender, because dry cells are disposed therein side by side instead of in tandem.
It is an object of the invention to provide a flashlight of the character described which is generally of an improved, sturdier and more reliable construction.
It is a more specific object of the invention to provide a flashlight of the character described in which the casing is relatively thin and frail,
but is reinforced by internal elements having a primary function of a different nature; in which the casing comprises two major parts held together in such manner that they cannot be inadvertently separated when locked together; in which the casing parts, when closed, firmly hold a guard for the electric lamp; and in which the casing parts are held together by a hinge so mounted that it cannot be easily broken or accidentally pulled off the casing.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a flashlight of the character described in which the various components of the electrical system and of the means to lock together the casing parts are mounted on elements which in turn are recured to the casing so that said components and means can be assembled apart from the casing by relatively simple operations.
It is an additional object of the invention to provide a flashlight of the character described in which the various parts carried by the battery casing, such as the lock, hinge, electrical components of the switch, and mounting elements are interengaged with one another and with the battery casing in a manner such that the parts mutually reinforce and are carried by one another and the casing, thus reducing the number of parts required and, in general, simplifying the overall construction whereby the flashlight, al
though incorporatin many improvements can be manufactured at a low price.
Other objects of my invention in part will be obvious and in part will be pointed out hereinafter.
The invention accordingly consists in the feafied in the constructions hereinafter described and of which the scope of application will be indicated in the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawings in which are shown various possible embodiments of the in vention:
Fig. 1 is a front view of a flashlight. embodying the invention;
Figs. 2, 3, 4 and 5 are side, back, top and. bottom views respectively of said flashlight;
Fig. 6 is an enlarged vertical central section view through the flashlight, the same. being taken substantially along. the line of 6-45 of Fig.3;
Figs. 7 and 8 are transverse sectional views through the flashlight taken substantially along the lines 'i--l and 8-.8 respectively, of Fig, 6.;
Fig. 9. is a view similar to Fig. 6 of the flashlight as it appears when the battery casing is opened;
Figs. 10 and 11 are. sectional Views taken substantially along the lines. of l0.Hl and lie-i I, respectively, of Fig. 9; and
Fig. 12 is a fragmentary view of the head Of a flashlight embodying a modified form of my in vention.
Referring now in detail to the drawings, 23 denotes a flashlight constructed in accordance with the present invention. Said flashlight includes a casing which comprises two major parts, EL 24. These parts are identical and not merely similar so that molding expense is held to a minimum. Said parts can be made by a suitable molding operation, for instance, injection molding, and are fabricated from conventional plastics ordinarily used for this purpose, e. g., ethyl cellulose. The parts are provided with various reiniorcements, ribs, openings, grooves, etc., hereinafter described in detail, in order to hold and assist in assembly of the various elements of the flashlight. Essentially, however, each part includes a, broad wall 28 which serves as the front or ba k wall of the flashlight. This wall is of rectangular configuration and has upstanding flanges Z8, 30 and 32 integrally extending from three of its edges. The rims of the flanges 3,2 of the two casing parts abut to conjointly define the base of the flashlight when the casing is closed, as seen, for instance, in Figs. 5 and 6. The flanges 28 conjcintly define one side Wall of the flashlight, and the flanges 39 the other side wall. These flanges 28, 3d and, if desired, the flanges 32, can slope outwardly away from the walls 2 6, as illustrated, in order to imp-art a pleasing appearance to the flashlight. The fourth edge oi each wall 25 is at the top of the flashlight and does not have any upstanding integral flange projecting therefrom, inasmuch as these edges define the opening through which e uar for he fla l ht b l (hereinafter described) projects.
The two casing parts 22, 24 are pivotally joined to one another adjacent the bottom of the flashlight and for this purpose there is provided a hinge essentially comprising two sheet metal strips, 34, 35. The strips are secured to one another by a pivotal joint 38 constituting three spaced tongues on an end of one strip which are fashioned into loops extending through correspondingly spaced apertures in an end of the other strip. Each strip is of L-shaped configuration and includes a shank 4i] and foot 42. The shank overlies and runs up the center of the wall 26 and the foot e2 overlies and is disposed at the center of the flange 32. The edges of the strips 34, 36 are inturned to form shallow marginal flanges 4A and said strips are frictionally seated between pairs of ribs 46, 48 integrally molded along the wall 2'6 and flange 32. Each strip is secured to the flashlight casing by two pairs of integral ears extending from the longitudinal edges of the strip; see for example, the ears 54!, 5'6 and 58, 60 associated with the strip 34. Said ears pass through openings in the walls 26 and through other elements of the flashlight later described and are turned over so as to secure the hinge strips in place. It may be mentioned that said hinge, owing to its construction and mounting as just described,
serves to perform various functions, such as swingably joining the two parts of the casing, securing itself to the said casing parts and holding other elements to the casing parts.
In addition, the electric circuit for the flashlight includes one of the hinge strips, although the principal portion of the circuit is contained within the casing. This principal portion is so arranged that it is carried by a single mounting element whereby it can be assembled and mounted outside of the casing and then secured within the casing in a simple operation.
The mounting element just referred to is a panel 62 comprising a thin, comparatively stiff (self-form-maintaining) layer of electrically non-conductive material, as for example, binderboard, a plastic impregnated layer of fibre, or plastic laminated layers of flbre. Said panel is elongated longitudinally of the flashlight casing and approximately matches the shape of the wall 25. The panel is received between two widely spaced ribs 64, 66 integrally raised on the internal surface of each casing part and defining the two transversely spaced edges of the wall 26. The flt between the panel and ribs is quite snug and this arrangement causes the panel to substantially reinforce the comparatively thin walls of the casing. It has been found that such reinforcement sufiicies to greatly reduce breakage to which casings in flashlights of the present nature are subject. The panel is held in place by the two pairs of ears 54-50 which extend from the hinge strip 34, pass through openings 68 in the panel and are turned over and clinched against the exposed interior surface of said panel.
The panel 62 supports a pair of small, long slender pocket flashlight dry cells it, 12 and to this end there is secured to the bottom of the panel an electrically conductive spring clip 14 comprising a shank H5 fastened to the panel by a rivet E8. The shank has two integral fingers 80 which extend at right angles to project into the hollow interior of the casing. These fingers are provided with curved tips 82 designed to press against the ends of the dry cells. The clip M is fashioned from resilient material,
e. g., Phosphor bronze, so that it will resiliently urge toward the other end of the panel dry cells resting on its tips. Moreover, said clip serves to connect these dry cells in series, inasmuch as the dry cells are so arranged that the central carbon terminal of one and the cup terminal of the other engage the spring clip.
Another electrically conductive spring clip 84 is provided adjacent the other end of the panel 62. This clip includes a base 86 which lies fiat against the panel and is held thereto by a pair of integral tabs 88, one of which extends through a notch in the side edge of the panel and the other of which extends through an opening in the panel, both of the tabs being clamped against the concealed rear surface of said panel. The base of the clip 8% also includes an integral foot 90 which extends toward the interior of the flashlight and supports an angularly offset leg 92 on whose tip there is formed a dished contact 94 which is adapted to engage the base or center terminal of a flashlight lamp 96. The clip 84 is fashioned from resilient material so that a spring engagement is provided between the mentioned lamp terminal and the contact 94. One of the dry cells engages the foot 90, thus being resiliently held between said foot and the tip 82 of the spring clip M.
A third spring clip 93 of electrically conductive resilient material is used to hold the other dry cell against the lower spring clip 14. Said spring clip 98 comprises a base Hi0 lying flat against the upper end of the panel 82 and disposed on the opposite side of thepanel from the clip 84. The base of the clip 98 is held to the panel in a manner similar to that in which the clip 84 is secured. Said clip 98 also has a foot I02 which extends from said panel toward the interior of the flashlight and presses the other dry cell against the spring clip 14. There is a slight difference between the mountings of the clips 84 and 98, this being that the aperture in the panel through which the integral tab on the clip passes is slightly larger in the case of the clip 93 than the clip 84. The reason for this difierence is that the aperture IM which passes the tab associated with the clip 98 also accommodates an ear I06. This ear integrally extends from a side edge of the hinge strip 34 which is on the same part of the flashlight casing as that which receives the panel 52. The purpose of the ear N36 is to place the hinge strips, or more particularly the hinge strip 34, in the electric circuit. It should be noted that, except for this single electric connection, all the spring clips i4, 84 and 98 are insulated from one another and from all other electrically conductive parts of the flashlight.
The flashlight lamp 95 is of the screw type, i. e., its shell I08 has a thread formed therein so that the lamp can be screwed in a threaded ferrule or socket I I0. Said ferrule is secured to a partition 1 l2 formed of electrically conductive material and I having tabs H4 which project through openings in the panel and are turned up so as to be clamped to said panel. The partition, which extends perpendicularly away from the panel, is kept in this position by a pair of vertical stub flanges 'll6 (Fig. 10) located on the side edges of the partition. Said flanges rest against ribs on the interior surface of the casing flanges 28, 36. The tips N8 of the flanges are out-turned for slideable reception in slots I 19 in the casing flanges 28, 30.
The edge of the partition opposite from that with the tabs H4 has a projection I20 (Fig. 8)
extending therefrom, the same being provided with a through aperture I22 which is adapted to serve as a hasp. The edge of the partition with the tabs II 4 also has an integral contact lug I24 (Fig. 9) which passes through an opening I26 in the panel and is bent downwardly. Said tab is disposed along the central longitudinal axis of the panel so that it is beneath the hinge strip 34.
Means also is included to selectively energize the lamp by electrically connecting the hinge strip 34 in series with the contact lug I24. Said means, which constitutes the manually operable flashlight switch, includes a button I28 optionally made from an electrically non-conductive material, such, for instance, as a plastic. The button has a fiat bottom surface resting on the hinge strip 34. Said button includes a stem I 36 which extends freely through an opening I32 in the hinge strip 34. This opening is elongated longitudinally of the strip so as to permit shifting of the button in such direction.
The tip of the stem also passes through an opening I 34 in a flat body of a switch member I36.
(Figs. 6, 9 and formed of resilient, electrically conductive material. The body of this member lies flat against the inner surface of the hinge strip 34 and the sides of said body ride between the inturned marginal edges 44 of the strip which thus serve as guides or rails defining a channel to control movement of the switch member. Said switch member body is held against the hinge strip 34 in any suitable manner, as, for example, by spreading the tip of the stem I30. This can be accomplished by heating and applying pressure to said tip. In order that the switch member may move freely as the button is shifted, a large oblong opening I31 is formed in the side wall 26 of the casing part associated with the hinge strip 34.
The switch member I36 includes a long slender finger I 38, the tip I40 of which is inclined toward the panel. Said tip extends through the opening I31. The finger also includes two transverse grooves I42 which face toward the hinge strip 34. These grooves are adapted to selectively engage a bump or nib I44 raised on the hinge strip 34 and projecting inwardly of the casing. Said finger is shiftable between two extreme positions defined by abutment of the stem I30 against the two ends of the elongated aperture I32 and is detained in either one of these positions against inadvertent displacement by engagement of one or the other of the grooves I42 with the nib I44. When the finger is in its lowermost position, i. e., the position nearest the hinge joint 33, the curved tip I49 of the finger rides on the concealed surface of the insulating panel 62. However, when the finger I36 is in its uppermost position, said tip engages the contact lug I24, thus placing the lamp shell I68 in circuit and energizing the lamp.
The flashlight includes means to detachably secure to one another the two major parts 22, 24 of the casing. Said means is carried by the casing part 24 and is so designed that it will cooperate with the elements carried by the casing part 22 and will fit within apertures in the casing part 24 disposed similarly to apertures in the casing part 22 whereby both these casing parts can be of identical configuration, thus reducing molding expenses. The detachable securing means comprises a latch which can be assembled as a unit outside of the casing part 24 and readily mounted therein. Said latch includes a channel-shaped elongated metal member I 46 (Figs. 6, 9 and 11) having a comparatively broad base I 48 along whose side edges shallow flanges I56 are raised.
This member is of proper size to snugly fit between the sides of an aperture I52 fashioned in the casing part 24 and corresponding to the opening I31 in the casing part 22.
The active latching member is in the form of a bolt I54 which is made from electrically nonconductive material and may comprise by way of example a T-shaped piece cut from a fibrous sheet permeated with a synthetic plastic such as Bakelite (a phenolformaldehyde condensation product). Said bolt includes a shank I56 and a tongue I58, the latter being adapted to be thrust through the hasp aperture I22. The bolt shank I54 is carried by a plate I 66 having a tab I6I extending through an aperture in said shank and clinched. The bolt plate is provided with a slender extension I62 which runs toward the hinge joint 38 and terminates in a loop I64 encircling a bar I66. Said bar form part of a latch control tab lever I68 having a manually operable portion I10 disposed externally of the casing part 24. The lever passes through an opening I12 in the base of the channel member and its interiorly disposed portion includes a pair of flat trunnions I14 as well as a pair of arms I16 which support the bar I66.
Movement of the lever I16 longitudinally of the channel is prevented by two pairs of tines I18 struck inwardly from the base of the channel I45 along the edges of the opening S12 and acting as retainers for the trunnions. A leaf spring I fastened to the channel holds the lever against the base of same. Said leaf spring includes two spaced tongues I 82 which resiliently press against the flat trunnions I14 thus providing room for the projections I16 to swing freely. In addition to holding the trunnions in place, said spring also functions to bias the bolt tongue I58 to either of its extreme (latched or unlatched) positions. This action is accomplished by arranging the trunnions so that they will be inclined to one side of a position perpendicular to the channel I 46 when the bolt is in latched position (Fig. 6) and to the other side of such perpendicular position when the bolt is in unlatched position (Fig. 9). The external manually operable portion of the control lever is disposed at an angle to the plane of the trun nions in order to permit the foregoing arrangement and to enable said external portion to lie flat against the base of the channel member when in latched position and be approximately perpendicular thereto when in unlatched position.
It may be mentioned that the foregoing arrangement of the parts constituting the latching means permits very simple assembly thereof. Thus, the latching bolt is secured to the plate I69 and the extension I62 thereof bent around the bar I56. In a separate operation the leaf spring I80 is secured to the channel member, then the tongues I82 of the leaf springs are deflected to allow the lever to be slipped through the aperture I12 until its trunnions come to rest between tines I18. Releasing the tongues completes assembly of the latching means. Said latching means then is set into the opening I52 in the casing part 24.
The hinge strip 36 has an opening I84 therein which enables the external portion of the control lever to be disposed on the outside of the flashlight casing. If desired, the tip I86 of this lever can be outwardly offset as best shown in Fig. 6 to enable a users nail to be inserted thereunder at such time as it is desired to open the flashlight casing.
The latching means is placed in position from 76 the inside of the casing and is held in position by a mounting element I88 in the form of a panel comprising a thin, comparatively stifi: layer of electrically non-conductive material, the same for example, as that of the panel 62. This panel I88 is held in place by two pairs of ears i9B-i5 extending from the inturned edges of the hinge strip 36 and bent over and clinched against the exposed interior surface of said panel. The panel is formed with two additional apertures; one, 98, to allow the tongues I82 and extension 162 to move freely and the other, 200, to allow passage therethrough of the hasp projection Hi].
It will be observed that the panel 188 is received between a pair of widely spaced ribs 292, 2% identical with the ribs 66, 85 so that the panel substantially reinforces the casing part 36 in addition to acting as a retainer for the latching means.
Attention is directed to the fact that the reason for employing a latching tongue of insulating material is that the flashlight switch closes a circuit between the hinge strip 34 and partition H2. The latching bolt physically spans this gap when the two casing parts are held together and, save for the fact that it is made out of electrically non-conductive material, would close the energizing circuit for the flashlight lamp.
To further reinforce both of thecasing parts, internally extending ribs 205 may be included.
A guard 2&8 is provided to protect the flashlight lamp. Said guard preferably is fabricated from a relatively thin pellucid material such as any one of the conventional plastics. Desirably the guard is translucent, so that a light beam of restricted size will issue through an opening 2H3 in its top wall 2i2. The guard is of rectangular cross-section and includes four side walls 2M. One of these walls is pivotally connected to one of the hinge strips, e. g., the strip 3 1, and for this purpose said wall (Figs. 6 and 9) is .provided with a slot 2% defining a bar 2i8 adjacent the bottom wall of the guard. Said bar is rotatably captive in a loop 220 at the top of the hinge strip. The opposite wall of the guard is formed with an elongated stub projection 222 which is caught under an inturned flange 50 at the upper end of the other hinge strip 36.
Alternatively the hinge support for the guard may be modified as shown in Fig. 12 wherein the loop 22!] is pivoted on a bar 22 3 spaced a short distance from the guard and held by short leg sections 226 integrally connecting the bar and guard. 7
It thus will be seen that there is provided a portable electric flashlight which achieves the several objects of the invention and is well adapted to meet the conditions of practical use.
As various possible embodiments might be made of the above invention, and as various changes might be made in the embodiment above set forth, it is to be understood that all matter herein set forth or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
Having thus described the invention, I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent:
1. A flashlight comprising a casing of insulating material; a sub-assembly including a single panel of sheet insulating material within said casing, an electric light socket directly carried by said panel, said socket having a portion extending through the panel, a contact directly carried by said panel for engaging the central terminal of an electric lamp in said socket, said socket and said contact being disposed at the same end of said panel, said contact including a portion adapted to engage one end of said panel, said contact including a portion adapted to engage one end of a dry cell, a clip at the same end of the panel and directly carried thereby to engage an opposite end of another dry cell, electrically conductive means at the other end of the panel and directly carried thereby to engage the other ends of said dry cells whereby said dry cells are connected in series between said contact and said clip, and switch means carried by said casing; and means to support said panel within said casing, said supporting means comprising a metallic member disposed on the outside of said casing and having a portion extending through re istered apertures in the casing and panel and turned over to lie against the panel; said switch means including a button of non-conductive material extending through and slidably received in said casing and said metallic manner, said button carrying an electrically conductive finger which slides against said metallic member and rides on back of the panel, said button being movable between two positions in one of which the finger engages the portion of the socket extending through the panel and in the other of which the finger is remote from said portion. 1
2. A vest pocket flashlight comprising two major casing parts which jointly define a casing having an open end; means to hingedly join said parts together at the end opposite said open end, said means comprising a pair of strips connected by a hinge joint, means to secure each of said strips to one of said casing parts; a translucent cup-shaped guard, means to hingedly secure a portion or said guard to one of said casing parts, an opposite portion of said guard having an irregularity, said other casing part having an irregularity which negatively matches the guard irregularity and interfits therewith when the guard and casing parts are in normally operative position, so that, when the two parts are swung away from one another,
said guard can be swung away from said lamp; a first sub-assembly including a single panel of sheet insulating material, a socket directly carried by said panel, a contact directly carried by said panel for engaging the central terminal of an electric lamp in said socket, said contact including a portion adapted to engage one end of a dry cell, and a clip at one end of said panel and directly carried thereby to engage an opposite end of another dry cell, said same panel also directly carrying electrically conductive means at its other end to engage the other ends of said dry cells whereby said dry cells are connected in series between said contact and said clip, switch means directly carried by said casing part for optionally electrically connecting said clip and said socket, said socket including an apertured hasp portion; a second sub-assembly including a second single panel of sheet insulating material said second panel having an opening therethrough, through which said apertured portion passes when the two parts of the casing are closed together, a bolt of electrically non-conductive material, means to guide said boltfor slidable movement between the other panel and the other casing part in a path which extends through the aperture in the hasp portion when the casing parts are closed, and manually operable means to reciprocate said bolt in said path; each of said panels being disposed in a different one of said casing parts and means to secure each said panel to its associated casing part, said last named means comprising ears on the strips extending through registered apertures through the casing parts and panels, and clamped against the panels.
3. A vest pocket flashlight comprising two major casing parts of electrically non-conductive material, means to join said parts to each other, said means comprising a hinge including two strips rotatably joined to one another, each of said strips being disposed on a different one of said casing parts, and two panels of electrically non-conductive material, each or said panels be ing disposed flatly against the interior surface of a different one of said casing parts, said strips having a plurality of ears extending through registered apertures in said casing parts and panels and turned over to lie against such panels whereby to hold said panels and strips to said casing parts, one of said casing parts carrying a switch and the associated panel acting as a base panel for a sub-assembly including lamp supporting means, electrically conductive battery supporting means and means to connect said battery supporting means to the switch.
4. A vest pocket flashlight comprising two major casing parts of electrically non-conductive material, means to join said parts to each other, said means comprising a hinge including two strips rotatably joined to one another, each of said strips being disposed on a diiierent one of said casing parts, two panels of electrically non-conductive material, each of said panels being disposed flatly against the interior surface of a different one of said casing parts-said strips having a plurality or cars extending through registered apertures in said casing parts and panels and turned over to lie against such panels whereby to hold said panels and strips to said casing parts, one of said panels carrying a hasp sub-assembly and the other of said panels holding in place a movable bolt sub-assembly which is adapted to cooperate with said hasp sub-assembly to lock. together the two casing parts.
5. A vest pocket flashlight comprising two major casing parts of electrically non-conductive material, means to join said parts to each other, said means comprising a hinge including two strips rotatably joined to one another, each of said strips being disposed on a difierent one of said casing parts, two panels of electrically nonconductive material, each of said panels being disposed flatly against the interior surface of a different one of said casing parts, said strips having a plurality of ears extending through registered apertures in said casing parts and panels and turned over to lie against such panels whereby to hold said panels and strips to said casing parts, one of said casing parts carrying a switch and the associated panel acting as a base panel for a sub-assembly including lamp supporting means, electrically conductive battery supporting means and means to connect said battery supporting means to the switch, said last named panel carrying hasp means and the other panel retaining a bolt sub-assembly which is adapted to cooperate with said hasp means to loci; together the two casing parts.
6. A vest pocket flashlight comprising two relatively movable casing parts defining a hollow casing, one of said parts carrying an apertured hasp which extends across the interior of said casing and is received within said other part, a latch to engage the aperture of said hasp, said latch comprising a unitary assembly including a base plate, a lever pivoted to said base plate, a tongue slidable along said base plate and a link connecting said tongue to said lever, said lever being pivotally movable about an axis perpen dicular to the direction of the movement of the tongue between two extreme positions in one or which the tongue is in the aperture in the hasp and in the other of which the tongue is withdrawn from the aperture in the hasp, means to bias said lever away from an intermediate position between its two extreme positions so that the lever is urged toward one or the other of its extreme positions, and means to secure said base plate flatly against the interior surface of said casing part.
7. A vest pocket flashlight comprising two relatively movable casing parts defining a hollow casing, one of said parts carrying an apertured hasp which extends across the interior of the casing and is received within said other part, a latch for entering the aperture of said hasp, said latch comprising a unitary assembly including a base plate having an aperture therein, a lever extending through said aperture, said lever having fiat trunnions, a flat spring bearing against said trunnions, a bolt tongue and a link connecting said tongue to said lever, and means to mount said unitary assembly on said other casing part.
REFERENCES CITED The following referencesare of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,226,727 Wachtel May 22, 1917 1,588,464 Osean June 15, 1926 1,913,347 Mitchell July 18, 1933 2,272,040 Muldoon Feb. 3, 1942 2,329,063 Lockwood Sept. 7, 1943 2,465,114 Oury Nov. 22, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 189,053 Great Britain Nov. 23, 1922 361,691 Germany Oct. 17, 1922 494,810 Great Britain Nov. 1, 1938