US 2402741 A
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June 25, 1946. A; o. DRAVINER SPRAY HEAD Filed Ooh 3, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet l ADOLPHE 0.DRAVINER,
ATTORNEY A. O. DRAVINER SPRAY HEAD June 25, 1946.
Filed Oct. 3, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ADOLPHE O.DRAVINEB,
IN VEN TOR.
ATTORNEY Patented June 25, 1946 SPRAY HEAD Adolphe Draviner, Glendale, Calif.
ApplicationOctober 3, 1944, Serial No. 556,931
'lheinvention relates to a spray head and has foran object to provide a spray headlor nozzI-jwl'iereinthe size of'the fluid passage through the spray head or nozzle "automatically expands andcontacts in accordancewith the fluid pres- '.sure,'whereby a stream ofwater issues with con- 12 Claims; (CL. 299-:441)
siderable force from the nozzle even though the waternpressure is" comparatively low:
with the usualtype of'fspray head having a rnetal'nozzle wherein the nozzle openings have afixed size, if the valve is turned to reduce the water pressure o'n the sprayh'ead to a low value, to conserve waterfor for any other purpose, the various streams from' the nozzle openings issue with a very sman force and all of such streams merge together at a shortd-istancein front of the sprayihead and continue from that point practically as a solid stream. The invention overtaste" this defect byproviding a spray head or nozzle arrangement wherein the size of the fluid passage through the nozzle is quite small when the fluid pressure is low; and automatically inflcrease sfasthefluid pressure increases. v .(UAno'ther object ofthe invention is toprovide a spray head having an array of fluid passages "orifice s which are self-cleaning by auto matically overcoming stoppage of the water'orifices due to liming or corrosion of the orifices cr-"clue to sedimentlodging in the orifices.
"Another object of the invention is to provide a spray head having a flexible joint with the pipe connection so that the spray head can be oriented to different positions, and wherein the flexible joint is in the form of a ball and socket connection which: is sealed" against leakage" by fluid pressure in the spray head.
Another object of the invention is to simplify the construction and assembly ofthe spray head by eliminating screws, nuts, packings, or gaskets and to provide a construction wherein those elements-are not necessary.
For further details of the invention, reference may be made to the drawings, wherein:
Fig; 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a spray head according to the present invention.
Fig. 2 is an end view of the spray head of Fig. 1,;looking in the direction ofcthe arrows onthe line 2 -2' of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is an end view of. the. spray head of Fig. I, looking in the direction. of the. arrows on theline. 3-3 in Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is an. enlarged sectional view of the noz zle of the preceding. figures, with parts, broken 2 Fig; 5 is an enlarged sectional view fication, with parts broken away.
Fig. 6 is an enlarged sectional View of a further modification, with parts broken away. 7
'Referring in detail to the drawings, the spray of 'a modihead I comprises a casing 2 which may be frustoconical in shape as illustrated, the smaller end of casing 2 comprising an inlet 3 and the larger end comprising an outlet 4. The insideof the casing around the inlet 3 is provided with a concave spherical surface 5 which mates with and surrounds an inner convex spherical surface 6 on a flange I of the pipe connection 8. The pipe connection 8 is fitted into the casing 2 through the outlet 4, the outlet 4 being large enough to pass the flange land the inlet 3 being large enough to pass the pipe connection 8, but not the hange T. The curved fitting surfaces 5 and may be ground together to form an accurate fit'and they constitute a ball and socket connectionto provide for angular adjustment of the casing Z with respect to the pipe connection 8. The casing 2 at the outlet & is provided with a cylindrical bore 9- in which fits a supporting disk [0" of rigid material such as metal. On top of disk Hi is supported a nozzle disk ll of elastic material such as rubber, which also fits in thebore 9; At the rear of the cylindrical bore 9 the casing 2 is provided with a seat I2 which converges towards the outlet 4 to meet the cylindrical bore 9'. On theseat l2 fits the tapered portion I33 of an elastic flange 14 which is integral with the elastic disk ll. 7 Flange I3: is larger than bore 9, but it can be compressed by hand and worked into position by insertion from the outer end of bore 9, i. e., the lowerend of bore 9 as seen in Fig. 1. At the inlet side of seat 12, the casing 2 is cut away or provided with a recess to allow the compressed flange I3 to expand and fit on the seat 12. outwardly projecting from the disk ll 15' an array of nozzles, two of which are shown in detail in magnified. form at in Fig. t. The construction of all of the nozzles is the same and each of them such as it comprises an elongated body portion It having a cylindrical periphery which slidingly fits a cylindrical bore id in the disk: H]. Through the body of the elastic disk H and through each nozzle extends a fluid passage 2!? which. at its rear and; opens into. the interior of casing 2 and which tapers in size from its inlet end. 25' its outlet 22 which is an expansible orifice. The outlet 22, when there is no'fluid. pressure on the nozzle, may have a diameter of the order of 5. or 10' thousandths of an inch, assuming that the spray head is to be employed as a shower bath fixture, with water pressure ranging from zero to about sixty pounds per square inch. The size of the fluid passage 20 may vary depending upon the elasticity of the material chosen for the disk H and upon the pressure of the fluid supply. The result of tapering the passage 20 from a larger opening at the inlet 2| to a smaller opening at the outlet 22 results in the thickness of the body I8 increasing in a direction along the nozzle toward the outlet 22; The purpose of this is to provide elastic material which will permit the nozzle such as IE to elongate and to thereby vary the size of the pasf sage through the body portion I6 as well as orifice 22 automatically in proportion to an increase in the fluid pressure. The array of nozzles I6 is supported for such elongation and for increase in size of fluid passage 20 and orifice 22 by the rigid disk It which has a corresponding array of bores IS in which the array of nozzles fit.
When the nozzles are not elongated, due to fluid pressure, preferabl the length of each nozzle is such that it is shorter than the bore I9, as indicated in Figs. 1 and 4. Due to fluid pressure, the nozzles such as 16 elongate and the outlet end'thereof may then extend flush with the outer face of the rigid disk ID, or in fact, may protrude beyond it.
The front side 23 of the elastic disk ll fits on and is supported by the flat inner surface 24 of the rigid disk Ill, The disks l0 and II instead of meeting on a flat surface could meet on a curved surface if desired. As the body of the elastic disk lLextends laterally of the array of nozzles, and as this laterally extending body portion is supported by rigid disk 10, the latter provides a lateral support for the nozzles.
In order to removably lock the disks l0 and l I in the outlet 4, the'outer end of casing 2 is pro vided with a groove 25 in which fits a removable spring lock ring 26.
Instead of having the array of nozzles integral with the disk ll, each nozzle may be a separate element as indicated at 21 in Fig. 5. In this case, the rigid disk 28 is provided with an arra of bores such as 29, and each such bore is provided at its inlet end with a. tapered seat 30 to receive a correspondingly tapered flange 3| on the spray element or liner 21. Also each bore such as 29 adjacent its outlet end is provided with an inwardly projecting tapered seat 32 having a central outlet 33. The outlet end of nozzle 21 is tapered as indicated at 34, to fit o the seat 32. The bore 36of the nozzle 21 converges towards the outlet and then flares outwardly as indicated at 31, whereby the bod of the nozzle 21 is thickest adjacent its expansible orifice 35 formed at the junction of the inwardly tapered bore 36 and the outwardly tapered bore 31, and the fluid pressure in the bore 36 compresses this thickened portion to increase the size of the bore 36 and the orifice 35, in accordance with the fluid pressure.
Each of the jet forming nozzles 21 are made of elastic material such as rubber and they may be removable from their respective bores 29 or may be cemented therein if desired.
The disk 28 which may be of metal is held in place between a lock ring 38 fastened in the front end of casing 39 by screw threads 40. At the back of plate 28 is arranged a gasket seal 4| which fits in a recess 42 in the body 39.
In the modification shown in Fig. 6, the rigid disk 43 is provided with an array of apertures such as 44, and on top of disk 43 is arranged a disk 45 of elastic material such as rubber having a corresponding array of apertures 46, each aperture 46 converging on a curve towards the outlet for about one-half of the length of th aperture 46 resembling the hole at the center of a doughnut, that is, it resembles the inner part of a torus, a surface of revolution generated by revolving a semi-circle about the axis of the aperture 46, thereby forming an expansible orifice 41, Due to fluid pressure on the inlet side of the disk 45, the aperture 46 and its outlet orifice 41 enlarges in accordance with the fluid pressure.
In order to properly align the apertures 46 with the apertures 44, a suitable interlock is provided,
- such as a lug 43 on disk 45 which fits in an aperto hold the ball and socket 5, 6 together without leakage, whereby it is not necessary to use a sprin such as 53 in Fig. 1. However, a spring such as 53 may be usedto hold the casing such as 2 on the pipe connection such as 8, during the time when there is no fluid pressure in the casing. The spring such as 53 at its lower end rests on the jet forming members such as disk II in Fig 1, and its upper end rests in a recess formed b a flare under the flange 1, this flare serving to guide the upper end of the compression spring 53 to its proper position as shown in Fig. 1, when the spray head is assembled.
In allforms of the invention it is understood that where reference is made to the formation of a spray, that the jet from each nozzle is a solid stream, and it is a multiplicity of these needlelike solid streams which form the spray. Also in all'forms of the invention, the jet forming passage in the elastic member preferably converges towards the outlet to facilitate its expansion or contraction in accordance with the fluid pressure.
Also, in all forms of the invention, the nozzles are substantially self-cleaning as they are elastic and expand to permit the discharge of particles of sediment that would ordinarily clog a conventional type of spray head. Also, the increase in length and size of the fluid passage through the nozzle, when acted on by fluid pressures of various amounts, serves to break up any lime encrustation, the broken up pieces being expelled through the orifices.
Various modifications may be made in the invention without departing from the spirit of the following claims. For example, instead of employing an array of nozzles, use may be made of a single one of the nozzles shown in Figs. 1, 5 and 6 and its size may be varied or chosen to suit the requirements.
1. A spray head comprising a casing having an inlet and an outlet, a nozzle member of elastic material in said outlet, said nozzle member having an array of elastic nozzles, a supporting member at the outlet side of said nozzle member, said supporting member supporting said nozzle member and having apertures into which said nozzles fit, and means for retaining said supporting member in said casing outlet.
2. A casing having an inlet and. an outlet, a nozzle member of elastic material in said outlet, said nozzle member having a nozzle and a body portion extending laterally therefrom, said body portion and nozzle having a fluid passage extending therethrough, a disk supporting the front of said body portion, said disk having an aperture in which said nozzle extends and fits when not subjected to fluid pressure, the wall of said aperture substantially preventing expansion of the outside diameter of said nozzle while permitting said nozzle to elongate and said passage to expand under pressure in said inlet.
3. An elongated nozzle of elastic material, said nozzle having a fluid passage therethrough, and a casing having an elongated aperture having a side wall fitting over the side of said nozzle, said aperture being open at the end of said nozzle for elongation of said nozzle and enlargement of said fluid passage under fluid pressure in said nozzle.
4. An elongated nozzle of elastic material, said nozzle having a fluid passage which decreases in size toward the outlet of said nozzle, and means supporting said nozzle for elongation and increase in size of said fluid passage without radial expansion of the outside diameter of said nozzle under fluid pressure in said nozzle.
5. A spray head comprising a casing, an elongated nozzle of elastic material, said nozzle having a wall which increases in thickness and a conical bore which converges towards the outlet end of said nozzle, a supporting plate having a bore in which said nozzle fits, and means removably supporting said plate and said nozzle in said casing.
6. A casing having an inlet and an outlet, said casing having a circular seat therein adjacent said outlet, said seat converging towards said outlet, a nozzle member having an integral elastic peripheral flange, and means supporting said nozzle member in said outlet with said flange on said seat.
7. A spray head comprising a casing having an inlet and an outlet, said casing at said outlet having a circular bore, a nozzle member of elastic material fitting said bore, said nozzle member having an array of elastic nozzles, a disk of rigid material fitting said bore in front of said nozzle member and having an array of apertures in which said nozzles fit when not subjected to fluid pressure, said nozzle member resting on and being supported by said disk, and means for retaining said disk in position in said casing.
8. A spray head comprising a casing having an inlet and an outlet, said outlet having a cylindrical bore, a circular seat around the rear of said 'bore, said seat converging toward said outlet, a disk of elastic material having a peripheral body portion fitting said bore and an outwardly extending flange fitting said seat and also having an array of elastic nozzles projecting therefrom, a disk of rigid material fitting said bore in front of said elastic disk, said rigid disk having an array of bores in which said nozzles fit, and means for retaining said rigid disk in said outlet.
9. A spray head comprising a plate having an array of spray apertures, and a single piece of elastic rubber having a nozzle lining each of said apertures.
10. A spray head comprising a plate having an array of spray apertures extending therethrough and a nozzle of elastic material lining each of said apertures, each of said nozzles having a bore converging from the inlet end towards the outlet end of the nozzle,
11. A spray device comprising a plate having a spray aperture, a nozzle of elastic material supported by said plate, said nozzle having a bore converging from the inlet end towards the outlet end of said nozzle, said nozzle bore being substantially coaxial with said plate aperture, the thickness of the elastic body of the nozzle increasing along the bore as the bore converges, said plate supporting said nozzle for expansion of the nozzle bore by fluid pressure in the bore without substantial forward movement of the inlet end of said nozzle bore.
12. A spray device comprising a plate having a spray aperture, a nozzle of elastic material supported by said plate, said nozzle having a bore converging from the inlet end towards the outlet end of said nozzle, said nozzle bore being substantially coaxial with said plate aperture, the thickness of the elastic body of the nozzle increasing along the bore as the bore converges, said plate supporting said nozzle for expansion of said bore by compression of the elastic nozzle body around the bore without substantial forward movement of the inlet end of said nozzle.
ADOLPHE O. DRAVINER.