US 2339754 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 25, 1944. EH. BRACE S UPERVISORY APPARATUS Filed March 4, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Porky/(Brace.
1 ATTORNE WITNESSES:
(W fir v Patented Jan. 25, 1944 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE- SUPERVISOR/Y APPARATUS Porter H. Brace, Forest Hills, Pa., assignor' to Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application March 4, 1941, Serial No. 381,672
. 3 Claims.
This invention relates to devices useful for the control of metallurgical processes, and more particularly to supervisory apparatus for indicating the progress of chemical reactions due to combustion at high temperatures.
The primary object of this invention is to utilize the radiation properties accompanying combustion for indicating the progress of the combustion process.
Another object of the invention is to analyze the combustion process by means of the radiation such manner, as to produce an instantaneous visual indication proportional to the intensity of ance with the operation of the arrangement shown in Fig. 5.
In metallurgical operations involving accelerated oxidation reactions, for example, in combustion processes involving high temperatures, the radiations from the flames of gaseous or solid products are frequently depended upon as a.
means for estimating the progress of the reaction in order to decide upon the measures for controlling the process. For example, in producing steel by means of the Bessemer converter, it is the practice to depend upon the trained eye of the individual in charge of the control of the operation. Very accurate timing is necessary to main tain satisfactory uniformity in the product and the inevitable human error frequently leads to so-called off heats resulting in considerable economic losses. In accordance with the invention herein described a continuous indication can be efiected of the changing distribution of the radiation from the flame of a converter.
istics and spectral components of the radiation to be analyzed and proportional to the radiation of a standard source, and utilize said impulses in a predetermined order and sequence of time to form a pattern on the screen of a cathode ray oscilloscope.
Other objects and advantages will be apparent from the following description of the invention pointed out in particularity by the appended claims and taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which:
Figure 1 is a schematic view of one embodiment of the invention for analyzing the general radiation of a flame;
Fig. 2 is a modified arrangement for analyzing the spectral radiation of a flame;
Fig. 3 shows the resultant pattern in accordance with the operation of the embodiment shown in Fig. 4 illustrates the pattern resultant from the operation of the arrangement of Fig. 2';
Fig. 5 is a schematic view of the apparatus for analyzing simultaneously the total radiation characteristics, the spectral radiation, and the rate of change of the radiation incident on a point of observation, e. g. a slit at the focus of the optical system cooperating with a photo-cell; and,
Fig. 6 illustrates the pattern obtained in accord- Referring to Fig. 1, a Bessemer converter I is schematically indicated, the flame of which emits visible, infrared and ultraviolet radiations. These radiations are passed through an optical system indicated by the lens 2 and through a suitable diaphragm 3 and are directed upon a second lens 4 which focuses the beam on a photo-cell 5. The anode and cathode elements 6 and 1, respectively of the cell 5 are connected to the vertical sweep circuit of'a cathode ray oscilloscope 21.
Oscilloscopes of this type are standard instruments for comparing variousproperties of alternating currents and serve as a useful tool in the 'fields of research and industry. The invention does. not concern itself with the particular type of oscilloscope and therefore its mechanical or electrical features need not be described in detail. It is to be understood that the oscilloscope contains elements for producing an adjustable linear time axis for the horizontal sweep of the cathode 4 ray and that the currents to be traced-cause vertical movement of the cathode ray.
A scanning mechanism comprising a series of alternating light filtering elements 8, and opaque members 9 is interposed between the diaphragm 3 and the lens 4. The filter members and the opaque members are so arranged as to form a revolving drum which may be rotated at a uniform speed by the motor Ill through suitable gearing. In order to synchronize the sweep of the oscilloscope with the rotation of the scanning mechanism, a small permanent magnet H is carried thereby and is arranged to cooperate with an inductance coil I? to deliver a voltage pulse to the sweep control of the oscilloscope on each revolution 01' the scanning mecha- The opaque members 9 acting as shutters for the light from the radiation of the flame, carry reflecting surfaces l3, which are at such an angle as to reflect upon the photo-cell 5 the radiation from a standard source shown here by the lamp I, the illumination of which is focused by means of the lens it upon the reflecting surfaces when one of them obstructs the opening of the diaphragm 3. The illumination is arranged by proper physical placement of the light source I in such manner that an opaque member 3 will cut of! the light beam when a filtering element 8 is directly opposite the opening of the diaphragm 3. The number of opaque members 9 around the circular support is so arranged that whenever a filtering element is placed directly opposite the opening in the diaphragm 3, an opaque member cuts oil the light from the source l4. On the other hand, whenever an opaque member 9 is directly opposite the opening in the diaphragm 3 and thereby cuts oil the light entering from the lens 2, a filtering element 8 will be so positioned that light from the source ll must pass therethrough. The light beam passing through the filter 8 being directed to the center 'of the opening in the diaphragm 3 encounters a reflector surface I 3 from which it is then reflected and directed through the lens onto the photocell 5. As the drum revolves .the next instant, a filtering member will take the place of the opaque member before the opening in the diaphragm 3, and at the same time an opaque member 9 will take the place of the filter member 8 before the lens l5 and thereby cut off the light from the source I. It is clearly seenv that in alternate succession the photocell will be energized from the light source to be analyzed and the standard source I4. Each-of the light filtering elements 8, has difierent predetermined spebtral transmittance and they are so arranged that as the scanning mechanism rotates each successive filter progressively completes the desired spectrum.
In the operation of the apparatus above described when the scanning mechanism is rotating the photo-cell receives interrupted illumination whose magnitudes depend upon the intensity of the radiation of the flame and the.
transmission coeflicients of the filters. The
photo-cell also receives a series of impulses origi nating from the standard source M in alternate succession. This results in a pattern on the oscilloscope screen I 6 as shown in Fig. 3 where the series of deflections N of the cathode ray beam differ in amplitude alternatingly from a series of deflections 0. The former are due to the energization of the photo-cell from the radiation source to be analyzed and the latter from the constant source M. For the purpose of comobtained through the use of suitable prisms or gratings to develop the line" spectrum of the radiation. By this is meant the successive viewing of the spectral lines of the flame as they are developed by a refracting prism, diffraction grating or equivalent optical element. A different type of scanning system is employed for this purpose as shown in Fig. 2. Radiation from the converter flame is focused on a slit 20 by a suitable optical system represented here by the lens 2|. The light is focused by another lens 22 upon a refracting prism 23, from which it is directed on the scanning mechanism 24. The latter con-- put of the latter is connected to the vertical deflecting circuit of a cathode ray-oscilloscope in the same manner as shown in Fig. 1. An amplifier l9 may be interposed between the photo cell 5 and the oscillograph 21 if the output of the photo-cell should not be of sufilcient ma nitude to energize the oscilloscope. The rotation of the scanning mechanism by the motor l0 causes the spectral radiation to sweep across the opening of the light gate 28 every time one of the reflecting surfaces 25 is in proper alignment therewith. Thus the radiation reaching the photo-cell varies with time during the movement of the spectrum across the opening of the light gate andin such a manner that it is dependent upon the spectral distribution of the radiation. The alternate reflectors 26 of thescanning mechanism are so positioned that they deflect the spectrum away from the light gate while reflecting the light from a standard source shown here by the lamp M in cooperation with the lens l5 upon the light gate as the scanning mechanism rotates.
The timing of the oscilloscope sweep is controlled as in Fig. 1 by a series of permanent magnets II and inductance i2 so that the oscilloscope sweep returns to its starting point after the passage of each pair of deflecting surfaces. The result is that the oscilloscope receives the series of impulses from the photo-cell evoked alternately by the light from the standard source and the radiation from the converter flame. The resultant pattern on the oscilloscope screen will be of the type shown in Fig.4 where the portion A represents a steady deflection due to the standard radiation and the portion B a variable defiec'tion due to the passage of successive spectral regions of the flame radiation across the light gate. In the operation the oscilloscope sensitivity is to be adjusted to keep the deflection due to the standard radiation at some predetermined parison the sensitivity of the oscilloscope may be adjusted by the control I! until the deflections due to the standard radiation reach some predetermined amplitude which is indicated by the mark Q. The standard source It mayconveniently be a tungsten filament lamp with means for accurately measuring and adjusting the filament current. The motor ill for driving the scanning mechanism should have a reasonably constant speed.
The above arrangement provides continuous spectral analysis of a chosen portion of the spectrum of a flame. Greater discrimination may be amplitude value as indicated by the mark (1" Itfrequently happens that significant lines of the spectrum are obscured by general radiation which gives a more or less continuou background of high intensity. Such radiation might arise from incandescent solid particles in suspension in the flame gases. In order to separate the lines from the continuous background, and provide a flexible arrangement in'which the general radia tion and the spectral lines can be simultaneously observed, together with some indication of the progress of reaction, the arrangement shown in. Fig. 5 can be utilized. By this modification 01.
tion ofthe total radiation from the flame as a' a 3. A third sweep records the rate of change of radiation reaching the photo-cell slit and thus serves to emphasize spectral lines with respect to the general background.
Radiation from the source shown herein as the flame of a Bessemer converter is focused by means of lens 2 on a spectroscom: I8 from which the dispersed light emerges and is directed upon a scanning mechanismcomprisin-g a polyhedral mirror 29 having two identical facets 39 and 30' and another facet 3i disposed in a different angular position; The mirror 29 is driven by a motor to by means of gears 34 and 35. The
and 4| are open. The output of the photo-cell will be connected directly through conductors 45 and 48, the stationary. contacts of the switch 43 and conductors 49 and 41 to the input of the oscilloscope.
The operation is repeated in uniform sequence, and the resultant pattern on the oscilloscope screen will be as shown in Fig. 6, comprising three distinctive cathode ray sweep lines, D being that gear drive is merely for the purpose of illustration and other suitable driving mechanisms may be employed. Another gear 36 similar in size to gear is in mesh with the latter and rotates a cam 31 upon which ride the rollers 38, 39 and 40 each actuating a switch 4|, 43 and 42, respectively. The moving contacts of the switches 4|.
- 42 and 43 are connected in parallel by means of conductors 45 and 49 and connect to the output of the photo-cell 5 through a suitable amplifier l9. The stationary contacts of th switches 4| and 43 are connected in parallel by means of conductors 41 and 48 and connect to the input circuit of the oscilloscope 21 and also to the secondary-winding 49 of a transformer 50 the primary winding 5! of which is connected to the stationary contacts of the switch 42.
The synchronization of the oscilloscope sweep is effected as previously described by means of magnets ll carried by the gear 35 cooperating with inductance coil 12. The facets 30 and 90' of the mirror 29 are so arranged that the light from the spectroscope I8 is reflected thereby upon the light gate behind which is the photocell 5, whereas the facet 3| is in such angular position that it reflects the light from the stand- .ard source l4 focused by the lens I! upon-the light gate 28.
The mirror 29 is so geared to the cam 31 that I the switches 4!, 42 and 43 are closed in succession during the intervals when the photo-cell is of the radiation of the standard source, E a record of the spectral lines of the general radiation, and F, a record of the rate of change of the radiation when the transformer is in operation.
I claim as my invention? 1. In an apparatus for determining the radiation characteristics of a radiant source, means for directing the radiation of said source upon a photoelectrically responsive element in periodic succession through a plurality of filters having predetermined spectral transmittance, means conjointly' operable with said directing means for exposing said element at intervals of said periodic succession to radiation of known value and means for indicating in visually comparative relation the magnitudes of the response of said element to both said radiations.
2. In an apparatus for determining the radi-- through said translucent members, a source of.
constant radiation of known value, means carried by said scanning mechanism and operable upon intervals at which time-said opaque members intercept the'radiation of said flrst mentioned source, for directing the radiation of said source of known value upon said element, and means for indicating in visually comparative relation the magnitudes of the response of said element to both said radiations.
3. In an apparatus for determining the process of combustion by means of. the radiation characteristics of the flame, a rotating scanningmechanism comprising a plurality of translucent and illuminated. In Fig. 5 the position illustrates the instant when the record of the general radiation of the flame is being indicated, the facet 30 sweeping over the light gate, andthe switch 4| being closed; with therotation as indicated by the arrow the next event will be the indicationof the spectral lines as distinguished from the general radiation; The radiation from the spectroscope will be reflected by thefacet 80' of the mirror 29 while the cam- 3'I will have closed the switch 42s0 that the impulse from the photo-* electric cell 5 will be transmitted to the cathode ray tube through the transformer B9. The transformer, due to its characteristics, will'develop signals which are proportional to the rate of change of the radiation at any instant rather than to its intensity. As the rotation continues the next occurrence is-tha't the facet Si is placed in operative relation between the light gate 20 and the source i4, sweeping the light gate by the standard radiation. At this time the switch 4! is in the closed position whereas switches 42 opaque members in alternate order upon a revolving support, a diaphragm cooperating therewith whereby the radiation of the flame is di-.
rected upon said mechanism, a photoelectric cell disposed behind said support and adapted to be energized by the light values transmitted through said translucent members and deenergized in successively alternate order by said opaque memberscovering saidodiaphragm, said translucent 'members' having progressively increasing spectral transmittance of predetermined light filtering value, a, source of constant radiation of known value, means including reflectors carried by said opaque members for directing the radiation of said source upon saidcell at intervals when said opaque members intercept the radia tion of said flame, and means for indicating the electrical eflect produced by said cell upon energization from both said radiations comprising a cathode ray oscilloscope.
PORTER H. BRA CE.