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Publication numberUS2191312 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date20 Feb 1940
Filing date18 Sep 1937
Priority date18 Sep 1937
Publication numberUS 2191312 A, US 2191312A, US-A-2191312, US2191312 A, US2191312A
InventorsCannon George E
Original AssigneeStandard Oil Dev Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Drilling fluid for combating heaving shale
US 2191312 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

ossiea DRILLING FLUID FOR COMBATING HEAG SHALE George E. Cannon, Houston, Tex, assignor to Standard Oil Development Company, a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Application September 18, 1937, Serial No. 164,495

6 Claims. (Cl. 255-1) This invention relates to a drilling fiuid which It is to be understood that it is not possible will efiect a minimum of disintegration of heavto fix absolute limits upon the amount of the ing shale. addition agent to be employed. The most efiec- In the rotary drilling of oil and gas wells 2. tive amount must usually be determined by ex- 5 mud fluid is pumped down the drill stem to the perimentation, that is, by obtaining a sample of drill at the working face in the bottom of the heaving shale through which the drilling is to bore. The stream of mud fluid passes across the be done and observing its rate and degree of disworking face of the drill and escapes upward integration by the action of water containing through the bore. In some areas, notably the various concentrations of the addition agent.

Gulf Coast of Texas and Louisiana, a formation In some cases it may be found that less than known as heaving shale must be penetrated in the minimum proportion of addition agent given certain wells. It is difiicult and often impossible above will be sufilcient. In extreme cases it may to penetrate this formation by ordinary rotary be necessary to add as much as 75% or 80%, by drilling methods and mud fluids. This shale has weight, of the addition agent.

a tendency to move into the hole filling up the In carrying out the preferred embodiment of 15 hole already drilled, and often sticking the drillthe present invention a well is drilled through ing tools. It is believed that the cause of this the ordinary earth formations using the conaction is due to the hydration of the shale parventional aqueous mud of suitable weight, which ticles by the water contained in ordinary drilling may be from 8-18 lbs. per gallon. When the $0 muds. A heaving shale may be defined as one drill approaches a sub-stratum composed of which in contact with the ordinary drilling mud heaving shale, a polyhydroxy organic compound swells or disintegrates spontaneously so much as of the type described above is added in the preto interfere with the drilling operation. scribed proportions and the drilling is continued In accordance with the present invention, the through the heaving shale. In some cases it may disintegration of a heaving shale is prevented be desired to make up a special mud for the heav- 25 by the addition to an ordinary drilling mud of ing shale instead of merely adding the polyhyvarying amounts of a water soluble, polyhydroxy droxy compound to the mud at hand. alcohol or saccharose, preferably one which con- The addition agents employed according to talns three or more hydroxyl. groups. By ordinary the present invention are not electrolytes and,

39 drilling mud is meant the usual drilling mud used consequently, do notcorrode the drilling equip- Q0 in rotary drilling which is comprised usually of ment. By virtue of the plurality of hydroxyl clays encountered during the drilling operation, groups contained in these agents they aid in mixed with water. The drilling mud may conmaintaining the clay and weighting material in tain weighting materials or colloidal addition suspension in the water. Moreover, these addimaterials. tion agents increase the viscosity of the drilling Among the organic addition agents which may mud as well as its density, and, thereby, reduce be employed are the glycols, glycerol, sor'bitol, losses of the drilling fluid into sub-surface erythrltol, sucrose, starch and dextrin. Of formations. these, glycerol is preferred. The organic com- The nature and objects of the present inven- 40 pound used need not be pure. When it occurs tion having been thus described what is claimed 49 in nature, such as in vegetable matter, an extract as new and useful and is desired to be secured of the vegetable matter containing it is suitable. by L tt r P t nt, 1

The addition agent should be used in an 1. A drilling fluid comprising a suspension of amount of at least by weight. of the mud clay in a mixture of water and glycerol. a d. p rably, 40% or more. In the case of liq- 2. A drilling mud comprising a suspension of 45 uid addition a en s. h amount o be added may clay in water containing at least 20%, by weight, be expressed volumetrlcally as at least 15% and, of glycerol.

preferably, 30% or more. In the case of glycerol, 3. A drilling fluid comprising a suspension of excellent results have been obtained by using clay in water containing more than by 50 muds containing 40-60, by volume, of glycerol v lume, of glycerol. 5:0 with respect to the water present. 4. A drilling fluid, according to claim 1, con

The action of these polyhydroxy addition taining caustic soda. agents is improved by the simultaneous addition 5. A drilling fluid comprising a suspension of of caustic soda. Enough caustic soda to make a clay' in a 5% solution of caustic soda containing 5% solution with the water present in the mud glycerol. imparts a noticeable improvement. Disintegra- 6. A drilling fluid comprising a suspension of tion of heaving shale has been wholly avoided clay in a 10% water solution oi caustic soda by the use of a mixture containing 40%, by containing more than 40%, by volume, of

volume, of glycerol and of a 10% water soluglycerol. so tion of caustic soda.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2474329 *13 Jan 194828 Jun 1949Standard Oil Dev CoDrilling fluid for heaving shale
US2474330 *30 Jan 194828 Jun 1949Standard Oil Dev CoAqueous base drilling fluid for heaving shale
US2483936 *18 Nov 19474 Oct 1949Phillips Petroleum CoDrilling fluid
US2485231 *15 Nov 194718 Oct 1949Pure Oil CoDrilling wells through formations which produce gas containing large amounts of hydrogen sulfide
US2604447 *29 Jul 194822 Jul 1952Nat Lead CoAqueous well-drilling fluids
US4780220 *26 May 198725 Oct 1988Hydra Fluids, Inc.Drilling and completion fluid
US4830765 *4 Dec 198716 May 1989Baker Hughes IncorporatedModified non-polluting liquid phase shale swelling inhibition drilling fluid and method of using same
US4941981 *16 Sep 198817 Jul 1990Baker Hughes IncorporatedModified non-polluting liquid phase shale swelling inhibition drilling fluid
US4963273 *16 Sep 198816 Oct 1990Baker Hughes IncorporatedModified non-polluting liquid phase shale swelling inhibition drilling fluid and method of using same
US5076364 *19 Mar 199131 Dec 1991Shell Oil CompanyGas hydrate inhibition
US5076373 *19 Mar 199131 Dec 1991Shell Oil CompanyDrilling fluids
US5083622 *19 Mar 199128 Jan 1992Shell Oil CompanyMethod for drilling wells
US5106517 *29 May 199021 Apr 1992Baker Hughes IncorporatedDrilling fluid with browning reaction anionic carbohydrate
US5110484 *28 Jun 19905 May 1992Baker Hughes IncorporatedDrilling fluid with stabilized browning reaction anionic carbohydrate
US5198415 *15 Jan 199130 Mar 1993Exxon Production Research CompanyNontoxic, nonchloride, water-base, inhibitive fluid to stabilize water sensitive shale
US5198416 *10 Sep 199130 Mar 1993Shell Oil CompanyAlcohol-in-oil drilling fluid system comprising polycyclic polyetherpolyol
US5248665 *10 Sep 199128 Sep 1993Shell Oil CompanyDrilling fluids comprising polycyclic polyether polyol
US5260269 *19 Mar 19919 Nov 1993Shell Oil CompanyMethod of drilling with shale stabilizing mud system comprising polycyclicpolyetherpolyol
US5337824 *28 Jun 199316 Aug 1994Shell Oil CompanyCoal slag universal fluid
US5358044 *27 May 199325 Oct 1994Shell Oil CompanyDrilling and cementing with blast furnace slag/soluble/insoluble alcohol
US5361841 *27 May 19938 Nov 1994Shell Oil CompanyDrilling and cementing with blast furnace slag/polyalcohol fluid
US5361842 *27 May 19938 Nov 1994Shell Oil CompanyDrilling and cementing with blast furnace slag/silicate fluid
US5363918 *4 Aug 199315 Nov 1994Shell Oil CompanyWellbore sealing with unsaturated monomer system
US5436227 *27 May 199325 Jul 1995Shell Oil CompanySoluble/insoluble alcohol in drilling fluid
US5439056 *28 Jun 19938 Aug 1995Shell Oil CompanyCoal slag solidification of drilling fluid
US5484020 *25 Apr 199416 Jan 1996Shell Oil CompanyRemedial wellbore sealing with unsaturated monomer system
US5635458 *1 Mar 19953 Jun 1997M-I Drilling Fluids, L.L.C.Water-based drilling fluids for reduction of water adsorption and hydration of argillaceous rocks
US6267812 *15 Apr 199931 Jul 2001Roquette Freres LestremAqueous dispersion of pigment(s) and/or filler(s) containing a particular saccharide composition
US8071509 *6 Dec 2011Engineered Drilling Solutions Inc.Glycerol based drilling fluids
US8608405 *24 Nov 201017 Dec 2013Baker Hughes IncorporatedMethods for disposing of produced water recovered during hydrocarbon drilling, production or related operations
US896926024 Oct 20113 Mar 2015Hitech Fluid Systems Ltd.Glycerol based drilling fluids
US20040124013 *11 Aug 20031 Jul 2004Grain Processing CorporationDrilling fluid, apparatus, and method
US20090131287 *14 Nov 200821 May 2009Smith Kevin WInhibiting hydration of shale using a polyol and potassium formate
US20090143254 *26 Nov 20084 Jun 2009Daniel Guy PomerleauGlycerol Based Drilling Fluids
US20120128424 *24 May 2012Baker Hughes IncorporatedMethods for disposing of produced water recovered during hydrocarbon drilling, production or related operations
EP0293191A2 *25 May 198830 Nov 1988Hydra Fluids, Inc.Drilling and completion fluid
U.S. Classification507/139, 516/79
International ClassificationC09K8/02, C09K8/20
Cooperative ClassificationC09K8/206
European ClassificationC09K8/20C