|Publication number||US20070022053 A1|
|Application number||US 11/535,280|
|Publication date||25 Jan 2007|
|Filing date||26 Sep 2006|
|Priority date||19 Jan 2005|
|Also published as||EP1684231A1, US7113925, US20060161501|
|Publication number||11535280, 535280, US 2007/0022053 A1, US 2007/022053 A1, US 20070022053 A1, US 20070022053A1, US 2007022053 A1, US 2007022053A1, US-A1-20070022053, US-A1-2007022053, US2007/0022053A1, US2007/022053A1, US20070022053 A1, US20070022053A1, US2007022053 A1, US2007022053A1|
|Inventors||Alan Waserstein, Atal Bansal|
|Original Assignee||Echeck21 Llc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (77), Classifications (21)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/039,322 filed 19 Jan. 2005 and now U.S. Pat. No. 7,113,925 dated 26 Sep. 2006 and which is incorporated herein by reference.
The invention relates generally to an electronic check and more particularly to a method and system for the creation of an electronic check image by a payor through use of software, the encryption and secure transmission of the electronic check image and the receipt, decryption and printing by the payee of the electronic check.
With the digital revolution and subsequent advent of the world wide web, digitized information can now almost instantaneously be transmitted from one party to another. Consequently, several payment and money transfer mechanisms have evolved around the internet.
Typical payment methods require the payor or payee to exchange sensitive information. For example, some payment methods require the payor to give the payee sensitive information in order to complete the payment. Such methods include credit card transactions, debit card transactions, electronic check acceptance, and automatic bill payment. The sensitive information requested may include credit card number, debit card number, or bank account number. These transactions have many disadvantages. One such disadvantage is that the sensitive information disclosed by the payee could be used fraudulently by an unauthorized party. Another disadvantage requires the involvement of third-party entities that not only route electronic transaction data (for example using payment gateways) but also charge additional fees for their involvement. Additionally, in some cases, special equipment is required to receive payments by the payee. This includes credit card readers, debit card readers with specialized PIN-pads, check readers that can read MICR data, and the like. Additional special equipment and handling adds further to the total expense.
Electronic payment alternatives, such as wire transfer payments, require payors to obtain special information from the payees, including personal account numbers and routing numbers. Providing such information raises privacy concerns. Wire transfers and the exchange of sensitive information over the internet are prone to digital fraud wherein data is hijacked during transmission by a third-party. Many large companies do not permit wire transfers for security reasons.
Other methods of payment, such as automatic bill payment authorizations, require the payee to provide sensitive information to the payor. Though not very prevalent, this mechanism does not usually have any protection against fraud. The payees rely upon the payors to correctly make direct electronic deposits into their accounts.
Of special consideration is the payment mechanism evolved by internet transactions wherein a third party acts as a middleman in receiving sensitive information. An example of this payment method is PAYPAL. In this method, PAYPAL acts as an intermediary and accepts the payment from payor by requesting sensitive information from payor. PAYPAL then transfers monies to the payee by wire transfer or sending a check. PAYPAL also acts as an intermediary financial institution by accepting the payor funds and then transferring them to the payee. For its services, PAYPAL charges a fee.
The biggest disadvantage in the existing electronic methods in comparison to traditional paper checks is that the payor and payee need to be able to contact each other prior to making the transaction. A check, in sharp contrast, does not need an exchange of “sensitive” information between the parties except for the payee's name and address. Accordingly, checks are deemed more safe and hence, more frequently used, as compared to existing electronic mechanisms. Additionally, checks do not need special equipment or accreditations.
In addition to the differences mentioned above, different laws govern checks as compared to electronic payment mechanisms. Regular paper checks are governed by check laws, such as Regulation CC and Check 21, while rules of the National Automated Clearing House Association (NACHA) govern electronic payment mechanisms.
The popularity of checks, even though decreasing, is illustrated by the fact that an estimated 42.5 billion checks were paid in the United States in 2000. This amounts to 59.5% of the total retail non-cash payments made in the United States. In terms of value, checks were equivalent to 39.3 trillion dollars, i.e. 84.4% of the total value of retail non-cash payments. It is estimated that a check is typically handled on average 19 times, increasing the opportunity for errors. Financial institutions spend $6 billion to $8 billion per year on check processing. Estimates of the cost savings attributed to check imaging and image exchange range from $1 billion to $2.1 billion.
The Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act (“Check 21 Act”), 12 U.S.C. §5001, was enacted on Oct. 28, 2003 and became law in the United States on Oct. 28, 2004. To facilitate check truncation and electronic check exchange, the Check 21 Act authorizes a new negotiable instrument called a “substitute check.” A substitute check is a paper reproduction of the original check that contains an image of the front and back of the original check and can be processed in the same manner as the original check. The Check 21 Act provides that a properly prepared substitute check is the legal equivalent of the original check for all purposes. The Check 21 Act does not require any bank to create substitute checks or to accept checks electronically. The Check 21 Act includes new warranties, an indemnity, and expedited recredit procedures that protect substitute check recipients.
The Check 21 law created a new token called the substitute check. In its existing form, the substitute check is a digital image of the original check and is governed by the ANSI X.9100-140 standards. There are certain differences between the electronic check of this invention and a substitute check. These differences are the digital patterns and images and the fact that the entity receiving the check need not be a bank.
Previous attempts have been made to provide electronic payments or checks. U.S. Pat. No. 6,138,107 to Elgamal discloses a method and apparatus for providing electronic accounts over a public network. The patent provides the internet commerce community with an electronic money account, where a buyer connected to the internet can purchase electronic money from a payment gateway, deposit the electronic money in an electronic money account in the payment gateway, and use the electronic money account to purchase goods on the internet, based on an underlying secure courier system.
United States Publication No. US20020065786 to Martens et al. describes a method for depositing a check from home or office directly into a bank account by running it through a special scanner that generates an image of the check and digitally signs it. The systems uses encryptions imprinted on the check, a secret key, and a plurality of digital signatures based upon the concatenated branch number, account number and check number.
For a general reference on electronic payments, see for instance, Requirements for Network Payment: The NetCheque Perspective, University of Southern California, MacWorld, pp. 114 (November 1995) (an on-line checking system in which an account holder can send an electronic document that a recipient can deposit electronically into a bank account as a check, where the document contains the name of the payer, financial institution, payer's account number, payee's name, and amount of check, and which includes a digital signature of the payer and which may include a digital signature of a payee); see also NetCash: A Design for Practical Electronic Currency on the Internet, University of Southern California, Computing Machinery (1993). (A framework that supports realtime electronic payments with provision of anonymity over an unsecure network. The infrastructure is based on independently managed, distributed currency servers that provide a point of exchange between anonymous electronic currency and non-anonymous instruments such as electronic checks.)
U.S. Pat. No. 6,676,310 to Simpson et al. discloses a check writing system and method for facilitating the writing of checks. The system and method pertain to receiving data to be included in a check to be printed via a network, configuring the received data for printing on a check and facilitating printing of the check. U.S. Pat. No. 5,504,677 to Pollin discloses an automated payment system. The system generates a draft, payable to the creditor and drawn on the payor's checking account, pursuant to the payor's authorization. The draft is executed by the debt collector as authorized signatory for the payor and deposited into the payee's account to complete payment.
None of the methods and systems mentioned above describe an electronic check that is created and sent by a secure electronic transmission which can be printed as a paper check by the payee. Nor do the methods or systems teach of an electronic check that is created by a software program that makes a digital image of the check, securely encrypts the digital image and transmits the digital image to a payee.
Therefore, there is a need in the art for an electronic check that eliminates the uncertainties, delays and costs associated with the physical paper check transmission. There is a need to expedite the transmission of a physical paper check. There is also a need to reduce the costs involved in the transmission of physical paper checks. Traditional paper checks require the payor to print the check, seal the check in an envelope and mail it to the payee. There is also a need to limit the environmental impact of paper use by reducing the necessity of using envelopes.
There is a further need to reduce the risk that a paper check will be soiled, physically damaged, lost or intercepted, during transit and before being deposited with the bank. Additionally, physical paper transmissions sent through public delivery mechanisms are prone to delays and uncertainties arising due to carrier delays or errors. There is also a need for the ability to transmit a check to a payee to a remote location where it may be impossible to receive a paper check.
There is a further need in the art for an electronic check that is the functional equivalent of a paper check except that it includes the Payee's email address to the list of required information. An electronic mail address is not considered financially “sensitive” and a payee would be more likely to provide this information in comparison to other information such as credit card number, debit card number, bank account number, or check number.
The current invention satisfies the above needs by providing an electronic check that is created electronically, transmitted securely by electronic means, and can be printed as a paper check by the payee. The electronic check is created by a software program that makes a digital image of the check, securely encrypts the digital image and transmits the digital image to the payee. The payee then uses special software to decrypt the transmitted check image, which is then capable of being printed as a paper check by the payee. The payee can deposit the paper check with the bank. Optionally, the payee can electronically transmit the check image to the payee's bank.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention a method for securely transmitting an electronic check comprises preparation of an electronic check by a payor, transmission of the electronic check image to a payee, receipt of the electronic check image by the payee, and conversion of the electronic check to a paper check by payee.
The invention provided is an electronic check created by the steps comprising: preparation of the electronic check using a software program that makes a digital image of the check, encryption of the digital image, transmission of the digital image to a payee, and decryption of the digital image.
Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide an electronic check capable of being processed by existing electronic payment processing mechanisms. The invention is capable of producing a traditional paper check. The improvement is in the reproduction and transmission of the check from the payor to the payee. The final paper check reproduced from the electronic check or digital image will be subject to check laws and will continue to be as useful and prevalent as the traditional paper check.
It is further object of the present invention to provide a system for transmitting an electronic check comprising: means for a payor to prepare the electronic check by inputting a payee name and address and the electronic check amount into a payor software program wherein the software program generates an electronic check image; encryption of the electronic check image utilizing a payee public key; transmission of the electronic check image by email from the payor to the payee; receipt of the electronic check image by the payee; decryption of the electronic check image using a payee key by the payee; and printing of a paper check from the electronic check image.
It is an additional object of the present invention to provide a system for transmitting an electronic check comprising: means for a payor to prepare an electronic check by inputting a payee name and address and the electronic check amount into a payor software program wherein the software program generates an electronic check image; encryption of the electronic check image utilizing the payment gateway public key; transmission of the electronic check image by electronic mail from the payor to a payment gateway; notification of receipt of the electronic check sent to the payee from the payment gateway; and receipt of the electronic check image by the payee through the internet.
These and other objects, features, and advantages of the present invention may be better understood and appreciated from the following detailed description of the embodiments thereof, selected for purposes of illustration and shown in the accompanying drawings.
There are many disadvantages to this system. First, there is a cost related to sending checks by mail, which include the cost of stamps and the cost of checks and envelopes. There is also a significant time delay in mailing payment, as a payment takes five to seven businesses days to reach the recipient and another four to five days for the bank to process. Additionally, the sender cannot receive payment unless he/she is at the physical address where the check has been sent. There is also a security risk in that a mailed check can easily be intercepted and there is no way for the payor to verify that the check has been delivered to the payee.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, a payor sends an electronic check to a payee by email and the payee prints the check and deposits it at the bank or the payee forwards the check electronically to the payee's bank account for deposit. As shown in the flow diagram of
The electronic check is implemented as the digital image of a physical paper check. The digital image will, as closely as possible, meet the ANSI X9 standards for physical paper checks. The final paper check may or may not meet the paper stock specifications in regulation X9.18. This would depend upon the type of paper and printer used by the payee when printing the check. This also allows for the payee to be able to use standard equipment to print the paper check. A standard computer printer should be sufficient to create the paper check from the electronic check image. The electronic check emulates substitute check standards as specified in X9.100-140.
As shown in
The software creates the electronic check digital image with a variety of security features. For instance, the ANSI X9 check specifications are used to devise the final image 44. Additionally, a bar-code is on the check image for fraud protection. The final check image has bar-code along with the check number. The bar-code information can include a combination of sender's account number, bank information, check number, amount amongst other things and a digital signature, wherein the digital signature is created using a private key known only to payor and at least a portion of the check information, such as check details, bank details, payor and payee details. A bar-code consisting of unencrypted check information and a digital signature shall be referred to herein as an encrypted bar-code. The payor information is administered by payor 41 through the user interface. Administration may involve accessing the system with a password, creating or editing payor information, creating or editing payee name and email information, and auditing transactions. Payor information, including the current check number, entered into the system or generated by the system is securely stored 43. Payment information 42 is also input into the user interface where the system will prompt the payor for the payee name, amount and any comments. For bank clearing houses that will accept bar-coded checks, this is an added fraud-protection feature. Banks have recently started use of barcode technology on checks. For example, the North Dallas Bank is already planning to implement barcode based checks in December of 2004. A bank clearing house that properly implements and accepts the bar coded checks of the invention can stop check fraud by, for example, ensuring that a particular check is processed only once thus eliminating duplicate check fraud and/or the alteration of the information on the checks.
The electronic check can also contain other security features. The check background contains the payor's name, payee's name, check number, check amount, sender name amongst other things repeated multiple times. Such an implementation is not possible with current paper checks, because the recipient, amount, check number etc. are not known at the time the check is printed. The addition of the background details will make it difficult to tamper with the check in any way that is difficult to detect. The electronic check can also incorporate microtype to prevent easy photocopying, and the barcode can encompass all of this information in encrypted form.
Further security measures include a licensing mechanism, transaction log, copies of the final check and integration of the electronic check software with accounting software. A licensing mechanism for the payor can be accomplished through a one-time setup license key. The image creation module 44 sends data to a transaction log 45, which provides an encrypted, password protected audit feature. Another security feature is that the payor can print 48 and keep a physical or digital copy of the check. This could be used by the payor for dispute resolution and/or accounting or audit purposes. The electronic check software can also be integrated with the payor's accounting software 47. The software implemented provides an API which allows for integration with accounting applications. By integrating the electronic check payor module with the accounting software, the payor will not have to post the check related information into the accounting software. The posting is done automatically. Additionally, through integration the payor has the option of choosing the payee's name from a drop down menu when creating an electronic check.
The electronic check payor software is installed on the payor's computer and configured with the payor's settings. Such configurations include storing the payor's name, address, bank name, logo, address, branch, bank account number, bank routing number, check number 43 amongst other things that might be needed to create the electronic check image.
The electronic check image is encrypted 46 prior to transmission over the internet 49. Encryption can be accomplished by symmetric key or public key infrastructure (“PKI”) technologies. These encryption mechanisms are known in the industry. The symmetric key cryptographic system uses the same key to encode the message as to decode it. Examples of such system run from simple substitution ciphers that have been known for many years and the recently adopted Data Encryption Standard (DES). The advantage of such systems is that they are generally fast given modern day computers and they are reasonably secure. A disadvantage of such systems is that the two communicating parties must have arranged to share the key in advance. However, one cannot always know in advance with whom one might want to communicate in a secure fashion. Thus, such a system can fall short for mechanisms where two entities want to communicate securely with each other on very short notice, but have not arranged ahead of time to share a key. Also, the cost of sharing a key would not necessarily be inexpensive because the system would still require a secure form of mail to transmit the key ahead of time.
The PKI system provides two keys for a message, a public key and a private key. The public key is known to all who want to know it, while the private key is only known to the person whose security is at stake. The public key is used to encode the message and the private key is used to decode the message. Thus, if A wants to send a message to B, A first encodes the message using B's public key and then sends the message to B. B decodes the message using his private key.
The digitized check image data can be transmitted over the internet in multiple ways. For example, the image can be sent over the internet indirectly by a payment gateway, by real-time, or by a message based email or website. The image can also be sent over the internet directly by real-time or by a message based email.
The indirect transmission involves the image being sent through a payment gateway. This transmission can be in real-time which would involve a financial payment gateway. In a financial payment gateway, data is processed by the payment gateway. Not only does the gateway serve as the end-point for the payor data transmission, but it also acquires funds from the payor. The payment gateway then transfers funds to the payee. This may or may not involve a service fee for the processing gateway. The transmission can be in real-time through a non-financial payment gateway. In a non-financial payment gateway, an external payment gateway facilitates data transfer from the payor to the payee. The payment gateway does not receive or send funds to either party. The non-financial payment gateway simply acts as a channel through which data is transferred. Another method of direct transmission is through use of a message. The message can be web-based, wherein data is sent in an email message from payor to the payment gateway. The payment gateway then requests the payee to retrieve data over the web (e.g. from its web page). Alternatively, the message can be sent via email, wherein data is sent in an email message from payor to the payment gateway. The payment gateway then routes the message to the payee.
The direct transmission involves the electronic check image being sent by real time or by message. In a real time transmission, the data is transferred directly from the payor to the payee in real-time. There is no third party payment gateway involved. When the direct transmission is message based, the data is transferred directly from the payor to the payee using messages over the internet (e.g. email).
Accordingly, the electronic check may be encrypted and the data transmitted using a combination of the above mentioned encryption technology and the data transmission mechanisms. Various embodiments of the invention are discussed below by way of example.
The electronic check exchange shown in
The electronic check transmission in
The advantages to the system shown in
There are many advantages to the electronic check transmission shown in
There are many advantages to the methods shown in
There are many advantages to the electronic check system shown in
There are many advantages to system shown in
The system shown in
Considering the advantages and disadvantages associated with each possible system and method of transmission and encryption of an electronic check, there are numerous combinations that can be implemented to encrypt and transmit electronic check data. Accordingly, the preferred embodiment will: maximize security; maximize penetration and early adoption of the system; minimize the involvement of a third-party; and minimize software needs on the payee's machine.
An ideal solution will be a combination of multiple systems mentioned above. The PKI encryption system seems to be more advantageous than the symmetric key approach; however, several embodiments of the invention can be created from combinations of the above systems. Additionally, message based transmissions seem superior as a solution in comparison to real-time processing.
If the payment gateway does not have the payee's public key in its database as shown in step 113, then the software determines if the payment gateway has already requested the payee's public key in step 117. If the payment gateway has already requested the payee's public key 117, then the electronic check image is encrypted using the payment gateway's public key and an email is sent to the payment gateway in step 118. In step 119, an email is then sent to the payee about receipt of an electronic check. The payee accesses the payment gateway to retrieve the check in step 120. The payee then decides if he or she would like to install software or access the electronic check over the web messaging system in step 121. If the payee chooses to retrieve the electronic check over the web, the payee retrieves the web image on the payment gateway's site over SSL in step 122. If the payee chooses to install the software in step 121, the then payee downloads and installs the software in step 123. The payee then generates a PKI pair during installation of the software and the software sends a public key to the payment gateway in step 124. The payment gateway stores the payee's public key in its database in steps 125 and 126.
If the payment gateway has not requested the payee's public key 117, then the software requests the payee's public key from the payment gateway in step 128. The payment gateway determines if the payee public key is in the payment gateway database in step 127 and 126. If the payee's public key is found, it is provided to payor's software for local storage in step 129.
The electronic check payee software module is shown in the flow chart of
The secure transmission module 133 shown in
Referring back to
The electronic check system of the preferred embodiment employs several fraud protection features. The system is in close if not complete compliance with X9 check security features. The system uses encrypted barcodes. The check background has payor/payee names, amount, and check number repeated multiple times. The legal amount limit is on each check. The check has to be deposited within 30 days to stay valid. The check image uses micro-types. The payee is disabled from being able to print multiple copies of the check. The systems use state of the art PKI based encryption methods.
Accordingly, it will be understood that the preferred embodiment of the present invention has been disclosed by way of example and that other modifications and alterations may occur to those skilled in the art.
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|U.S. Classification||705/42, 705/45|
|Cooperative Classification||G06Q20/3674, G06Q40/128, G06Q20/367, G06Q20/042, G06Q40/00, G06Q20/382, G06Q20/0425, G06Q20/401, G06Q20/108|
|European Classification||G06Q40/108, G06Q20/367, G06Q20/3674, G06Q20/0425, G06Q20/382, G06Q20/401, G06Q20/108, G06Q20/042, G06Q40/00|