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Publication numberUS20030198990 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/442,754
Publication date23 Oct 2003
Filing date20 May 2003
Priority date17 Jul 1998
Also published asUS6699714, US7052908, US20050164179
Publication number10442754, 442754, US 2003/0198990 A1, US 2003/198990 A1, US 20030198990 A1, US 20030198990A1, US 2003198990 A1, US 2003198990A1, US-A1-20030198990, US-A1-2003198990, US2003/0198990A1, US2003/198990A1, US20030198990 A1, US20030198990A1, US2003198990 A1, US2003198990A1
InventorsChawnshang Chang
Original AssigneeChawnshang Chang
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Androgen receptor coactivators
US 20030198990 A1
Abstract
Disclosed are androgen receptor-associated proteins, designated ARA24, ARA54, ARA55, and Rb, that have been demonstrated to interact with the androgen receptor to alter levels of androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activation. Certain of these proteins interact with the androgen receptor in an androgen-dependent manner, whereas certain proteins may induce transcriptional activation in the presence of other ligands, such as E2 or HF. Also disclosed is a method of detecting androgenic or antiandrogenic activity using these proteins in a mammalian two-hybrid transient transfection assay.
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Claims(12)
We claim:
1. An isolated polynucleotide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:1 and SEQ ID NO:3.
2. A genetic construct comprising a promoter capable of causing expression of a protein coding region in a cell, the promoter operably connected to a protein coding region encoding the expression of a polypeptide from coding regions of ARA54 or ARA55.
3. The genetic construct of claim 2 wherein the polypeptide encoded by the protein coding sequence comprises a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:2 and SEQ ID NO:4.
4. A eukaryotic host cell comprising the genetic construct of claim 2.
5. A method for testing the androgenic or antiandrogenic effect of a chemical compound comprising the steps of:
(a) transfecting a host cell with at least one genetic construct capable of producing in the host cell a polypeptide selected from the group consisting of ARA54, ARA55, ARA24, and Rb, the host cell also producing human androgen receptor protein;
(b) exposing the cell to the chemical compound; and
(c) measuring the level of transcriptional activity caused by the androgen receptor.
6. The method of claim 5 wherein the host cell is a prostate cell.
7. The method of claim 5, wherein the cell is a eukaryotic cell that lacks native endogenous androgen receptor, the cell having also an introduced genetic construct producing androgen receptor protein.
8. The method of claim 5, wherein the genetic construct comprises a DNA sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:1, SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:5, and SEQ ID NO:7.
9. The method of claim 5, wherein the cell is transfected with a genetic construct comprising a reporter gene expressible in the cell, the expression of said reporter gene being susceptible to detection and quantitation.
10. The method of claim 9, wherein the reporter gene is selected from the group consisting of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and a luciferase gene.
11. A method for testing the androgenic or antiandrogenic effect of a chemical compound comprising the steps of:
(a) transfecting a host cell with at least one genetic construct capable of producing in the host cell human androgen receptor protein and a polypeptide selected from the group consisting of ARA54, ARA55, ARA24, and Rb;
(b) exposing the cell to the chemical compound; and
(c) measuring the interaction between AR and an AR co-activator.
12. A method as claimed in claim 11 wherein the co-activator is selected from the group consisting of ARA54, ARA55, ARA24 and Rb.
Description
    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    Not applicable.
  • STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
  • [0002]
    Not applicable.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    Androgens constitute a class of hormones that control the development and proper function of mammalian male reproductive systems, including the prostate and epididymis. Androgens also affect the physiology of many non-reproductive systems, including muscle, skin, pituitary, lymphocytes, hair growth, and brain. Androgens exert their effect by altering the level of gene expression of specific genes in a process that is mediated by binding of androgen to an androgen receptor. The androgen receptor, which is a member of the steroid receptor super family, plays an important role in male sexual differentiation and in prostate cell proliferation. Binding of androgen by the androgen receptor allows the androgen receptor to interact with androgen responsive element (AREs), DNA sequences found on genes whose expression is regulated by androgen.
  • [0004]
    Androgen-mediated regulation of gene expression is a complicated process that may involve multiple co-activators (Adler et al., Proc. National Acad. Sci. USA 89:6319-6325, 1992). A fundamental question in the field of steroid hormone biology is how specific androgen-activated transcription can be achieved in vivo when several different receptors recognize the same DNA sequence. For example, the androgen receptor (AR), the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and the progesterone receptor (PR) all recognize the same sequence but activate different transcription activities. Some have speculated that accessory factors may selectively interact with the androgen receptor to determine the specificity of gene activation by the androgen receptor.
  • [0005]
    Prostate cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm in aging males in the United States. Standard treatment includes the surgical or chemical castration of the patient in combination with the administration of anti-androgens such as 17 β estradiol (E2) or hydroxyflutamide (HF). However, most prostate cancers treated with androgen ablation and anti-androgens progress from an androgen-dependant to an androgen-independent state, causing a high incidence of relapse within 18 months (Crawford, Br. J. Urology 70: suppl. 1, 1992). The mechanisms by which prostate cancer cells become resistant to hormonal therapy remain unclear. One hypothesis that has been advanced is that over the course of treatment, a mutation in the AR occurs which alters the receptor's sensitivity to other steroid hormones or anti-androgens, such as E2 and HF, thereby causing the progression from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent prostrate cancer. This hypothesis is supported by transient transfection assays in which it has been shown that anti-androgens may have an agonistic activity that stimulates mutant AR (mAR) mediated transcription.
  • [0006]
    Recently, A1B1 was identified as estrogen receptor coactivator that is expressed at higher levels in ovarian cancer cell lines and breast cancer cells than in noncancerous cells (Anzick, et al. Science 277:965-968, 1997). This result suggests that steroid hormone receptor cofactors may play an important role in the progression of certain diseases, such as hormone responsive tumors.
  • [0007]
    The identification, isolation, and characterization of genes that encode factors involved in the regulation of gene expression by androgen receptors will facilitate the development of screening assays to evaluate the potential efficacy of drugs in the treatment of prostate cancers.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0008]
    The present invention includes an isolated polynucleotide that encodes a co-activator for human androgen receptor, the polynucleotide comprising a sequence that encodes a polypeptide selected from the group consisting of an ARA54 polypeptide, an ARA55 polypeptide, an ARA24 polypeptide, and an Rb polypeptide.
  • [0009]
    Another aspect of the present invention is a genetic construct comprising a promoter functional in a prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell operably connected to a polynucleotide that encodes a polypeptide selected from the group consisting of an ARA54 polypeptide, an ARA55 polypeptide, an ARA24 polypeptide and an Rb polypeptide.
  • [0010]
    The present invention provides a method for screening candidate pharmaceutical molecules for the ability to promote or inhibit the interaction of ARs and AREs to modulate androgenic activity comprising the steps of:
  • [0011]
    (a) providing a genetic construct comprising a promoter functional in a eukaryotic cell operably connected to a polynucleotide comprising a sequence that encodes a polypeptide selected from the group consisting of an ARA54 polypeptide, an ARA55 polypeptide, an ARA24 polypeptide, and a retinoblastoma polypeptide;
  • [0012]
    (b) cotransforming a suitable eukaryotic cell with the construct of step a, and a construct comprising at least a portion of an expressible androgen receptor sequence;
  • [0013]
    (c) culturing the cells in the presence of a candidate pharmaceutical molecule; and
  • [0014]
    (d) assaying the transcriptional activity induced by the androgen receptor.
  • [0015]
    It is an object of the present invention to a provide a genetic construct capable of expressing a factor involved in co-activation of the human androgen receptor.
  • [0016]
    It is an object of the present invention to provide a method for evaluating the ability of candidate pharmaceutical molecules to modulate the effect of androgen receptor coactivators on gene expression.
  • [0017]
    Other objects, features, and advantages of the present invention will become apparent upon reading the specification and claims.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0018]
    Transactivation of genes by the androgen receptor is a complicated system that involves many different coactivators. It is not currently known just how many factors are involved in androgen receptor-mediated regulation of gene expression. The identification and/or characterization of four androgen receptor coactivators is reported herein. Inclusion of one or more of these coactivators in an assay for androgenic and antiandrogenic activity is expected to increase the sensitivity of the assay. Information about these coactivators is valuable in the design of pharmaceutical agents intended to enhance or interfere with normal coactivator function. A preliminary assessment of the efficacy of a potential therapeutic agent can be made by evaluating the effect of the agent on the ability of the coactivator to enhance transactivation by the androgen receptor.
  • [0019]
    One aspect of the present invention is an isolated polynucleotide that encodes a co-activator for human androgen receptor, the polynucleotide comprising a sequence that encodes a polypeptide selected from the group consisting of an ARA54 polypeptide, an ARA55 polypeptide, an ARA24 polypeptide and an Rb polypeptide.
  • [0020]
    Another aspect of the present invention is a genetic construct comprising a promoter functional in a prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell operably connected to a polynucleotide that encodes a polypeptide selected from the group consisting of an ARA54 polypeptide, an ARA55 polypeptide, an ARA24 polypeptide and an Rb polypeptide.
  • [0021]
    The present invention includes a method for screening candidate pharmaceutical molecules for the ability to promote or inhibit the ARs and AREs to result in modulation of androgenic effect comprising the steps of:
  • [0022]
    (a) providing a genetic construct comprising a promoter functional in a eukaryotic cell operably connected to a polynucleotide comprising a sequence that encodes a polypeptide selected from the group consisting of an ARA54 polypeptide, an ARA55 polypeptide, an ARA24 polypeptide, and a retinoblastoma polypeptide;
  • [0023]
    (b) cotransforming a suitable eukaryotic cell with the construct of step a, and a construct comprising at least a portion of an expressible androgen receptor sequence;
  • [0024]
    (c) culturing the cells in the presence of a candidate pharmaceutical molecule; and
  • [0025]
    (d) assaying the transcriptional activity induced by the androgen receptor gene.
  • [0026]
    The human androgen receptor is comprised of a ligand binding domain (LBD), a DNA binding domain (DBD), a hinge domain containing nuclear localization signals, and a transactivation domain in the hyper-variable N-terminus. Truncation or deletion of the LBD results in constitutive transactivation by the N-terminal domain.
  • [0027]
    In certain cases, progression of prostate cancer from androgen dependent- to androgen independent-stage may be caused by a mutation in the LBD that alters the ligand specificity of the mAR (Taplan et al., New Engl. J. Med. 332:1393-1398 (1995); Gaddipati et al., Cancer Res. 54:2861-2864 (1994)). We examined whether differential steroid specificity of wild type (wt) AR and mAR involves the use of different androgen receptor-associated (ARA) proteins or coactivators by these receptors.
  • [0028]
    As described in the examples, a yeast two-hybrid system with mART887S as bait was used to screen the human prostate cDNA library. The sequences of two clones encoding a putative coactivators (designated ARA54 and ARA55) are shown in SEQ ID NO:1 and SEQ ID NO:3, respectively. The putative amino acid sequences of ARA54 and ARA55 are shown in SEQ ID NO:2 and SEQ ID NO:4, respectively. Also provided are the DNA and amino acid sequences of ARA24 (SEQ ID NO:5 and SEQ ID NO:6, respectively) and Rb (SEQ ID NO:7 and SEQ ID NO:8, respectively). These coactivators were further characterized as detailed below. It is expected that some minor variations from SEQ ID NOs:1-8 associated with nucleotide additions, deletions, and mutations, whether naturally occurring or introduced in vitro, will not affect coactivation by the expression product or polypeptide.
  • [0029]
    Briefly, ARA54 is a 54 kDa protein that interacts with AR in an androgen-dependent manner. Coexpression of ARA54 and AR in a mammalian two-hybrid system demonstrated that reporter gene activity was enhanced in an androgen-dependent manner. ARA54 functions as a coactivator relatively specific for AR-mediated transcription. However, ARA54 may also function as a general coactivator of the transcriptional activity for other steroid receptors through their cognate ligands and response elements. ARA54 was found to enhance the transcriptional activity of AR and PR up to 6 fold and 3-5 fold, respectively. In contrast, ARA54 has only marginal effects (less than 2 fold) on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and estrogen receptor (ER) in DU145 cells.
  • [0030]
    Coexpression of ARA54 with known AR coactivators SRC-1 or ARA70 revealed that each of these coactivators may contribute individually to achieve maximal AR-mediated transcriptional activity. Moreover, when ARA54 was expressed simultaneously with SRC-1 or ARA70, the increase in AR-mediated transactivation was additive but not synergistic relative to that observed in the presence of each coactivator alone.
  • [0031]
    The C-terminal domain of ARA54 (a.a. 361-471 of SEQ ID NO:1) serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of AR-mediated gene expression of target genes. Coexpression of exogenous full-length ARA54 can reduce this squelching effect in a dose-dependent manner.
  • [0032]
    ARA54 enhanced transactivation of wtAR in the presence of DHT (10−10 to 10−8 M) by about 3-5 fold. However, transactivation of wtAR was enhanced only marginally with E2 (10−9-10−7 M) or HF (10−7-10−5 M) as the ligand. The ability of ARA54 to enhance transactivation by two mutant receptors (mARt877a and mARe708k) that exhibit differential sensitivities to E2 and HF (Yeh et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, in press (1998)) was also examined. The mutant mARt877a, which is found in many prostate tumors (23), was activated by E2 (10−9-10−7 M) and HF (10−7-10−5 M), and ARA54 could further enhance E2- or HF-mediated AR transactivation. In contrast, the mutant mARe708k, first identified in a yeast genetic screening (Wang, C., Ph.D. Thesis of University of Wisconsin—Madison (1997)), exhibited ligand specificity and response to ARE54 comparable to that of wtAR.
  • [0033]
    It is expected that any polypeptide having substantial homology to ARA54 that still actuates the same biological effect can function as “an ARA54 polypeptide.” With the sequence information disclosed herein, one skilled in the art can obtain any ARA54 polypeptide using standard molecular biological techniques. An ARA54 polypeptide is a polypeptide that is capable of enhancing transactivation of AR in an androgen-dependent manner, enhancing E2 or HF transactivation by the mutant receptor mARt877a, and reducing inhibition of AR-mediated gene expression caused by overexpression of the C-terminal domain of ARA54 (a.a. 361-471 of SEQ ID NO:1). The sequence information presented in this application can be used to identify, clone or sequence allelic variations in the ARA54 genes as well as the counterpart genes from other mammalian species it is also contemplate that truncations of the native coding region can be made to express smaller polypeptides that will retain the same biological activity.
  • [0034]
    The polynucleotide sequence of ARA55 (SEQ ID NO:3) exhibits high homology to the C-terminus of mouse hic5 (hydrogen peroxide inducible clone) (Pugh, B., Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 8:303-311 (1996)), and like hic5, ARA55 expression is induced by TGFb. Cotransfection assays of transcriptional activation, which are described in detail below, revealed that ARA55 is able to bind to both wtAR and mART887S in a ligand-dependent manner to enhance AR transcriptional activities. ARA55 enhanced transcriptional activation by wtAR in the presence of 10−9M DHT or T, but not 10−9M E2 or HF. In contrast, ARA5S can enhance transcriptional activation by mART887S in the presence of DHT, testosterone (T), E2, or HF. ARA55 did not enhance transcriptional activation of mARe708k in the presence of E2, but can enhance transcription in the presence of DHT or T. The C-terminal domain of ARA55 (amino acids 251-444 of SEQ ID NO:3) is sufficient for binding to ARs, but does not enhance transcriptional activation by ARs.
  • [0035]
    The invention is not limited to the particular ARA55 polypeptide disclosed in SEQ ID NO:4. It is expected that any ARA55 polypeptide could be used in the practice of the present invention. By “an ARA55 polypeptide” it meant a polypeptide that is capable of enhancing transactivation of wtAR, the mutant receptor mARt877a, in the presence of DHT, E2, or HF or intact receptor mARe708k in the presence of DHT or T. Such polypeptides include allelic variants and the corresponding genes from other mammalian species as well as truncations.
  • [0036]
    The AR N-terminal domain comprises a polymorphic poly-glutamine (Q) stretch and a polymorphic poly-glycine (G) stretch that account for variability in the length of human AR cDNA observed. The length of the poly-Q region (normally 11-33 residues in length) is inversely correlated with the risk of prostate cancer, and directly correlated with the SBMA, or Kennedy's disease (La Spada et al., Nature (London) 352:77-79 (1991)). The incidence of higher grade, distant metastatic, and fatal prostate cancer is higher in men having shorter AR poly-Q stretches.
  • [0037]
    As described in the examples, experiments undertaken to identify potential coactivators that interact with the AR poly-Q region led to the isolation of a clone encoding a coactivator, designated ARA24, that interacts with the poly-Q region. The sequences of the ARA24 clone and its putative translation product is shown in SEQ ID NO:5 and SEQ ID NO:6.
  • [0038]
    The ARA24 clone has an ORF that is identical to the published ORF for human Ran, an abundant, ras-like small GTPase (Beddow et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:3328-3332, 1995). Overexpression of ARA24 in the presence of DHT does enhance transcriptional activation by AR over that observed in cells transfected with AR alone. Moreover, expression of antisense ARA24 (ARA24 as) does reduce DHT-induced transcriptional activation.
  • [0039]
    An ARA24 polypeptide is one that interacts with the poly-Q region of an AR. An ARA24 polypeptide is further characterized by its ability to increase transactivation when overexpressed in eukaryotic cells having some endogenous ARA24, but expression of an ARA24 antisense RNA reduces AR receptor transactivation.
  • [0040]
    Androgen receptor mutations do not account for all cases of androgen-independent tumors, because some androgen-independent tumors retain wild-type AR. A significant percentage of androgen-insensitive tumors have been correlated with reduced expression of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) (Bookstein, et al., Science 247:712-715, (1990)), expression a truncated Rb protein (Bookstein, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:7762-7766 (1990)), or a missing Rb allele (Brooks, et al. Prostate 26:35-39, (1995)). The prostate cancer cell line DU145 has an abnormal short mRNA transcript of Rb exon 21 (Sarkar, et al. Prostate 21:145-152 (1992)) and transfecton of the wild-type Rb gene into DU145 cells was shown to repress the malignant phenotype (Bookstein, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:7762-7766 (1990)).
  • [0041]
    Rb functions in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation (Weinberg, R. A., Cell 81:323-330 (1995); Kranenburg et al., FEBS Lett. 367:103-106 (1995)). In resting cells, hypophophorylated Rb prevents inappropriate entry of cells into the cell division cycle. Phosphorylation of Rb by cyclin-dependent kinases relieves Rb-mediated growth suppression, and allows for cell proliferation(Dowdy et al., Cell 73:499-511 (1993); Chen et al., Cell 58:1193-1198 (1989)). Conversely, dephosphorylation of Rb during G1 progression induces growth arrest or cell differentiation(Chen et al. (1989); Mihara et al., Science 246:1300-1303 (1989)). In dividing cells, Rb is dephosphorylated during mitotic exit and G1 entry(Ludlow et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:367-372 (1993)). This dephosphorylation activates Rb for the ensuing G1 phase of the cell cycle, during which Rb exerts it growth suppressive effects.
  • [0042]
    We investigated the role of Rb in AR transactivation as detailed in the examples. We found that Rb can induce transcriptional activity of wtAR or mARs877t in the presence of DHT, E2, or HF, and mARe708k in the presence of DHT. We also discovered that Rb and ARA70 transciptional activity act synergistically to enhance transciptional activity of ARs. The sequence of the cloned Rb gene and the deduced amino acid sequence of the ORF are shown in SEQ ID NO:7 and SEQ ID NO:8, respectively. An Rb polypeptide is a polypeptide that is substantially homologous to SEQ ID NO:8, that interacts with the N-terminal domain of AR, and which acts synergistically with ARA70 in enhancing transactivation by AR.
  • [0043]
    In the examples, various eukaryotic cell types, including yeast, prostate cells having mutant AR and cells lacking AR, were used to evaluate the ability of the putative androgen coactivators to enhance transactivation by AR. It is expected that in the method of the present invention, any eukaryotic cell could be employed in an assay for AR activity. This feature allows the investigator flexibility in designing assays.
  • [0044]
    As described below, cells were transfected using a calcium phosphate technique. It is expected that the method of the present invention could be practiced using any transfection means including, for example, electroporation or particle bombardment.
  • [0045]
    Changes in the level of transactivation by AR can be assessed by any means, including measuring changes in the level of mRNA for a gene under the control of AR, or by quantitating the amount of a particular protein expressed using an antibody specific for a protein, the expression of which is under the control of AR. Most conveniently, transactivation by AR can be assessed by means of a reporter gene.
  • [0046]
    As used herein, a reporter gene is a gene under the control of an androgen receptor, the gene encoding a protein susceptible to quantitation by a colormetric or fluorescent assay. In the examples below, a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase or a luciferase gene were used as reporter genes. The gene may either be resident in a chromosome of the host cell, or may be introduced into the host cell by cotransfection with the coactivator gene.
  • [0047]
    The following nonlimiting examples are intended to be purely illustrative.
  • EXAMPLES
  • [0048]
    Plasmid Construction
  • [0049]
    A human prostate library in pACT2 yeast expression vector (a gift from Dr. S. Elledge) consists of the GAL4 activation domain (GAL4AD, a.a. 768-881) fused with human prostate cDNA.
  • [0050]
    pSG5 wtAR was constructed as described previously (Yeh and Chang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 93:5517-5521, 1996).
  • [0051]
    pGAL0-AR (wild-type) was obtained from D. Chen (University of Massachusetts). pGAL0 contains the GAL4 DNA binding domain (DBD).
  • [0052]
    For construction of pAS2-wtAR or -mAR, the C-terminal fragments (aa 595-918) from wtAR, mARt877s (Dr. S. P. Balk, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Mass.), or mARe708k (H. Shim, Hyogo Medical College, Japan) were inserted in pAS2 yeast expression vector (Clontech). Another AR mutant (mARv888m), derived from androgen insensitive syndrome patient, was constructed as previously described (Mowszowicz, et al. Endocrine 1:203-209, 1993).
  • [0053]
    pGAL4-VP16 was used to construct a fusion of ARA70. pGAL4-VP16 contains the GAL4 DBD linked to the acidic activation domain of VP16.
  • [0054]
    pCMX-Gal-N-RB and pCMX-VP!6-AR were constructed by inserting fragments Rb (aa 370-928) and AR (aa 590-918) into pCMX-gal-N and pCMX-VP16, respectively. The sequence of construction junction was verified by sequencing.
  • [0055]
    pYX-ARA24/Ran was constructed by placing the ARA24 gene under the control of the gal-1 promoter of yeast expression plasmid pYX243 (Ingenus). A cDNA fragment encoding the AR poly-Q stretch and its flanking regions (AR a.a. 11-208) was ligated to a PAS2 yeast expression plasmid for use as bait in the two hybrid assay. AR cDNAs of different poly-Q lengths that span the same AR poly-Q region as our bait plasmid were constructed in pAS2 in the same way, for yeast two-hybrid liquid culture β-gal assay. These AR bait plasmids with poly-Q lengths of 1, 25, 49 were all transformed into yeast Y190 and found to not be autonomously active. pCMV-antisense ARA24/Ran (ARA24 as) expression plasmid was constructed by inserting a 334-bp Bgl II fragment of ARA24/Ran, which spans 5′-untranslated region and the translation start codon of ARA24/Ran (nucleotides 1-334 of SEQ ID NO:5), into pCMV vector in the antisense orientation. The MMTV-CAT and MMTV-Luc reporter genes were used for AR transactivation assay. pSG5-AR and pSV-βgal are under the regulation of SV40 promoter and β-globulin gene intron-1 enhancer. p6R-ARQ1, p6R-ARQ25, p6R-ARQ49 were kindly provided by Dr. Roger L. Meisfield (Chamberlain, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 22:3181-3186, 1994)
  • [0056]
    pSG5-GAL4DBD-ARA24 was generated by inserting the coding sequence of Gal4DBD-ARA24 hybrid protein into pSG5 vector. pVP16-ARN-Q1, pVP16-ARN-Q25, pVP16-ARN-Q25, pVP16-ARN-Q35, pVP16-ARN-Q49 were generated by inserting each poly-Q AR N-terminal domain (a.a. 34-555) into pVP16 vector (Clontech) to be expressed as a VP16AD hybrid protein. GAL0AR plasmid, which contains GAL4DBD fused to E region of human AR, was a gift from Dr. D. Chen. The pSG5-CAT reporter plasmid (Clontech) contains five GAL4 binding sites upstream of the E1b TATA box, linked to the CAT gene.
  • [0057]
    pSG5-AR and pSG5-ARA70 were constructed as previously described (Yeh and Chang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 93:5517-5521, 1996). Two mutants of the AR gene (mAR877 derived from prostate cancer, codon 877 mutation Thr to Ala; and mAR708 derived from partial androgen insensitive syndrome (PIAS), codon 708 mutation Glu to Lys), were provided by S. Balk (Beth Israel Hospital, Boston) and H. Shima (Hyogo Medical College, Japan), respectively.
  • [0058]
    Clones used in the two-hybrid system to evaluate the role of Rb in AR transactivation were made by ligating an Rb fragment (aa 371-928) to the DBD of GAL4. Similarly, near full-length (aa 36-918) AR (nAR) and AR-LBD (aa 590-918) fragments ligated to transcriptional activator VP16.
  • [0059]
    Screening of Prostate cDNA Library by a Yeast Two-Hybrid System for ARAs Associated With the Ligand Binding Domain
  • [0060]
    To identify ARA coactivators interact with the LBD, a pACT2-prostate cDNA library was cotransformed into Y190 yeast cells with a plasmid of pAS2 mAR(mART877S) which contains GAL4DBD (aa 1-147) fused with the C-terminal domain of this mAR. Transformants were selected for growth on SD plates with 3-aminotriazole (25 mM) and DHT (100 nM) lacking histidine, leucine and tryptophan (−3SD plates). Colonies were also filter-assayed for β-galactosidase activity. Plasmid DNA from positive cDNA clones were found to interact with mtARt877s but not GAL4TR4 was isolated from yeast, amplified in E. coli, and the inserts confirmed by DNA sequencing.
  • [0061]
    To identify clones that interact with the poly-Q region of the N-terminal domain, the AR poly-Q stretch (aa 11-208) was inserted into the pAS2 yeast expression plasmid and cotransformed into Y190 yeast cells with a human brain cDNA library fused to the Gal4 activation domain. Transformants were selected for growth on SD plates lacking histidine, leucine and tryptophan and supplemented with 3-aminotriazole (40 mM).
  • [0062]
    Amplification and Characterization of ARA Clones
  • [0063]
    Full length DNA sequences comprising two coactivators, designated ARA54 (SEQ ID NO:1) and ARA55 (SEQ ID NO:3), that were found to interact with mARt877s were isolated by 5′RACE PCR using Marathon cDNA Amplification Kit (Clontech) according to the manufacturer's protocol.
  • [0064]
    The missing 5′ coding region of the ARA54 gene was isolated from H1299 cells using the gene-specific antisense primer shown in SEQ ID NO:9 and following PCR reaction conditions: 94 C. for 1 min, 5 cycles of 94 C. for 5 sec→72 C. for 3 min, 5 cycles of 94 C. for 5 sec→70 C. for 3 min, then 25 cycles of 94 C. for 5 sec→68 C. for 3 min. The PCR product was subcloned into pT7-Blue vector (Novagen) and sequenced.
  • [0065]
    ARA55 was amplified by PCR from the HeLa cell line using an ARA55-specific antisense primer (SEQ ID NO:10) and the PCR reaction conditions described for isolation of ARA54.
  • [0066]
    Using the 5′RACE-PCR method, we were able to isolate a 1721 bp DNA fragment (SEQ ID NO:1) from the H1299 cell line with an open reading frame that encodes a novel protein 474 amino acids in length (SEQ ID NO:2). The in-vitro translation product is a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 542 kDA, consistent with the calculated molecular weight (53.8 kDa). The middle portion of ARA54 (a.a. 220-265 of SEQ ID NO:2) contains a cysteine-rich region that may form a zinc finger motif called the RING finger, defined as CX2CX9-27CXHX2CX2CX6-17CX2C (SEQ ID NO: 11), a domain conserved among several human transcriptional factor or proto-oncogeny proteins, including BRCA1, RING1, PML and MEL-18 (Miki et al., Science 266:66-71 (1994); Borden et al., EMBO J. 14:1532-1541 (1995); Lovering et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:2112-2116 (1993); Blake et al., Oncogene 6: 653-657 (1991); Ishida et al, Gene 129:249-255 (1993)). In addition, ARA54 also contains a second cysteine-rich motif which has a B box like structure located at 43 amino acids downstream from the RING finger motif. However, ARA54 differs from members of the RING finger-B-box family in that it lacks a predicted coiled-coil domain immediately C-terminal to the B box domain, which is highly conserved in the RING finger-B-box family. Therefore, ARA54 may represent a new subgroup of this family.
  • [0067]
    The full-length human ARA55 has an open reading frame that encodes a 444 aa polypeptide (SEQ ID NO:4) with a predicted molecular weight of 55 kD that ARA55 shares 91% homology with mouse hic5. Human ARA55 has four LIM motifs in the C-terminal region. An LIM motif is a cysteine-rich zinc-binding motif with consensus sequence: CX2CX16-23HX2CX2CX2CX16-21CX2 (C, H, D) (SEQ ID NO:12) (Sadler, et al., J. Cell Biol. 119:1573-1587 (1992)). Although the function of the LIM motif has not been fully defined, some data suggest that it may play a role in protein-protein interaction (Schmeichel & Beckerle, Cell 79:211-219, 1994). Among all identified SR associated proteins, only ARA55 and thyroid hormone interacting protein 6 (Trip 6) (Lee, et al. Mol. Endocrinol. 9:243-254 (1995)) have LIM motifs.
  • [0068]
    A clone that showed strong interaction with the poly-Q bait was identified and subsequently subjected to sequence analysis. This clone contains 1566 bp insert (SEQ ID NO:5) with an open reading frame encoding a 216:aa polypeptide (SEQ ID NO:6) with a calculated molecular weight of 24 kDa. GenBank sequence comparison showed that this clone has the same open reading frame sequence as Ran/TC4, an abundant ras-like small GTPase involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport that is found in a wide variety of cell types (Beddow et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92:3328-3332, 1995). Accordingly, the factor was designated ARA24/Ran. The cDNA sequence of the ARA24 clone (SEQ ID NO:5)(GenBank accession number AF052578) is longer than that of the published ORF for human Ran, in that it includes 24 and 891 bp of 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions, respectively.
  • [0069]
    Northern Blotting
  • [0070]
    The total RNA (25 μg) was fractionated on a 1% formaldehyde-MOPS agarose gel, transferred onto a Hybond-N nylon membrane (Amersham) and prehybridized. A probe corresponding to the 900 bp C-terminus of ARA55 or an ARA54-specific sequence was 32P-labeled in vitro using Random Primed DNA Labeling Kit (Boehringer-Mannheim) according to the manufacture's protocol and hybridized overnight. After washing, the blot was exposed and quantified by Molecular Dynamics PhosphorImager. β-actin was used to monitor the amount of total RNA in each lane.
  • [0071]
    Northern blot analysis indicated the presence of a 2 kb ARA55 transcript in Hela and prostate PC3 cells. The transcript was not detected in other tested cell lines, including HepG2, H1299, MCF7, CHO, PC12, P19, and DU145 cells. The ARA54 transcript was found in H1299 cells, as well as in prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and LNCaP.
  • [0072]
    Co-Immunoprecipitation of AR and ARAs
  • [0073]
    Lysates from in-vitro translated full-length of AR and ARA54 were incubated with or without 10−8 M DHT in the modified RIPA buffer (50 mM Tris-HCL pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM EDTA, 0.1% NP40, 1 mM PMSF, aprotinin, leupeptin, pepstatin, 0.25% Na-deoxycholate, 0.25% gelatin) and rocked at 4 C. for 2 hr. The mixture was incubated with rabbit anti-His.tag polyclonal antibodies for another 2 hr and protein A/G PLUS -Agarose (Santa Cruz) were added and incubated at 4 C. for additional 2 hr. The conjugated beads were washed 4 times with RIPA buffer, boiled in SDS sample buffer and analyzed by 8% SDS/PAGE and visualized by STORM 840 (Molecular Dynamics).
  • [0074]
    ARA54 and AR were found in a complex when immunoprecipitated in the presence of 10−8 M DHT, but not in the absence of DHT. This result suggests that ARA54 interacts with AR in an androgen-dependent manner.
  • [0075]
    Interaction between recombinant full length human AR and ARA24/Ran proteins further examined by co-immunoprecipitation, followed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Results of the co-immunoprecipitation assay indicate that ARA24/Ran interacts directly with AR. The phosphorylation state of bound guanine nucleotide to the small GTPases does not affect this interaction.
  • [0076]
    AR Pull-Down Assay Using GST-Rb
  • [0077]
    Full-length Rb fused to glutathione-S-transferase (ST-Rb1-928) was expressed and purified from E. coli. strain Bl21pLys as described recently (Zarkowska & Mittnacht, J. Biol. Chem. 272:12738-12746, 1997). Approximately 2 μg of His-tag column purified baculovirus AR was mixed with GST-loaded glutathione-Sepharose beads in 1 ml of NET-N (20 mM Tris-HCL (pH 8.0, 100 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 0.5% (v/v) Noniodet P-40) and incubated with gentle rocking for 3 hr at 4 C.
  • [0078]
    Following low-speed centrifugation to pellet the beads, the clarified supernatant was mixed with GST-Rb-loaded glutathione-Sepharose beads in the presence or absence of 10 mM DHT and incubated for an additional 3 hr with gentle rocking at 4 C. The pelleted beads were washed 5 times with NET-N, mixed with SDS-sample buffer, boiled, and the proteins separated by electrophoresis on a 7.5% polyacrylamide gel. A Western blot of the gel was incubated with anti-AR polyclonal antibody NH27 and developed with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated secondary antibodies.
  • [0079]
    AR was coprecipitated with GST-Rb, but not GST alone, indicating that AR and Rb are associated in a complex together.
  • [0080]
    Transfection Studies
  • [0081]
    Human prostate cancer DU145 or PC3 cells, or human lung carcinoma cells NCI H1299 were grown in Dulbecco's minimal essential medium (DMEM) containing penicillin (25 U/ml), streptomycin (25 μg/ml), and 5% fetal calf serum (FCS). One hour before transfection, the medium was changed to DMEM with 5% charcoal-stripped FCS. Phenol red-free and serum-free media were used on the experiments employing E2 or TGFβ, respectively. A β-galactosidase expression plasmid, pCMV-β-gal, was used as an internal control for transfection efficiency.
  • [0082]
    Cells were transfected using the calcium phosphate technique (Yeh, et al. Molec. Endocrinol. 8:77-88, 1994). The medium was changed 24 hr posttransfection and the cells treated with either steroid hormones or hydroxyflutamide, and cultured for an additional 24 hr. Cells were harvested and assayed for CAT activity after the cell lysates were normalized by using β-galactosidase as an internal control. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity was visualized by PhosphorImager (Molecular Dynamics) and quantitated by ImageQuant software (Molecular Dynamics).
  • [0083]
    Mammalian Two-Hybrid Assay
  • [0084]
    The mammalian two-hybrid system employed was essentially the protocol of Clontech (California), with the following modifications. In order to obtain better expression, the GAL4DBD (a.a. 1-147) was fused to pSG5 under the control of an SV40 promoter, and named pGAL0. The hinge and LBD of wtAR were then inserted into pGAL0. Similarly, the VP16 activation domain was fused to pCMX under the control of a CMV promoter, and designated pCMX-VP16 (provided by Dr. R. M. Evan).
  • [0085]
    The DHT-dependent interaction between AR and ARA54 was confirmed in prostate DU145 cells using two-hybrid system with CAT reporter gene assay. Transient transfection of either ARA54 or wtAR alone showed negligible transcriptional activity. However, coexpression of AR with ARA54 in the presence of 10−8 M DHT significantly induced CAT activity.
  • [0086]
    ARA54 functions as a coactivator relatively specific for AR-mediated transcription. ARA54 induces the transcriptional activity of AR and PR by up to 6 fold and 3-5 fold, respectively. In contrast, ARA54 showed only marginal effects (less than 2 fold) on GR and ER in DU145 cells. These data suggest that ARA54 is less specific to AR as relative to ARA70, which shows higher specificity to AR. However, we can not rule out the possibility that ARA54 might be more general to other steroid receptors in other cell types under different conditions.
  • [0087]
    Coexpression of ARA54 with SRC-1 or ARA70 was found to enhance AR transcriptional activity additively rather than synergistically. These results indicate that these cofactors may contribute individually to the proper or maximal AR-mediated transcriptional activity.
  • [0088]
    Since the C-terminal region of ARA54 (a.a. 361-471 of SEQ ID NO:2) isolated from prostate cDNA library has shown to be sufficient to interact with AR in yeast two-hybrid assays, we further investigated whether it could squelch the effect of ARA54 on AR-activated transcription in H1299 cells, which contain endogenous ARA54. The C-terminal region of ARA54 inhibits AR-mediated transcription by up to 70%; coexpression of exogenous full-length ARA54 reverses this squelching effect in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal domain of ARA54 can serve as a dominant negative inhibitor, and that ARA54 is required for the proper or maximal AR transactivation in human H1299 cells.
  • [0089]
    Examination of the effect of ARA54 on the transcriptional activities of wtAR and mtARs in the presence of DHT, E2 and HF revealed differential ligand specificity. Translational activation of wtAR occurred in the presence of DHT (10−10 to 10−8 M); coexpression of ARA54 enhanced transactivation by another 3-5 fold. However, wtAR responded only marginally to E2 (10−9-10−7 M) or HF (10−7-10−5 M) in the presence or absence of ARA54. As expected, the positive control, ARA70, is able to enhance the AR transcriptional activity in the presence of 10−9-10−7 M E2 and 10−7-10−5 HF, that matches well with previous reports (Yeh, PNAS, Miyamoto, PNAS).
  • [0090]
    The AR mutants Art877a, which is found in many prostate tumors (23), and Are708k, found in a yeast genetic screening (24) and a patient with partial androgen insensitivity, exhibited differential specificity for lignands. In the absence of ARA54, Art877a responded to E2 (10−9-10−7 M) and HF (10−7-10−5 M), and ARA54 could further enhance E2- or HF-mediated AR transactivation. These results suggested that mtARs might also require cofactors for the proper or maximal DHT-, E2-, or HF-mediated AR transcriptional activity. The DHT response of mARe708k was only a slightly less sensitive than that of wtAR or mARt877s, whereas E2 and HF exhibited no agonistic activity toward ARe708k. Together, these results imply that the change of residue 708 on AR might be critical for the interaction of the antiandrogen-ARe708k-ARA54 complex, and that both AR structure and coactivators may play a role in determining ligand specificity.
  • [0091]
    CAT activity in DU145 cells cotransfected with a plasmid encoding the hormone binding domain of wtAR fused to the GAL4 DBD (GAL0AR) and a plasmid encoding full-length ARA55 fused to the activation domain of VP16 (VP16-ARA55) was significantly induced by the cotransfection of VP16-ARA55 and GAL0AR in the presence of 10 nM DHT, but not induced by E2 or HF. Combination of GAL0 empty vector and VP16-ARA55 did not show any CAT activity. Combination of GAL0AR and VP16 vector showed negligible CAT activity. These results indicate that ARA55 interacts with AR in an androgen-dependent manner.
  • [0092]
    Transient transfection assays were conducted to investigate the role of ARA55 in the transactivation activity of AR. DU145 cells were cotransfected with MMTV-CAT reporter, increasing amounts of ARA55 and wtAR under eukaryotic promoter control. Ligand-free AR has minimal MMTV-CAT reporter activity in the presence or absence of ARA55. ARA55 alone also has only minimal reporter activity Addition of 10 nM DHT resulted in 4.3 fold increase of AR transcriptional activity and ARA55 further increased this induction by 5.3 fold (from 4.3 fold to 22.8 fold) in a dose-dependent manner. The induced activity reached a plateau at the ratio of AR:ARA55 to 1:4.5. Similar results were obtained using PC3 cells with DU145 cells, or using a CAT reporter gene under the control of a 2.8 kb promoter region of a PSA gene. The C-terminus of ARA55 (ARA55251-444) (a.a. 251-444 of SEQ ID NO:4) did not enhance CAT activity. Cotransfection of PC3 cells, which contain endogenous ARA55, with ARA55251-444, AR and MMTV-CAT reporter in the presence of 10 nM DHT demonstrated dramatically reduced AR transcriptional activity relative to cells transfected with AR and MMTV-CAT alone. These results demonstrate that ARA55 is required for the proper or maximal AR transcriptional activity in PC3 cells, and that the C-terminus of ARA55 can serve as a dominant negative inhibitor.
  • [0093]
    The effect of ARA55 on mARt877s and mARe708k in the presence of DHT and its antagonists, E2, and HF. The mARt877s receptor is found in LNCaP cells and/or advanced prostate cancers and has a point mutation at codon 877 (Thr to Ser) (Gaddipati et al., Cancer Res. 54:2861-2864 (1994); Veldscholte et al., Biochem. Biophys. Commun. 173:534-540 (1990)). The mARe708k receptor, has a point mutation at codon 708 (Glu to Lys), was isolated by a yeast genetic screening and exhibits reduced sensitivity to HF and E2 relative to wtAR (Wang, C., PhD thesis of University of Wisconsin—Madison (1997)). The transcriptional activities of wtAR, mARt877s, and mARe708k are induced by DHT (10−11 to 10−8 M). ARA55 enhanced the transactivation of all three receptors by 4-8 fold. In the presence of E2 or HF, wtAR responded marginally only at higher concentrations (10−7 M for E2 and 10−5 M for HF). Cotransfection of wtAR with ARA55 at a 1:4.5 ratio, however, increases AR transcriptional activity at 10−8-10−7 M for E2 or 10−6 to 10−5 M for HF. Compared to wtAR, the LNCaP mAR responded much better to E2 and HF and ARA55 significantly enhanced its transcriptional activity. ARA55 may be needed for the proper or maximal DHT-, E2-, or HF-mediated AR transcriptional activity.
  • [0094]
    The effect of ARA55 on transcriptional activation by GR, PR, and ER was tested in DU145 cells. ARA55 is relatively specific to AR, although it may also enhance GR and PR to a lesser degree, and has only a marginal effect on ER. ARA70 shows much higher specificity to AR than ARA55, relative to the other tested steroid receptors. Although ARA55 enhances AR-mediated transcription to a greater degree than GR-, PR-, or ER-mediated transcription, it appears to be less specific than ARA70.
  • [0095]
    Because the amino acid sequence of ARA55 has very high homology to mouse hic5, and early studies hic5 suggested this mouse gene expression can be induced by the negative TGFβ (Shibanuma et al., J. Biol. Chem. 269:267G7-26774 (1994)), we were interested to see whether ARA55 could serve as a bridge between TGFβ and AR steroid hormone system. Northern blot—analysis indicated that TGFβ treatment (5 ng/ml) could induce ARA55 mRNA by 2-fold in PC3 cells. In the same cells, TGF™ treatment increased AR transcriptional activity by 70%. This induction is weak relative to the affect achieved upon transfection of PC3 cells with exogenous ARA5S (70% vs. 4 fold). This may be related to the differences in the ratios of AR and ARA55. The best ratio of AR:ARA55 for maximal AR transcriptional activity is 1:4.5. Whether other mechanisms may also be involve in this TGFβ-induced AR transcriptional activity will be an interesting question to investigate. The unexpected discovery that TGFβ may increase AR transcriptional activity via induction of ARA55 in prostate may represent the first evidence to link a negative regulatory protein function in a positive manner, by inducing the transcriptional activity of AR, the major promoter for the prostate tumor growth.
  • [0096]
    The ability of ARA55 to induce transcriptional activity of both wtAR and mARt877s in the presence of DHT, E2, and HF suggests an important role for ARA55 in the progression of prostate cancer and the development of resistance to hormonal therapy. Evaluation of molecules that interfere with the function of ARA55 may aid in the identification of potential chemotherapeutic pharmaceuticals.
  • [0097]
    Human small lung carcinoma H1299 cell line, which has no endogenous AR protein, were transfected with AR and ARA24/Ran. Because ARA24/Ran is one of the most abundant and ubiquitously expressed proteins in various cells, both sense and antisense ARA24/Ran mammalian expression plasmids were tested. Overexpression of sense ARA24/Ran did not significantly enhance the AR transactivation, a result that is not surprising, in view of the abundance of endogenous ARA24/RAN. However, expression of antisense ARA24/Ran (ARA24as) markedly decreased DHT-induced CAT activity in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, increasing the DHT concentration from 0.1 nM to 10 nM DHT resulted in strong induction of AR transactivation and decreased the inhibitory effect of ARA24 as effect, indicating that increased DHT concentration can antagonize the negative effect of ARA24 as.
  • [0098]
    The affinity between ARA24/Ran and AR is inversely related to the length of AR poly-Q stretch. AR transactivation decreases with increasing AR poly-Q length. Reciprocal two-hybrid assays with exchanged fusion partners, Gal4DBD-ARA24/Ran and VP16AD-ARNs (a.a. 34-555 with poly-Q lengths of 1, 25, 35, 49 residues) were conducted using mammalian CHO cells. These results consistently show that the affinity between ARA24/Ran and AR poly-Q region is inversely correlated with AR poly-Q length in both yeast and mammalian CHO cells.
  • [0099]
    The regulation of AR transactivation by ARA24/Ran correlates with their affinity. These results suggest that ARA24/Ran could achieve differential transactivation of AR, with ARs having different poly-Q length could existing in a single cell or cell system. ARA24 as was again used in the ARE-Luc transfection assays to address the role of AR poly-Q length in the regulation of AR by ARA24/Ran. ARs of poly-Q lengths 1, 25, and 49 residues, and increasing amounts (1, 2, and 4 μg) of ARA24 as expression vectors were co-transfected with equal amounts of reporter plasmid (pMMTV-Luc) in CHO cells. Although the basal reporter activity is slightly affected by increasing amounts of antisense ARA24/Ran, ARA24 as showed a more significant decrease of AR transactivation. As AR poly-Q length increased, the ARA24 as effect on AR transactivation decreased. These results suggest that the affinity of ARA24/Ran for AR and the effect of decreasing ARA24/Ran on AR transactivation faded over the expansion of AR poly-Q length.
  • [0100]
    Coexpression of Rb and AR expression plasmids in DU145 cells using the mammalian two-hybrid system resulted in a 3 fold increase in CAT activity by cotransfection of near full length AR (nAR, amino acids 36-918) and Rb. Cells cotransfected with nAR and PR-LBD or Rb and ARA70 did not show increased CAT activity. Surprisingly, addition of 10 nM DHT made very little difference in the interaction between Rb and nAR. The inability of Rb to interact with AR-LBD suggest that interaction site of AR is located in N-terminal domain (aa 36 to 590). Together, our data suggest the interaction between Rb and AR is unique in the following ways: first, the interaction is androgen-independent and binding is specific but relatively weak as compared to other AR associated protein, such as ARA70 (3 fold vs. 12 fold induced CAT activity in mammalian two-hybrid assay, data not shown). Second, unlike most identified steroid receptor associated proteins that bind to C-terminal domain of steroid receptor, Rb binds to N-terminal domain of AR. Third, no interaction occurred between Rb and ARA70, two AR associated proteins in DU145 cells.
  • [0101]
    DU145 cells containing mutated Rb (Singh et al., Nature 374: 562-565 (1995)) were cultured with charcoal-stripped FCS in the presence or absence of 1 nM DHT. No AR transcriptional activity was observed in DU145 cells transiently transfected with wild type AR and Rb at the ratio of 1:3 in the absence of DHT. When However, AR transcriptional activity could be induced 5-fold when wild type AR was expressed in the presence of 1 nM DHT. Cotransfection of Rb with AR can further enhance the AR transcriptional activity from 5-fold to 21-fold in the presence of 1 nM DHT. As a control, cotransfection of ARA70, the first identified AR coactivator, can further enhance in DU145 cells transcriptional activity from 5-fold to 36-fold. In DU145 cells transfected with Rb, ARA70, and AR, the induction of AR transcriptional activity was synergistically increased from 5-fold to 64-fold. Upon transfection of wild type AR without Rb or ARA70, only marginal induction (less than 2-fold) was detected in the presence of 10 nM E2 or 1 μM HF. In contrast, cotransfection of the wild type AR with Rb or ARA70 can enhance the AR transcriptional activity to 12-fold (E2) or 3-4 fold (HF), and cotransfection of Rb and ARA70 with AR can further enhance the AR transcriptional activity to 36-fold (E2 or 12-fold (HF). We then extended these findings to two different AR mutants: mARt877s from a prostate cancer patient and mARe708k from a partial-androgen-insensitive patient. Similar inductions were obtained when wild type AR was replaced by mARt877s. In contrast, while similar induction was also detected in the presence of 1 nM DHT when we replace wild type AR with mARe708k, there was almost no induction by cotransfection of meAR708k with Rb and/or ARA70 in the presence of 10 nM E2 or 1 μM HF. These results indicated that Rb and ARA70 can synergistically induce the transcriptional activity of wild type AR and mAR877 in the presence of 1 nM DHT, 10 nM E2 or 1 μM HF. However, Rb and ARA70 synergistically induce the transcriptional activity of mAR708 only in the presence of 1 nM DHT, but not 10 nM E2 or 1 μM HF. The fact that Rb and ARA70 can induce transcriptional activity of both wild type AR and mutated AR that occur in many prostate tumors may also argue strongly the importance of Rb and ARA70 in normal prostate as well as prostate tumor. Also, the differential induction of DHT vs. E2/HF may suggest the position of 708 in AR may play vital role for the recognition of androgen vs anti-androgens to AR.
  • [0102]
    We also examined the effect of Rb and ARA70 on the transcriptional activity of other steroid receptors through their cognate DNA response elements [MMTV-CAT for AR, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and progesterone receptor (PR); ERE-CAT for estrogen receptor (ER)]. Although Rb and ARA70 can synergistically induce AR transcriptional activity up to 64-fold, Rb and ARA70 can only have marginal induction on the transcriptional activity of GR, PR, and ER in DU145 cells. These results suggest that Rb and ARA70 are more specific coactivators for AR in prostate DU145 cells. However, it cannot be ruled out that possibly the assay conditions in prostate DU145 cells are particularly favorable for Rb and ARA70 to function as coactivators for AR only, and Rb and ARA70 may function as stronger coactivators for ER, PR, and GR in other cells or conditions. Failure of Rb to induce transactivation by mutant AR888, which is unable to bind androgen, suggests that while interaction between Rb and AR is androgen-independent, the AR-Rb (and AR-ARA70) complexes require a ligand for the transactivation activity.
  • [0103]
    The activity of Rb in cell cycle control is related essentially to its ability to bind to several proteins, thus modulating their activity. To date, many cellular proteins have been reported which bind to Rb (Weinberg, R.A., Cell 81:323-330 (1995)). These include a number of transcription factors, a putative regulator of ras, a nuclear structural protein, a protein phosphatase, and several protein kinases. Whether all of these proteins actually complex, and are regulated by Rb, in cells remains to be seen.
  • [0104]
    Much attention has been given to the functional interaction between Rb and transcription factors. To date, several of these factors have been shown to form complexes with Rb in cells. Such complex formation and subsequent function studies have revealed that the modulating activity of Rb can take the form of repression of transcription as with E2F (Weintraub et al., Nature 375:812-815 (1995)), or activation as with NF-IL6 (Chen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:465-469 (1996)) and the hBrm/BRG1 complex (Singh et al., (1995)). Here, we show that Rb can bind to AR and induce the AR transcriptional activity. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a negative growth regulatory protein functioning in a positive manner, by initiating transcription via a signal transduction mechanism involving binding to a nuclear receptor. When place in the context of regulating the cell cycle and differentiation, these data suggest a previously undescribed function for Rb which underscores the importance of this protein in regulating transcription by direct binding to transcription-factor, but this protein can also regulate transcription by stimulating at least one type of signal transduction mechanism.
  • [0105]
    A relationship between Rb expression and response to endocrine therapy of human breast tumor has been suggested (Anderson et al., J. Pathology 180:65-70 (1996)). Other studies indicate that Rb gene alterations can occur in all grades and stages of prostate cancer, in localized as well as metastatic disease (Brooks et al., Prostate 26:35-39 (1995)). How Rb function may be linked to androgen-dependent status in prostate tumor progression remains unclear. One possible explanation is that Rb alteration may be a necessary event in prostate carcinogenesis for a subset of prostatic neoplasms, which may be also true for the AR expression in prostate tumors.
  • [0106]
    All publications cited in this application are incorporated by reference.
  • [0107]
    The present invention is not limited to the exemplified embodiment, but is intended to encompass all such modifications and variations as come within the scope of the following claims.
  • 1 12 1 1721 DNA Homo sapien CDS (40)..(1464) misc_feature (1120)..(1452) Coding sequence and polypeptide region for the C-terminal domain. 1 ggtctctggt ctcccctctc tgagcactct gaggtcctt atg tcg tca gaa gat 54 Met Ser Ser Glu Asp 1 5 cga gaa gct cag gag gat gaa ttg ctg gcc ctg gca agt att tac gat 102 Arg Glu Ala Gln Glu Asp Glu Leu Leu Ala Leu Ala Ser Ile Tyr Asp 10 15 20 gga gat gaa ttt aga aaa gca gag tct gtc caa ggt gga gaa acc agg 150 Gly Asp Glu Phe Arg Lys Ala Glu Ser Val Gln Gly Gly Glu Thr Arg 25 30 35 atc tat ttg gat ttg cca cag aat ttc aag ata ttt gtg agc ggc aat 198 Ile Tyr Leu Asp Leu Pro Gln Asn Phe Lys Ile Phe Val Ser Gly Asn 40 45 50 tca aat gag tgt ctc cag aat agt ggc ttt gaa tac acc att tgc ttt 246 Ser Asn Glu Cys Leu Gln Asn Ser Gly Phe Glu Tyr Thr Ile Cys Phe 55 60 65 ctg cct cca ctt gtg ctg aac ttt gaa ctg cca cca gat tat cca tcc 294 Leu Pro Pro Leu Val Leu Asn Phe Glu Leu Pro Pro Asp Tyr Pro Ser 70 75 80 85 tct tcc cca cct tca ttc aca ctt agt ggc aaa tgg ctg tca cca act 342 Ser Ser Pro Pro Ser Phe Thr Leu Ser Gly Lys Trp Leu Ser Pro Thr 90 95 100 cag cta tct gct cta tgc aag cac tta gac aac cta tgg gaa gaa cac 390 Gln Leu Ser Ala Leu Cys Lys His Leu Asp Asn Leu Trp Glu Glu His 105 110 115 cgt ggc agc gtg gtc ctg ttt gcc tgg atg caa ttt ctt aag gaa gag 438 Arg Gly Ser Val Val Leu Phe Ala Trp Met Gln Phe Leu Lys Glu Glu 120 125 130 acc cta gca tac ttg aat att gtc tct cct ttt gag ctc aag att ggt 486 Thr Leu Ala Tyr Leu Asn Ile Val Ser Pro Phe Glu Leu Lys Ile Gly 135 140 145 tct cag aaa aaa gtg cag aga agg aca gct caa gct tct ccc aac aca 534 Ser Gln Lys Lys Val Gln Arg Arg Thr Ala Gln Ala Ser Pro Asn Thr 150 155 160 165 gag cta gat ttt gga gga gct gct gga tct gat gta gac caa gag gaa 582 Glu Leu Asp Phe Gly Gly Ala Ala Gly Ser Asp Val Asp Gln Glu Glu 170 175 180 att gtg gat gag aga gca gtg cag gat gtg gaa tca ctg tca aat ctg 630 Ile Val Asp Glu Arg Ala Val Gln Asp Val Glu Ser Leu Ser Asn Leu 185 190 195 atc cag gaa atc ttg gac ttt gat caa gct cag cag ata aaa tgc ttt 678 Ile Gln Glu Ile Leu Asp Phe Asp Gln Ala Gln Gln Ile Lys Cys Phe 200 205 210 aat agt aaa ttg ttc ctg tgc agt atc tgt ttc tgt gag aag ctg ggt 726 Asn Ser Lys Leu Phe Leu Cys Ser Ile Cys Phe Cys Glu Lys Leu Gly 215 220 225 agt gaa tgc atg tac ttc ttg gag tgc agg cat gtg tac tgc aaa gcc 774 Ser Glu Cys Met Tyr Phe Leu Glu Cys Arg His Val Tyr Cys Lys Ala 230 235 240 245 tgt ctg aag gac tac ttt gaa atc cag atc aga gat ggc cag gtt caa 822 Cys Leu Lys Asp Tyr Phe Glu Ile Gln Ile Arg Asp Gly Gln Val Gln 250 255 260 tgc ctc aac tgc cca gaa cca aag tgc cct tcg gtg gcc act cct ggt 870 Cys Leu Asn Cys Pro Glu Pro Lys Cys Pro Ser Val Ala Thr Pro Gly 265 270 275 cag gtc aaa gag tta gtg gaa gca gag tta ttt gcc cgt tat gac cgc 918 Gln Val Lys Glu Leu Val Glu Ala Glu Leu Phe Ala Arg Tyr Asp Arg 280 285 290 ctt ctc ctc cag tcc tcc ttg gac ctg atg gca gat gtg gtg tac tgc 966 Leu Leu Leu Gln Ser Ser Leu Asp Leu Met Ala Asp Val Val Tyr Cys 295 300 305 ccc cgg ccg tgc tgc cag ctg cct gtg atg cag gaa cct ggc tgc acc 1014 Pro Arg Pro Cys Cys Gln Leu Pro Val Met Gln Glu Pro Gly Cys Thr 310 315 320 325 atg ggt atc tgc tcc agc tgc aat ttt gcc ttc tgt act ttg tgc agg 1062 Met Gly Ile Cys Ser Ser Cys Asn Phe Ala Phe Cys Thr Leu Cys Arg 330 335 340 ttg acc tac cat ggg gtc tcc cca tgt aag gtg act gca gag aaa tta 1110 Leu Thr Tyr His Gly Val Ser Pro Cys Lys Val Thr Ala Glu Lys Leu 345 350 355 atg gac tta cga aat gaa tac ctg caa gcg gat gag gct aat aaa aga 1158 Met Asp Leu Arg Asn Glu Tyr Leu Gln Ala Asp Glu Ala Asn Lys Arg 360 365 370 ctt ttg gat caa agg tat ggt aag aga gtg att cag aag gca ctg gaa 1206 Leu Leu Asp Gln Arg Tyr Gly Lys Arg Val Ile Gln Lys Ala Leu Glu 375 380 385 gag atg gaa agt aag gag tgg cta gag aag aac tca aag agc tgc cca 1254 Glu Met Glu Ser Lys Glu Trp Leu Glu Lys Asn Ser Lys Ser Cys Pro 390 395 400 405 tgt tgt gga act ccc ata gag aaa tta gac gga tgt aac aag atg aca 1302 Cys Cys Gly Thr Pro Ile Glu Lys Leu Asp Gly Cys Asn Lys Met Thr 410 415 420 tgt act ggc tgt atg caa tat ttc tgt tgg att tgc atg ggt tct ctc 1350 Cys Thr Gly Cys Met Gln Tyr Phe Cys Trp Ile Cys Met Gly Ser Leu 425 430 435 tct aga gca aac cct tac aaa cat ttc aat gac cct ggt tca cca tgt 1398 Ser Arg Ala Asn Pro Tyr Lys His Phe Asn Asp Pro Gly Ser Pro Cys 440 445 450 ttt aac cgg ctg ttt tat gct gtg gat gtt gac gac gat att tgg gaa 1446 Phe Asn Arg Leu Phe Tyr Ala Val Asp Val Asp Asp Asp Ile Trp Glu 455 460 465 gat gag gta gaa gac tag ttaactactg ctcaagatat ttaactactg 1494 Asp Glu Val Glu Asp 470 475 ctcaagatat ggaagtggat tgtttttccc taatcttccg tcaagtacac aaagtaactt 1554 tgcgggatat ttagggtact attcattcac tcttcctgcg tagaagatat ggaagaacga 1614 ggtttatatt ttcatgtggt actactgaag aaggtgcatt gatacatttt taaatgtaag 1674 ttgagaaaaa tttataagcc aaaggttcag aaaattaaac tacagaa 1721 2 474 PRT Homo sapien 2 Met Ser Ser Glu Asp Arg Glu Ala Gln Glu Asp Glu Leu Leu Ala Leu 1 5 10 15 Ala Ser Ile Tyr Asp Gly Asp Glu Phe Arg Lys Ala Glu Ser Val Gln 20 25 30 Gly Gly Glu Thr Arg Ile Tyr Leu Asp Leu Pro Gln Asn Phe Lys Ile 35 40 45 Phe Val Ser Gly Asn Ser Asn Glu Cys Leu Gln Asn Ser Gly Phe Glu 50 55 60 Tyr Thr Ile Cys Phe Leu Pro Pro Leu Val Leu Asn Phe Glu Leu Pro 65 70 75 80 Pro Asp Tyr Pro Ser Ser Ser Pro Pro Ser Phe Thr Leu Ser Gly Lys 85 90 95 Trp Leu Ser Pro Thr Gln Leu Ser Ala Leu Cys Lys His Leu Asp Asn 100 105 110 Leu Trp Glu Glu His Arg Gly Ser Val Val Leu Phe Ala Trp Met Gln 115 120 125 Phe Leu Lys Glu Glu Thr Leu Ala Tyr Leu Asn Ile Val Ser Pro Phe 130 135 140 Glu Leu Lys Ile Gly Ser Gln Lys Lys Val Gln Arg Arg Thr Ala Gln 145 150 155 160 Ala Ser Pro Asn Thr Glu Leu Asp Phe Gly Gly Ala Ala Gly Ser Asp 165 170 175 Val Asp Gln Glu Glu Ile Val Asp Glu Arg Ala Val Gln Asp Val Glu 180 185 190 Ser Leu Ser Asn Leu Ile Gln Glu Ile Leu Asp Phe Asp Gln Ala Gln 195 200 205 Gln Ile Lys Cys Phe Asn Ser Lys Leu Phe Leu Cys Ser Ile Cys Phe 210 215 220 Cys Glu Lys Leu Gly Ser Glu Cys Met Tyr Phe Leu Glu Cys Arg His 225 230 235 240 Val Tyr Cys Lys Ala Cys Leu Lys Asp Tyr Phe Glu Ile Gln Ile Arg 245 250 255 Asp Gly Gln Val Gln Cys Leu Asn Cys Pro Glu Pro Lys Cys Pro Ser 260 265 270 Val Ala Thr Pro Gly Gln Val Lys Glu Leu Val Glu Ala Glu Leu Phe 275 280 285 Ala Arg Tyr Asp Arg Leu Leu Leu Gln Ser Ser Leu Asp Leu Met Ala 290 295 300 Asp Val Val Tyr Cys Pro Arg Pro Cys Cys Gln Leu Pro Val Met Gln 305 310 315 320 Glu Pro Gly Cys Thr Met Gly Ile Cys Ser Ser Cys Asn Phe Ala Phe 325 330 335 Cys Thr Leu Cys Arg Leu Thr Tyr His Gly Val Ser Pro Cys Lys Val 340 345 350 Thr Ala Glu Lys Leu Met Asp Leu Arg Asn Glu Tyr Leu Gln Ala Asp 355 360 365 Glu Ala Asn Lys Arg Leu Leu Asp Gln Arg Tyr Gly Lys Arg Val Ile 370 375 380 Gln Lys Ala Leu Glu Glu Met Glu Ser Lys Glu Trp Leu Glu Lys Asn 385 390 395 400 Ser Lys Ser Cys Pro Cys Cys Gly Thr Pro Ile Glu Lys Leu Asp Gly 405 410 415 Cys Asn Lys Met Thr Cys Thr Gly Cys Met Gln Tyr Phe Cys Trp Ile 420 425 430 Cys Met Gly Ser Leu Ser Arg Ala Asn Pro Tyr Lys His Phe Asn Asp 435 440 445 Pro Gly Ser Pro Cys Phe Asn Arg Leu Phe Tyr Ala Val Asp Val Asp 450 455 460 Asp Asp Ile Trp Glu Asp Glu Val Glu Asp 465 470 3 1335 DNA Homo sapien CDS (1)..(1335) misc_feature (750)..(1332) Coding sequence and polypeptide region for the C-terminal binding domain 3 atg cca agg tca ggg gct ccc aaa gag cgc cct gcg gag cct ctc acc 48 Met Pro Arg Ser Gly Ala Pro Lys Glu Arg Pro Ala Glu Pro Leu Thr 1 5 10 15 cct ccc cca tcc tat ggc cac cag cca aca ggg cag tct ggg gag tct 96 Pro Pro Pro Ser Tyr Gly His Gln Pro Thr Gly Gln Ser Gly Glu Ser 20 25 30 tca gga gcc tcg ggg gac aag gac cac ctg tac agc acg gta tgc aag 144 Ser Gly Ala Ser Gly Asp Lys Asp His Leu Tyr Ser Thr Val Cys Lys 35 40 45 cct cgg tcc cca aag cct gca gcc ccg gcc gcc cct cca ttc tcc tct 192 Pro Arg Ser Pro Lys Pro Ala Ala Pro Ala Ala Pro Pro Phe Ser Ser 50 55 60 tcc agc ggt gtc ttg ggt acc ggg ctc tgt gag cta gat cgg ttg ctt 240 Ser Ser Gly Val Leu Gly Thr Gly Leu Cys Glu Leu Asp Arg Leu Leu 65 70 75 80 cag gaa ctt aat gcc act cag ttc aac atc aca gat gaa atc atg tct 288 Gln Glu Leu Asn Ala Thr Gln Phe Asn Ile Thr Asp Glu Ile Met Ser 85 90 95 cag ttc cca tct agc aag gtg gct tca gga gag cag aag gag gac cag 336 Gln Phe Pro Ser Ser Lys Val Ala Ser Gly Glu Gln Lys Glu Asp Gln 100 105 110 tct gaa gat aag aaa aga ccc agc ctc cct tcc agc ccg tct cct ggc 384 Ser Glu Asp Lys Lys Arg Pro Ser Leu Pro Ser Ser Pro Ser Pro Gly 115 120 125 ctc cca aag gct tct gcc acc tca gcc act ctg gag ctg gat aga ctg 432 Leu Pro Lys Ala Ser Ala Thr Ser Ala Thr Leu Glu Leu Asp Arg Leu 130 135 140 atg gcc tca ctc cct gac ttc cgc gtt caa aac cat ctt cca gcc tct 480 Met Ala Ser Leu Pro Asp Phe Arg Val Gln Asn His Leu Pro Ala Ser 145 150 155 160 ggg cca act cag cca ccg gtg gtg agc tcc aca aat gag ggc tcc cca 528 Gly Pro Thr Gln Pro Pro Val Val Ser Ser Thr Asn Glu Gly Ser Pro 165 170 175 tcc cca cca gag ccg act gca aag ggc agc cta gac acc atg ctg ggg 576 Ser Pro Pro Glu Pro Thr Ala Lys Gly Ser Leu Asp Thr Met Leu Gly 180 185 190 ctg ctg cag tcc gac ctc agc cgc cgg ggt gtt ccc acc cag gcc aaa 624 Leu Leu Gln Ser Asp Leu Ser Arg Arg Gly Val Pro Thr Gln Ala Lys 195 200 205 ggc ctc tgt ggc tcc tgc aat aaa cct att gct ggg caa gtg gtg acg 672 Gly Leu Cys Gly Ser Cys Asn Lys Pro Ile Ala Gly Gln Val Val Thr 210 215 220 gct ctg ggc cgc gcc tgg cac ccc gag cac ttc gtt tgc gga ggc tgt 720 Ala Leu Gly Arg Ala Trp His Pro Glu His Phe Val Cys Gly Gly Cys 225 230 235 240 tcc acc gcc ctg gga ggc agc agc ttc ttc gag aag gat gga gcc ccc 768 Ser Thr Ala Leu Gly Gly Ser Ser Phe Phe Glu Lys Asp Gly Ala Pro 245 250 255 ttc tgc ccc gag tgc tac ttt gag cgc ttc tcg cca aga tgt ggc ttc 816 Phe Cys Pro Glu Cys Tyr Phe Glu Arg Phe Ser Pro Arg Cys Gly Phe 260 265 270 tgc aac cag ccc atc cga cac aag atg gtg acc gcc ttg ggc act cac 864 Cys Asn Gln Pro Ile Arg His Lys Met Val Thr Ala Leu Gly Thr His 275 280 285 tgg cac cca gag cat ttc tgc tgc gtc agt tgc ggg gag ccc ttc gga 912 Trp His Pro Glu His Phe Cys Cys Val Ser Cys Gly Glu Pro Phe Gly 290 295 300 gat gag ggt ttc cac gag cgc gag ggc cgc ccc tac tgc cgc cgg gac 960 Asp Glu Gly Phe His Glu Arg Glu Gly Arg Pro Tyr Cys Arg Arg Asp 305 310 315 320 ttc ctg cag ctg ttc gcc ccg cgc tgc cag ggc tgc cag ggc ccc atc 1008 Phe Leu Gln Leu Phe Ala Pro Arg Cys Gln Gly Cys Gln Gly Pro Ile 325 330 335 ctg gat aac tac atc tcg gcg ctc agc ctg ctc tgg cac ccg gac tgt 1056 Leu Asp Asn Tyr Ile Ser Ala Leu Ser Leu Leu Trp His Pro Asp Cys 340 345 350 ttc gtc tgc agg gaa tgc ttc gcg ccc ttc tcg gga ggc agc ttt ttc 1104 Phe Val Cys Arg Glu Cys Phe Ala Pro Phe Ser Gly Gly Ser Phe Phe 355 360 365 gag cac gag ggc cgc ccg ttg tgc gag aac cac ttc cac gca cga cgc 1152 Glu His Glu Gly Arg Pro Leu Cys Glu Asn His Phe His Ala Arg Arg 370 375 380 ggc tcg ctg tgc ccc acg tgt ggc ctc cct gtg acc ggc cgc tgc gtg 1200 Gly Ser Leu Cys Pro Thr Cys Gly Leu Pro Val Thr Gly Arg Cys Val 385 390 395 400 tcg gcc ctg ggt cgc cgc ttc cac ccg gac cac ttc gca tgc acc ttc 1248 Ser Ala Leu Gly Arg Arg Phe His Pro Asp His Phe Ala Cys Thr Phe 405 410 415 tgc ctg cgc ccg ctc acc aag ggg tcc ttc cag gag cgc gcc ggc aag 1296 Cys Leu Arg Pro Leu Thr Lys Gly Ser Phe Gln Glu Arg Ala Gly Lys 420 425 430 ccc tac tgc cag ccc tgc ttc ctg aag ctc ttc ggc tga 1335 Pro Tyr Cys Gln Pro Cys Phe Leu Lys Leu Phe Gly 435 440 445 4 444 PRT Homo sapien 4 Met Pro Arg Ser Gly Ala Pro Lys Glu Arg Pro Ala Glu Pro Leu Thr 1 5 10 15 Pro Pro Pro Ser Tyr Gly His Gln Pro Thr Gly Gln Ser Gly Glu Ser 20 25 30 Ser Gly Ala Ser Gly Asp Lys Asp His Leu Tyr Ser Thr Val Cys Lys 35 40 45 Pro Arg Ser Pro Lys Pro Ala Ala Pro Ala Ala Pro Pro Phe Ser Ser 50 55 60 Ser Ser Gly Val Leu Gly Thr Gly Leu Cys Glu Leu Asp Arg Leu Leu 65 70 75 80 Gln Glu Leu Asn Ala Thr Gln Phe Asn Ile Thr Asp Glu Ile Met Ser 85 90 95 Gln Phe Pro Ser Ser Lys Val Ala Ser Gly Glu Gln Lys Glu Asp Gln 100 105 110 Ser Glu Asp Lys Lys Arg Pro Ser Leu Pro Ser Ser Pro Ser Pro Gly 115 120 125 Leu Pro Lys Ala Ser Ala Thr Ser Ala Thr Leu Glu Leu Asp Arg Leu 130 135 140 Met Ala Ser Leu Pro Asp Phe Arg Val Gln Asn His Leu Pro Ala Ser 145 150 155 160 Gly Pro Thr Gln Pro Pro Val Val Ser Ser Thr Asn Glu Gly Ser Pro 165 170 175 Ser Pro Pro Glu Pro Thr Ala Lys Gly Ser Leu Asp Thr Met Leu Gly 180 185 190 Leu Leu Gln Ser Asp Leu Ser Arg Arg Gly Val Pro Thr Gln Ala Lys 195 200 205 Gly Leu Cys Gly Ser Cys Asn Lys Pro Ile Ala Gly Gln Val Val Thr 210 215 220 Ala Leu Gly Arg Ala Trp His Pro Glu His Phe Val Cys Gly Gly Cys 225 230 235 240 Ser Thr Ala Leu Gly Gly Ser Ser Phe Phe Glu Lys Asp Gly Ala Pro 245 250 255 Phe Cys Pro Glu Cys Tyr Phe Glu Arg Phe Ser Pro Arg Cys Gly Phe 260 265 270 Cys Asn Gln Pro Ile Arg His Lys Met Val Thr Ala Leu Gly Thr His 275 280 285 Trp His Pro Glu His Phe Cys Cys Val Ser Cys Gly Glu Pro Phe Gly 290 295 300 Asp Glu Gly Phe His Glu Arg Glu Gly Arg Pro Tyr Cys Arg Arg Asp 305 310 315 320 Phe Leu Gln Leu Phe Ala Pro Arg Cys Gln Gly Cys Gln Gly Pro Ile 325 330 335 Leu Asp Asn Tyr Ile Ser Ala Leu Ser Leu Leu Trp His Pro Asp Cys 340 345 350 Phe Val Cys Arg Glu Cys Phe Ala Pro Phe Ser Gly Gly Ser Phe Phe 355 360 365 Glu His Glu Gly Arg Pro Leu Cys Glu Asn His Phe His Ala Arg Arg 370 375 380 Gly Ser Leu Cys Pro Thr Cys Gly Leu Pro Val Thr Gly Arg Cys Val 385 390 395 400 Ser Ala Leu Gly Arg Arg Phe His Pro Asp His Phe Ala Cys Thr Phe 405 410 415 Cys Leu Arg Pro Leu Thr Lys Gly Ser Phe Gln Glu Arg Ala Gly Lys 420 425 430 Pro Tyr Cys Gln Pro Cys Phe Leu Lys Leu Phe Gly 435 440 5 1566 DNA Homo sapien CDS (25)..(675) 3′UTR (676)..(1566) 5′UTR (1)..(24) 5 ggcgcttctg gaaggaacgc cgcg atg gct gcg cag gga gag ccc cag gtc 51 Met Ala Ala Gln Gly Glu Pro Gln Val 1 5 cag ttc aaa ctt gta ttg gtt ggt gat ggt ggt act gga aaa acg acc 99 Gln Phe Lys Leu Val Leu Val Gly Asp Gly Gly Thr Gly Lys Thr Thr 10 15 20 25 ttc gtg aaa cgt cat ttg act ggt gaa ttt gag aag aag tat gta gcc 147 Phe Val Lys Arg His Leu Thr Gly Glu Phe Glu Lys Lys Tyr Val Ala 30 35 40 acc ttg ggt gtt gag gtt cat ccc cta gtg ttc cac acc aac aga gga 195 Thr Leu Gly Val Glu Val His Pro Leu Val Phe His Thr Asn Arg Gly 45 50 55 cct att aag ttc aat gta tgg gac aca gcc ggc cag gag aaa ttc ggt 243 Pro Ile Lys Phe Asn Val Trp Asp Thr Ala Gly Gln Glu Lys Phe Gly 60 65 70 gga ctg aga gat ggc tat tat atc caa gcc cag tgt gcc atc ata atg 291 Gly Leu Arg Asp Gly Tyr Tyr Ile Gln Ala Gln Cys Ala Ile Ile Met 75 80 85 ttt gat gta aca tcg aga gtt act tac aag aat gtg cct aac tgg cat 339 Phe Asp Val Thr Ser Arg Val Thr Tyr Lys Asn Val Pro Asn Trp His 90 95 100 105 aga gat ctg gta cga gtg tgt gaa aac atc ccc att gtg ttg tgt ggc 387 Arg Asp Leu Val Arg Val Cys Glu Asn Ile Pro Ile Val Leu Cys Gly 110 115 120 aac aaa gtg gat att aag gac agg aaa gtg aag gcg aaa tcc att gtc 435 Asn Lys Val Asp Ile Lys Asp Arg Lys Val Lys Ala Lys Ser Ile Val 125 130 135 ttc cac cga aag aag aat ctt cag tac tac gac att tct gcc aaa agt 483 Phe His Arg Lys Lys Asn Leu Gln Tyr Tyr Asp Ile Ser Ala Lys Ser 140 145 150 aac tac aac ttt gaa aag ccc ttc ctc tgg ctt gct agg aag ctc att 531 Asn Tyr Asn Phe Glu Lys Pro Phe Leu Trp Leu Ala Arg Lys Leu Ile 155 160 165 gga gac cct aac ttg gaa ttt gtt gcc atg cct gct ctc gcc cca cca 579 Gly Asp Pro Asn Leu Glu Phe Val Ala Met Pro Ala Leu Ala Pro Pro 170 175 180 185 gaa gtt gtc atg gac cca gct ttg gca gca cag tat gag cac gac tta 627 Glu Val Val Met Asp Pro Ala Leu Ala Ala Gln Tyr Glu His Asp Leu 190 195 200 gag gtt gct cag aca act gct ctc ccg gat gag gat gat gac ctg tga 675 Glu Val Ala Gln Thr Thr Ala Leu Pro Asp Glu Asp Asp Asp Leu 205 210 215 gaatgaagct ggagcccagc gtcagaagtc tagttttata ggcagctgtc ctgtgatgtc 735 agcggtgcag cgtgtgtgcc acctcattat tatctagcta agcggaacat gtgctttatc 795 tgtgggatgc tgaaggagat gagtgggctt cggagtgaat gtggcagttt aaaaaataac 855 ttcattgttt ggacctgcat atttagctgt ttggacgcag ttgattcctt gagtttcata 915 tataagactg ctgcagtcac atcacaatat tcagtggtga aatcttgttt gttactgtca 975 ttcccattcc ttttctttag aatcagaata aagttgtatt tcaaatatct aagcaagtga 1035 actcatccct tgtttataaa tagcatttgg aaaccactaa agtagggaag ttttatgcca 1095 tgttaatatt tgaattgcct tgcttttatc acttaatttg aaatctattg ggttaatttc 1155 tccctatgtt tatttttgta catttgagcc atgtcacaca aactgatgat gacaggtcag 1215 cagtattcta tttggttaga agggttacat ggtgtaaata ttagtgcagt taagctaaag 1275 cagtgtttgc tccaccttca tattggctag gtagggtcac ctagggaagc acttgctcaa 1335 aatctgtgac ctgtcagaat aaaaatgtgg tttgtacata tcaaatagat attttaaggg 1395 taatattttc ttttatggca aaagtaatca tgttttaatg tagaacctca aacaggatgg 1455 aacatcagtg gatggcagga ggttgggaat tcttgctgtt aaaaataatt acaaattttg 1515 cactttttgt ttgaatgtta gatgcttagt gtgaagttga tacgcaagcc g 1566 6 216 PRT Homo sapien 6 Met Ala Ala Gln Gly Glu Pro Gln Val Gln Phe Lys Leu Val Leu Val 1 5 10 15 Gly Asp Gly Gly Thr Gly Lys Thr Thr Phe Val Lys Arg His Leu Thr 20 25 30 Gly Glu Phe Glu Lys Lys Tyr Val Ala Thr Leu Gly Val Glu Val His 35 40 45 Pro Leu Val Phe His Thr Asn Arg Gly Pro Ile Lys Phe Asn Val Trp 50 55 60 Asp Thr Ala Gly Gln Glu Lys Phe Gly Gly Leu Arg Asp Gly Tyr Tyr 65 70 75 80 Ile Gln Ala Gln Cys Ala Ile Ile Met Phe Asp Val Thr Ser Arg Val 85 90 95 Thr Tyr Lys Asn Val Pro Asn Trp His Arg Asp Leu Val Arg Val Cys 100 105 110 Glu Asn Ile Pro Ile Val Leu Cys Gly Asn Lys Val Asp Ile Lys Asp 115 120 125 Arg Lys Val Lys Ala Lys Ser Ile Val Phe His Arg Lys Lys Asn Leu 130 135 140 Gln Tyr Tyr Asp Ile Ser Ala Lys Ser Asn Tyr Asn Phe Glu Lys Pro 145 150 155 160 Phe Leu Trp Leu Ala Arg Lys Leu Ile Gly Asp Pro Asn Leu Glu Phe 165 170 175 Val Ala Met Pro Ala Leu Ala Pro Pro Glu Val Val Met Asp Pro Ala 180 185 190 Leu Ala Ala Gln Tyr Glu His Asp Leu Glu Val Ala Gln Thr Thr Ala 195 200 205 Leu Pro Asp Glu Asp Asp Asp Leu 210 215 7 4839 DNA Homo sapien CDS (138)..(2924) 7 tccggttttt ctcaggggac gttgaaatta tttttgtaac gggagtcggg agaggacggg 60 gcgtgccccg cgtgcgcgcg cgtcgtcctc cccggcgctc ctccacagct cgctggctcc 120 cgccgcggaa aggcgtc atg ccg ccc aaa acc ccc cga aaa acg gcc gcc 170 Met Pro Pro Lys Thr Pro Arg Lys Thr Ala Ala 1 5 10 acc gcc gcc gct gcc gcc gcg gaa ccc ccg gca ccg ccg ccg ccg ccc 218 Thr Ala Ala Ala Ala Ala Ala Glu Pro Pro Ala Pro Pro Pro Pro Pro 15 20 25 cct cct gag gag gac cca gag cag gac agc ggc ccg gag gac ctg cct 266 Pro Pro Glu Glu Asp Pro Glu Gln Asp Ser Gly Pro Glu Asp Leu Pro 30 35 40 ctc gtc agg ctt gag ttt gaa gaa aca gaa gaa cct gat ttt act gca 314 Leu Val Arg Leu Glu Phe Glu Glu Thr Glu Glu Pro Asp Phe Thr Ala 45 50 55 tta tgt cag aaa tta aag ata cca gat cat gtc aga gag aga gct tgg 362 Leu Cys Gln Lys Leu Lys Ile Pro Asp His Val Arg Glu Arg Ala Trp 60 65 70 75 tta act tgg gag aaa gtt tca tct gtg gat gga gta ttg gga ggt tat 410 Leu Thr Trp Glu Lys Val Ser Ser Val Asp Gly Val Leu Gly Gly Tyr 80 85 90 att caa aag aaa aag gaa ctg tgg gga atc tgt atc ttt att gca gca 458 Ile Gln Lys Lys Lys Glu Leu Trp Gly Ile Cys Ile Phe Ile Ala Ala 95 100 105 gtt gac cta gat gag atg tcg ttc act ttt act gag cta cag aaa aac 506 Val Asp Leu Asp Glu Met Ser Phe Thr Phe Thr Glu Leu Gln Lys Asn 110 115 120 ata gaa atc agt gtc cat aaa ttc ttt aac tta cta aaa gaa att gat 554 Ile Glu Ile Ser Val His Lys Phe Phe Asn Leu Leu Lys Glu Ile Asp 125 130 135 acc agt acc aaa gtt gat aat gct atg tca aga ctg ttg aag aag tat 602 Thr Ser Thr Lys Val Asp Asn Ala Met Ser Arg Leu Leu Lys Lys Tyr 140 145 150 155 gat gta ttg ttt gca ctc ttc agc aaa ttg gaa agg aca tgt gaa ctt 650 Asp Val Leu Phe Ala Leu Phe Ser Lys Leu Glu Arg Thr Cys Glu Leu 160 165 170 ata tat ttg aca caa ccc agc agt tcg ata tct act gaa ata aat tct 698 Ile Tyr Leu Thr Gln Pro Ser Ser Ser Ile Ser Thr Glu Ile Asn Ser 175 180 185 gca ttg gtg cta aaa gtt tct tgg atc aca ttt tta tta gct aaa ggg 746 Ala Leu Val Leu Lys Val Ser Trp Ile Thr Phe Leu Leu Ala Lys Gly 190 195 200 gaa gta tta caa atg gaa gat gat ctg gtg att tca ttt cag tta atg 794 Glu Val Leu Gln Met Glu Asp Asp Leu Val Ile Ser Phe Gln Leu Met 205 210 215 cta tgt gtc ctt gac tat ttt att aaa ctc tca cct ccc atg ttg ctc 842 Leu Cys Val Leu Asp Tyr Phe Ile Lys Leu Ser Pro Pro Met Leu Leu 220 225 230 235 aaa gaa cca tat aaa aca gct gtt ata ccc att aat ggt tca cct cga 890 Lys Glu Pro Tyr Lys Thr Ala Val Ile Pro Ile Asn Gly Ser Pro Arg 240 245 250 aca ccc agg cga ggt cag aac agg agt gca cgg ata gca aaa caa cta 938 Thr Pro Arg Arg Gly Gln Asn Arg Ser Ala Arg Ile Ala Lys Gln Leu 255 260 265 gaa aat gat aca aga att att gaa gtt ctc tgt aaa gaa cat gaa tgt 986 Glu Asn Asp Thr Arg Ile Ile Glu Val Leu Cys Lys Glu His Glu Cys 270 275 280 aat ata gat gag gtg aaa aat gtt tat ttc aaa aat ttt ata cct ttt 1034 Asn Ile Asp Glu Val Lys Asn Val Tyr Phe Lys Asn Phe Ile Pro Phe 285 290 295 atg aat tct ctt gga ctt gta aca tct aat gga ctt cca gag gtt gaa 1082 Met Asn Ser Leu Gly Leu Val Thr Ser Asn Gly Leu Pro Glu Val Glu 300 305 310 315 aat ctt tct aaa cga tac gaa gaa att tat ctt aaa aat aaa gat cta 1130 Asn Leu Ser Lys Arg Tyr Glu Glu Ile Tyr Leu Lys Asn Lys Asp Leu 320 325 330 gat gca aga tta ttt ttg gat cat gat aaa act ctt cag act gat tct 1178 Asp Ala Arg Leu Phe Leu Asp His Asp Lys Thr Leu Gln Thr Asp Ser 335 340 345 ata gac agt ttt gaa aca cag aga aca cca cga aaa agt aac ctt gat 1226 Ile Asp Ser Phe Glu Thr Gln Arg Thr Pro Arg Lys Ser Asn Leu Asp 350 355 360 gaa gag gtg aat gta att cct cca cac act cca gtt agg act gtt atg 1274 Glu Glu Val Asn Val Ile Pro Pro His Thr Pro Val Arg Thr Val Met 365 370 375 aac act atc caa caa tta atg atg att tta aat tca gca agt gat caa 1322 Asn Thr Ile Gln Gln Leu Met Met Ile Leu Asn Ser Ala Ser Asp Gln 380 385 390 395 cct tca gaa aat ctg att tcc tat ttt aac aac tgc aca gtg aat cca 1370 Pro Ser Glu Asn Leu Ile Ser Tyr Phe Asn Asn Cys Thr Val Asn Pro 400 405 410 aaa gaa agt ata ctg aaa aga gtg aag gat ata gga tac atc ttt aaa 1418 Lys Glu Ser Ile Leu Lys Arg Val Lys Asp Ile Gly Tyr Ile Phe Lys 415 420 425 gag aaa ttt gct aaa gct gtg gga cag ggt tgt gtc gaa att gga tca 1466 Glu Lys Phe Ala Lys Ala Val Gly Gln Gly Cys Val Glu Ile Gly Ser 430 435 440 cag cga tac aaa ctt gga gtt cgc ttg tat tac cga gta atg gaa tcc 1514 Gln Arg Tyr Lys Leu Gly Val Arg Leu Tyr Tyr Arg Val Met Glu Ser 445 450 455 atg ctt aaa tca gaa gaa gaa cga tta tcc att caa aat ttt agc aaa 1562 Met Leu Lys Ser Glu Glu Glu Arg Leu Ser Ile Gln Asn Phe Ser Lys 460 465 470 475 ctt ctg aat gac aac att ttt cat atg tct tta ttg gcg tgc gct ctt 1610 Leu Leu Asn Asp Asn Ile Phe His Met Ser Leu Leu Ala Cys Ala Leu 480 485 490 gag gtt gta atg gcc aca tat agc aga agt aca tct cag aat ctt gat 1658 Glu Val Val Met Ala Thr Tyr Ser Arg Ser Thr Ser Gln Asn Leu Asp 495 500 505 tct gga aca gat ttg tct ttc cca tgg att ctg aat gtg ctt aat tta 1706 Ser Gly Thr Asp Leu Ser Phe Pro Trp Ile Leu Asn Val Leu Asn Leu 510 515 520 aaa gcc ttt gat ttt tac aaa gtg atc gaa agt ttt atc aaa gca gaa 1754 Lys Ala Phe Asp Phe Tyr Lys Val Ile Glu Ser Phe Ile Lys Ala Glu 525 530 535 ggc aac ttg aca aga gaa atg ata aaa cat tta gaa cga tgt gaa cat 1802 Gly Asn Leu Thr Arg Glu Met Ile Lys His Leu Glu Arg Cys Glu His 540 545 550 555 cga atc atg gaa tcc ctt gca tgg ctc tca gat tca cct tta ttt gat 1850 Arg Ile Met Glu Ser Leu Ala Trp Leu Ser Asp Ser Pro Leu Phe Asp 560 565 570 ctt att aaa caa tca aag gac cga gaa gga cca act gat cac ctt gaa 1898 Leu Ile Lys Gln Ser Lys Asp Arg Glu Gly Pro Thr Asp His Leu Glu 575 580 585 tct gct tgt cct ctt aat ctt cct ctc cag aat aat cac act gca gca 1946 Ser Ala Cys Pro Leu Asn Leu Pro Leu Gln Asn Asn His Thr Ala Ala 590 595 600 gat atg tat ctt tct cct gta aga tct cca aag aaa aaa ggt tca act 1994 Asp Met Tyr Leu Ser Pro Val Arg Ser Pro Lys Lys Lys Gly Ser Thr 605 610 615 acg cgt gta aat tct act gca aat gca gag aca caa gca acc tca gcc 2042 Thr Arg Val Asn Ser Thr Ala Asn Ala Glu Thr Gln Ala Thr Ser Ala 620 625 630 635 ttc cag acc cag aag cca ttg aaa tct acc tct ctt tca ctg ttt tat 2090 Phe Gln Thr Gln Lys Pro Leu Lys Ser Thr Ser Leu Ser Leu Phe Tyr 640 645 650 aaa aaa gtg tat cgg cta gcc tat ctc cgg cta aat aca ctt tgt gaa 2138 Lys Lys Val Tyr Arg Leu Ala Tyr Leu Arg Leu Asn Thr Leu Cys Glu 655 660 665 cgc ctt ctg tct gag cac cca gaa tta gaa cat atc atc tgg acc ctt 2186 Arg Leu Leu Ser Glu His Pro Glu Leu Glu His Ile Ile Trp Thr Leu 670 675 680 ttc cag cac acc ctg cag aat gag tat gaa ctc atg aga gac agg cat 2234 Phe Gln His Thr Leu Gln Asn Glu Tyr Glu Leu Met Arg Asp Arg His 685 690 695 ttg gac caa att atg atg tgt tcc atg tat ggc ata tgc aaa gtg aag 2282 Leu Asp Gln Ile Met Met Cys Ser Met Tyr Gly Ile Cys Lys Val Lys 700 705 710 715 aat ata gac ctt aaa ttc aaa atc att gta aca gca tac aag gat ctt 2330 Asn Ile Asp Leu Lys Phe Lys Ile Ile Val Thr Ala Tyr Lys Asp Leu 720 725 730 cct cat gct gtt cag gag aca ttc aaa cgt gtt ttg atc aaa gaa gag 2378 Pro His Ala Val Gln Glu Thr Phe Lys Arg Val Leu Ile Lys Glu Glu 735 740 745 gag tat gat tct att ata gta ttc tat aac tcg gtc ttc atg cag aga 2426 Glu Tyr Asp Ser Ile Ile Val Phe Tyr Asn Ser Val Phe Met Gln Arg 750 755 760 ctg aaa aca aat att ttg cag tat gct tcc acc agg ccc cct acc ttg 2474 Leu Lys Thr Asn Ile Leu Gln Tyr Ala Ser Thr Arg Pro Pro Thr Leu 765 770 775 tca cca ata cct cac att cct cga agc cct tac aag ttt cct agt tca 2522 Ser Pro Ile Pro His Ile Pro Arg Ser Pro Tyr Lys Phe Pro Ser Ser 780 785 790 795 ccc tta cgg att cct gga ggg aac atc tat att tca ccc ctg aag agt 2570 Pro Leu Arg Ile Pro Gly Gly Asn Ile Tyr Ile Ser Pro Leu Lys Ser 800 805 810 cca tat aaa att tca gaa ggt ctg cca aca cca aca aaa atg act cca 2618 Pro Tyr Lys Ile Ser Glu Gly Leu Pro Thr Pro Thr Lys Met Thr Pro 815 820 825 aga tca aga atc tta gta tca att ggt gaa tca ttc ggg act tct gag 2666 Arg Ser Arg Ile Leu Val Ser Ile Gly Glu Ser Phe Gly Thr Ser Glu 830 835 840 aag ttc cag aaa ata aat cag atg gta tgt aac agc gac cgt gtg ctc 2714 Lys Phe Gln Lys Ile Asn Gln Met Val Cys Asn Ser Asp Arg Val Leu 845 850 855 aaa aga agt gct gaa gga agc aac cct cct aaa cca ctg aaa aaa cta 2762 Lys Arg Ser Ala Glu Gly Ser Asn Pro Pro Lys Pro Leu Lys Lys Leu 860 865 870 875 cgc ttt gat att gaa gga tca gat gaa gca gat gga agt aaa cat ctc 2810 Arg Phe Asp Ile Glu Gly Ser Asp Glu Ala Asp Gly Ser Lys His Leu 880 885 890 cca gga gag tcc aaa ttt cag cag aaa ctg gca gaa atg act tct act 2858 Pro Gly Glu Ser Lys Phe Gln Gln Lys Leu Ala Glu Met Thr Ser Thr 895 900 905 cga aca cga atg caa aag cag aaa atg aat gat agc atg gat acc tca 2906 Arg Thr Arg Met Gln Lys Gln Lys Met Asn Asp Ser Met Asp Thr Ser 910 915 920 aac aag gaa gag aaa tga ggatctcagg accttggtgg acactgtgta 2954 Asn Lys Glu Glu Lys 925 cacctctgga ttcattgtct ctcacagatg tgactgtata actttcccag gttctgttta 3014 tggccacatt taatatcttc agctcttttt gtggatataa aatgtgcaga tgcaattgtt 3074 tgggtgattc ctaagccact tgaaatgtta gtcattgtta tttatacaag attgaaaatc 3134 ttgtgtaaat cctgccattt aaaaagttgt agcagattgt ttcctcttcc aaagtaaaat 3194 tgctgtgctt tatggatagt aagaatggcc ctagagtggg agtcctgata acccaggcct 3254 gtctgactac tttgccttct tttgtagcat ataggtgatg tttgctcttg tttttattaa 3314 tttatatgta tattttttta atttaacatg aacaccctta gaaaatgtgt cctatctatc 3374 ttccaaatgc aatttgattg actgcccatt caccaaaatt atcctgaact cttctgcaaa 3434 aatggatatt attagaaatt agaaaaaaat tactaatttt acacattaga ttttatttta 3494 ctattggaat ctgatatact gtgtgcttgt tttataaaat tttgctttta attaaataaa 3554 agctggaagc aaagtataac catatgatac tatcatacta ctgaaacaga tttcatacct 3614 cagaatgtaa aagaacttac tgattatttt cttcatccaa cttatgtttt taaatgagga 3674 ttattgatag tactcttggt ttttatacca ttcagatcac tgaatttata aagtacccat 3734 ctagtacttg aaaaagtaaa gtgttctgcc agatcttagg tatagaggac cctaacacag 3794 tatatcccaa gtgcactttc taatgtttct gggtcctgaa gaattaagat acaaattaat 3854 tttactccat aaacagactg ttaattatag gagccttaat ttttttttca tagagatttg 3914 tctaattgca tctcaaaatt attctgccct ccttaatttg ggaaggtttg tgttttctct 3974 ggaatggtac atgtcttcca tgtatctttt gaactggcaa ttgtctattt atcttttatt 4034 tttttaagtc agtatggtct aacactggca tgttcaaagc cacattattt ctagtccaaa 4094 attacaagta atcaagggtc attatgggtt aggcattaat gtttctatct gattttgtgc 4154 aaaagcttca aattaaaaca gctgcattag aaaaagaggc gcttctcccc tcccctacac 4214 ctaaaggtgt atttaaacta tcttgtgtga ttaacttatt tagagatgct gtaacttaaa 4274 ataggggata tttaaggtag cttcagctag cttttaggaa aatcactttg tctaactcag 4334 aattattttt aaaaagaaat ctggtcttgt tagaaaacaa aattttattt tgtgctcatt 4394 taagtttcaa acttactatt ttgacagtta ttttgataac aatgacacta gaaaacttga 4454 ctccatttca tcattgtttc tgcatgaata tcatacaaat cagttagttt ttaggtcaag 4514 ggcttactat ttctgggtct tttgctacta agttcacatt agaattagtg ccagaatttt 4574 aggaacttca gagatcgtgt attgagattt cttaaataat gcttcagata ttattgcttt 4634 attgcttttt tgtattggtt aaaactgtac atttaaaatt gctatgttac tattttctac 4694 aattaatagt ttgtctattt taaaataaat tagttgttaa gagtcttaat ggtctgatgt 4754 tgtgttcttt gtattaagta cactaatgtt ctcttttctg tctaggagaa gatagataga 4814 agataactct cctagtatct catcc 4839 8 928 PRT Homo sapien 8 Met Pro Pro Lys Thr Pro Arg Lys Thr Ala Ala Thr Ala Ala Ala Ala 1 5 10 15 Ala Ala Glu Pro Pro Ala Pro Pro Pro Pro Pro Pro Pro Glu Glu Asp 20 25 30 Pro Glu Gln Asp Ser Gly Pro Glu Asp Leu Pro Leu Val Arg Leu Glu 35 40 45 Phe Glu Glu Thr Glu Glu Pro Asp Phe Thr Ala Leu Cys Gln Lys Leu 50 55 60 Lys Ile Pro Asp His Val Arg Glu Arg Ala Trp Leu Thr Trp Glu Lys 65 70 75 80 Val Ser Ser Val Asp Gly Val Leu Gly Gly Tyr Ile Gln Lys Lys Lys 85 90 95 Glu Leu Trp Gly Ile Cys Ile Phe Ile Ala Ala Val Asp Leu Asp Glu 100 105 110 Met Ser Phe Thr Phe Thr Glu Leu Gln Lys Asn Ile Glu Ile Ser Val 115 120 125 His Lys Phe Phe Asn Leu Leu Lys Glu Ile Asp Thr Ser Thr Lys Val 130 135 140 Asp Asn Ala Met Ser Arg Leu Leu Lys Lys Tyr Asp Val Leu Phe Ala 145 150 155 160 Leu Phe Ser Lys Leu Glu Arg Thr Cys Glu Leu Ile Tyr Leu Thr Gln 165 170 175 Pro Ser Ser Ser Ile Ser Thr Glu Ile Asn Ser Ala Leu Val Leu Lys 180 185 190 Val Ser Trp Ile Thr Phe Leu Leu Ala Lys Gly Glu Val Leu Gln Met 195 200 205 Glu Asp Asp Leu Val Ile Ser Phe Gln Leu Met Leu Cys Val Leu Asp 210 215 220 Tyr Phe Ile Lys Leu Ser Pro Pro Met Leu Leu Lys Glu Pro Tyr Lys 225 230 235 240 Thr Ala Val Ile Pro Ile Asn Gly Ser Pro Arg Thr Pro Arg Arg Gly 245 250 255 Gln Asn Arg Ser Ala Arg Ile Ala Lys Gln Leu Glu Asn Asp Thr Arg 260 265 270 Ile Ile Glu Val Leu Cys Lys Glu His Glu Cys Asn Ile Asp Glu Val 275 280 285 Lys Asn Val Tyr Phe Lys Asn Phe Ile Pro Phe Met Asn Ser Leu Gly 290 295 300 Leu Val Thr Ser Asn Gly Leu Pro Glu Val Glu Asn Leu Ser Lys Arg 305 310 315 320 Tyr Glu Glu Ile Tyr Leu Lys Asn Lys Asp Leu Asp Ala Arg Leu Phe 325 330 335 Leu Asp His Asp Lys Thr Leu Gln Thr Asp Ser Ile Asp Ser Phe Glu 340 345 350 Thr Gln Arg Thr Pro Arg Lys Ser Asn Leu Asp Glu Glu Val Asn Val 355 360 365 Ile Pro Pro His Thr Pro Val Arg Thr Val Met Asn Thr Ile Gln Gln 370 375 380 Leu Met Met Ile Leu Asn Ser Ala Ser Asp Gln Pro Ser Glu Asn Leu 385 390 395 400 Ile Ser Tyr Phe Asn Asn Cys Thr Val Asn Pro Lys Glu Ser Ile Leu 405 410 415 Lys Arg Val Lys Asp Ile Gly Tyr Ile Phe Lys Glu Lys Phe Ala Lys 420 425 430 Ala Val Gly Gln Gly Cys Val Glu Ile Gly Ser Gln Arg Tyr Lys Leu 435 440 445 Gly Val Arg Leu Tyr Tyr Arg Val Met Glu Ser Met Leu Lys Ser Glu 450 455 460 Glu Glu Arg Leu Ser Ile Gln Asn Phe Ser Lys Leu Leu Asn Asp Asn 465 470 475 480 Ile Phe His Met Ser Leu Leu Ala Cys Ala Leu Glu Val Val Met Ala 485 490 495 Thr Tyr Ser Arg Ser Thr Ser Gln Asn Leu Asp Ser Gly Thr Asp Leu 500 505 510 Ser Phe Pro Trp Ile Leu Asn Val Leu Asn Leu Lys Ala Phe Asp Phe 515 520 525 Tyr Lys Val Ile Glu Ser Phe Ile Lys Ala Glu Gly Asn Leu Thr Arg 530 535 540 Glu Met Ile Lys His Leu Glu Arg Cys Glu His Arg Ile Met Glu Ser 545 550 555 560 Leu Ala Trp Leu Ser Asp Ser Pro Leu Phe Asp Leu Ile Lys Gln Ser 565 570 575 Lys Asp Arg Glu Gly Pro Thr Asp His Leu Glu Ser Ala Cys Pro Leu 580 585 590 Asn Leu Pro Leu Gln Asn Asn His Thr Ala Ala Asp Met Tyr Leu Ser 595 600 605 Pro Val Arg Ser Pro Lys Lys Lys Gly Ser Thr Thr Arg Val Asn Ser 610 615 620 Thr Ala Asn Ala Glu Thr Gln Ala Thr Ser Ala Phe Gln Thr Gln Lys 625 630 635 640 Pro Leu Lys Ser Thr Ser Leu Ser Leu Phe Tyr Lys Lys Val Tyr Arg 645 650 655 Leu Ala Tyr Leu Arg Leu Asn Thr Leu Cys Glu Arg Leu Leu Ser Glu 660 665 670 His Pro Glu Leu Glu His Ile Ile Trp Thr Leu Phe Gln His Thr Leu 675 680 685 Gln Asn Glu Tyr Glu Leu Met Arg Asp Arg His Leu Asp Gln Ile Met 690 695 700 Met Cys Ser Met Tyr Gly Ile Cys Lys Val Lys Asn Ile Asp Leu Lys 705 710 715 720 Phe Lys Ile Ile Val Thr Ala Tyr Lys Asp Leu Pro His Ala Val Gln 725 730 735 Glu Thr Phe Lys Arg Val Leu Ile Lys Glu Glu Glu Tyr Asp Ser Ile 740 745 750 Ile Val Phe Tyr Asn Ser Val Phe Met Gln Arg Leu Lys Thr Asn Ile 755 760 765 Leu Gln Tyr Ala Ser Thr Arg Pro Pro Thr Leu Ser Pro Ile Pro His 770 775 780 Ile Pro Arg Ser Pro Tyr Lys Phe Pro Ser Ser Pro Leu Arg Ile Pro 785 790 795 800 Gly Gly Asn Ile Tyr Ile Ser Pro Leu Lys Ser Pro Tyr Lys Ile Ser 805 810 815 Glu Gly Leu Pro Thr Pro Thr Lys Met Thr Pro Arg Ser Arg Ile Leu 820 825 830 Val Ser Ile Gly Glu Ser Phe Gly Thr Ser Glu Lys Phe Gln Lys Ile 835 840 845 Asn Gln Met Val Cys Asn Ser Asp Arg Val Leu Lys Arg Ser Ala Glu 850 855 860 Gly Ser Asn Pro Pro Lys Pro Leu Lys Lys Leu Arg Phe Asp Ile Glu 865 870 875 880 Gly Ser Asp Glu Ala Asp Gly Ser Lys His Leu Pro Gly Glu Ser Lys 885 890 895 Phe Gln Gln Lys Leu Ala Glu Met Thr Ser Thr Arg Thr Arg Met Gln 900 905 910 Lys Gln Lys Met Asn Asp Ser Met Asp Thr Ser Asn Lys Glu Glu Lys 915 920 925 9 30 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Oligonucleotide 9 ttctgtagtt taattttctg aacctttggc 30 10 27 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial Sequence Oligonucleotide 10 tcagccgaag agcttcagga agcaggg 27 11 32 PRT Homo sapien VARIANT (2)..(3) VARIANT (6)..(13) VARIANT (15) VARIANT (17)..(18) VARIANT (20)..(21) VARIANT (23)..(28) VARIANT (30)..(31) 11 Cys Xaa Xaa Cys Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Cys Xaa His 1 5 10 15 Xaa Xaa Cys Xaa Xaa Cys Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Cys Xaa Xaa Cys 20 25 30 12 50 PRT Homo sapien VARIANT (2)..(3) VARIANT (5)..(20) VARIANT (22)..(23) VARIANT (25)..(26) VARIANT (28)..(29) VARIANT (31)..(46) VARIANT (48)..(49) 12 Cys Xaa Xaa Cys Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa 1 5 10 15 Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa His Xaa Xaa Cys Xaa Xaa Cys Xaa Xaa Cys Xaa Xaa 20 25 30 Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Cys Xaa 35 40 45 Xaa Cys 50
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US820290511 May 201019 Jun 2012Androscience CorporationCompounds with (substituted phenyl)-propenal moiety, their derivatives, biological activity, and use thereof
US82368528 Jan 20087 Aug 2012Androscience CorporationCompounds with (substituted phenyl)-propenal moiety, their derivatives, biological activity, and use thereof
US871027218 Jun 201229 Apr 2014Androscience CorporationCompounds with (1 E, 6E)-1,7-bis-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4,4-disubstituted-hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione structural scaffold, their biological activity, and uses thereof
US900022218 Jun 20137 Apr 2015Androscience CorporationCompounds with (1E, 6E)-1,7-bis-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4,4-disubstituted-hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione structural scaffold, their biological activity, and uses thereof
US944612731 Jul 200820 Sep 2016Androscience CorporationCompositions including androgen receptor degradation (ARD) enhancers and methods of prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of skin disorders and hair loss
US956202516 Feb 20167 Feb 2017Allianz Pharmascience Ltd.Compounds with (1E, 6E)-1,7-Bis-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-4-distributed-hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione structural scaffold, their biological activity, and uses thereof
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Classifications
U.S. Classification435/6.14, 435/325, 435/69.1, 435/7.2, 435/320.1, 530/350, 536/23.5
International ClassificationC07K14/47, C07K14/72
Cooperative ClassificationG01N2333/723, C07K14/721, C07K14/4705
European ClassificationC07K14/72A, C07K14/47A1B
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