Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS20030032874 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/916,711
Publication date13 Feb 2003
Filing date27 Jul 2001
Priority date27 Jul 2001
Also published asDE60213096D1, EP1411823A2, EP1411823B1, EP1669022A2, EP1669022A3, US7471972, US8509871, US9328371, US20050103625, US20090045055, US20130299350, US20160178558, WO2003011131A2, WO2003011131A3
Publication number09916711, 916711, US 2003/0032874 A1, US 2003/032874 A1, US 20030032874 A1, US 20030032874A1, US 2003032874 A1, US 2003032874A1, US-A1-20030032874, US-A1-2003032874, US2003/0032874A1, US2003/032874A1, US20030032874 A1, US20030032874A1, US2003032874 A1, US2003032874A1
InventorsRathbun Rhodes, Mark Tapsak, James Brauker, Mark Shults
Original AssigneeDexcom, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Sensor head for use with implantable devices
US 20030032874 A1
Abstract
The present invention provides a sensor head for use in an implantable device that measures the concentration of an analyte in a biological fluid which includes: a non-conductive body; a working electrode, a reference electrode and a counter electrode, wherein the electrodes pass through the non-conductive body forming an electrochemically reactive surface at one location on the body and forming an electronic connection at another location on the body, further wherein the electrochemically reactive surface of the counter electrode is greater than the surface area of the working electrode; and a multi-region membrane affixed to the nonconductive body and covering the working electrode, reference electrode and counter electrode. In addition, the present invention provides an implantable device including at least one of the sensor heads of the invention and methods of monitoring glucose levels in a host utilizing the implantable device of the invention.
Images(16)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(33)
What is claimed is:
1. A sensor head for use in an analyte measuring device comprising:
a) a non-conductive body;
b) a working electrode, a reference electrode and a counter electrode, wherein said electrodes pass through said non-conductive body forming an electrochemically reactive surface at one location on said body and an electronic connection at another location on said body, further wherein said electrochemical reactive surface of said counter electrode is greater than the surface area of said working electrode; and
c) a multi-region membrane affixed over said non-conductive body and covering said working electrode, reference electrode and counter electrode.
2. A sensor head for use in an implantable analyte measuring device comprising:
a) a non-conductive body;
b) a working electrode, a reference electrode and a counter electrode, wherein said electrodes pass through said non-conductive body forming an electrochemically reactive surface at one location on said body and an electronic connection at another location on said body, further wherein said electrochemical reactive surface of said counter electrode is greater than the surface area of said working electrode; and
c) a multi-region membrane affixed over said non-conductive body and covering said working electrode, reference electrode and counter electrode.
3. A sensor head according to claim 1 wherein said multi-region membrane comprises an oxygen antenna domain.
4. A sensor head according to claim 2 wherein said multi-region membrane comprises an oxygen antenna domain.
5. A sensor head according to claim 2 wherein said multi-region membrane comprises a first region distant from said electrochemically reactive surfaces, a second region less distant from said electrochemically reactive surfaces and a third region adjacent to said electrochemically reactive surfaces.
6. A sensor head according to claim 5 wherein said first region comprises a cell disruptive domain distant from said electrochemically reactive surfaces and a cell impermeable domain less distant from said electrochemically reactive surfaces.
7. A sensor head according to claim 5 wherein said second region is a glucose exclusion domain.
8. A sensor head according to claim 5 wherein said third region comprises an immobilized enzyme domain distant from said electrochemically reactive surfaces, an interference domain less distant from said electrochemically reactive surfaces than said immobilized enzyme domain and a hydrogel domain adjacent to said electrochemically reactive surfaces.
9. A sensor head according to claim 8 wherein said third region further comprises a resistance domain more distant from said electrochemically reactive surfaces than said immobilized enzyme domain.
10. A sensor head according to claim 5 wherein said first region is permeable to oxygen and glucose.
11. A sensor head according to claim 5 wherein said second region is permeable to oxygen and interferes with glucose transport across said membrane, further wherein said second region does not cover the working electrode.
12. A sensor head according to claim 2 wherein said multi-region membrane comprises a first region distant from said electrochemically reactive surfaces and a further region adjacent to said electrochemically reactive surfaces.
13. A sensor head according to claim 12 wherein said first region comprises a cell disruptive domain distant from said electrochemically reactive surfaces and a cell impermeable domain less distant from said electrochemically reactive surfaces.
14. A sensor head according to claim 12 wherein said further region comprises an immobilized enzyme domain distant from said electrochemically reactive surfaces, an interference domain less distant from said electrochemically reactive surfaces than said immobilized enzyme domain and a hydrogel domain adjacent to said electrochemically reactive surfaces.
15. A sensor head according to claim 14 wherein said further region further comprises a resistance domain more distant from said electrochemically reactive surfaces than said immobilized enzyme domain.
16. A sensor head according to claim 12 wherein said further region comprises a portion positioned over only said counter electrode that reduces the consumption of oxygen above said counter electrode.
17. A sensor head according to claim 16 wherein said portion of said further region comprises silicone.
18. A sensor head according to claim 14 wherein an active enzyme of the immobilized enzyme domain of said further region is positioned only over the working electrode.
19. A sensor head according to claim 14 wherein an inactive enzyme of the immobilized enzyme domain of said further region is positioned only over the reference electrode and the counter electrode.
20. A sensor head according to claim 14 wherein said further region is positioned only over said working electrode.
21. A sensor head according to claim 2 wherein said non-conductive body is made of ceramic or glass.
22. A sensor head according to claim 2 wherein said non-conductive body is made of plastic or polymer.
23. A sensor head according to claim 2 wherein said working electrode is made of platinum.
24. A sensor head according to claim 2 wherein said counter electrode is made of platinum or gold.
25. A sensor head according to claim 2 wherein said electrochemically reactive surface of said counter electrode is greater than or equal to about two times the surface area of the working electrode and is less than or equal to about 100 times the surface area of the working electrode.
26. A sensor head according to claim 2 wherein said electrode is greater than or equal to about two times the surface area of the working electrode and is less than or equal to about 50 times the surface area of the working electrode.
27. A sensor head according to claim 2 wherein said electrochemically reactive surface of said counter electrode is greater than or equal to about two times the surface area of the working electrode and is less than or equal to about 25 times the surface area of the working electrode.
28. A sensor head according to claim 2 wherein said electrochemically reactive surface of said counter electrode is greater than or equal to about two times the surface area of the working electrode and is less than or equal to about 10 times the surface area of the working electrode.
29. An implantable device for measuring an analyte in a biological fluid comprising at least one sensor head according to claim 2.
30. A method of monitoring glucose levels, comprising:
a) providing i) a host, and ii) an implantable device according to claim 29; and
b) implanting said device in said host.
31. A method according to claim 30 wherein said implanting is subcutaneous.
32. A method of measuring glucose in a biological fluid, comprising;
a) providing i) a host, and ii) an implantable device according to claim 29, said sensor head being capable of accurate continuous glucose sensing; and
b) implanting said device in said host.
33. A method according to claim 32, wherein said implanting is subcutaneous.
Description
    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates generally to novel sensor heads utilized with implantable devices, devices including these sensor heads and methods for determining analyte levels using these implantable devices. More particularly, the invention relates to sensor heads, implantable devices including these sensor heads and methods for monitoring glucose levels in a biological fluid using these devices.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    Amperometric electrochemical sensors require a counter electrode to balance the current generated by the species being measured at the working electrode. In the case of a glucose oxidase based glucose sensor, the species being measured at the working electrode is H2O2. Glucose oxidase catalyzes the conversion of oxygen and glucose to hydrogen peroxide and gluconate according to the following reaction:
  • Glucose+O2→Gluconate+H2O2
  • [0003]
    Because for each glucose molecule metabolized, there is a proportional change in the product H2O2, one can monitor the change in H2O2 to determine glucose concentration. Oxidation of H2O2 by the working electrode is balanced by reduction of ambient oxygen, enzyme generated H2O2, or other reducible species at the counter electrode. In vivo glucose concentration may vary from about one hundred times or more that of the oxygen concentration. Consequently, oxygen becomes a limiting reactant in the electrochemical reaction and when insufficient oxygen is provided to the sensor, the sensor will be unable to accurately measure glucose concentration. Those skilled in the art have come to interpret oxygen limitations resulting in depressed function as being a problem of availability of oxygen to the enzyme.
  • [0004]
    As shown in FIG. 1, the sensor head 10 includes a working electrode 21 (anode), counter electrode 22 (cathode), and reference electrode 20 which are affixed to the head by both brazing 26 the electrode metal to the ceramic and potting with epoxy 28. The working electrode 21 (anode) and counter-electrode 22 (cathode) of a glucose oxidase-based glucose sensor head 10 require oxygen in different capacities. Prior art teaches an enzyme-containing membrane that resides above an amperometric electrochemical sensor. In FIG. 1, region 32 includes an immobilized enzyme, i.e. glucose oxidase. Within the enzyme layer above the working electrode 21, oxygen is required for the production of H2O2 from glucose. The H2O2 produced from the glucose oxidase reaction further reacts at surface 21 a of working electrode 21 and produces two electrons. The products of this reaction are two protons (2H+), two electrons (2e), and one oxygen molecule (O2) (Fraser, D. M. “An Introduction to In Vivo Biosensing: Progress and problems.” In “Biosensors and the Body,” D. M. Fraser, ed., 1997, pp. 1-56 John Wiley and Sons, New York). In theory, the oxygen concentration near the working electrode 21, which is consumed during the glucose oxidase reaction, is replenished by the second reaction at the working electrode. Therefore, the net consumption of oxygen is zero. In practice, neither all of the H2O2 produced by the enzyme diffuses to the working electrode surface nor does all of the oxygen produced at the electrode diffuse to the enzyme domain.
  • [0005]
    With further reference to FIG. 1, the counter electrode 22 utilizes oxygen as an electron acceptor. The most likely reducible species for this system are oxygen or enzyme generated peroxide (Fraser, D. M. supra). There are two main pathways by which oxygen may be consumed at the counter electrode 22. These are a four-electron pathway to produce hydroxide and a two-electron pathway to produce hydrogen peroxide. The two-electron pathway is shown in FIG. 1. Oxygen is further consumed above the counter electrode by the glucose oxidase in region 32. Due to the oxygen consumption by both the enzyme and the counter electrode, there is a net consumption of oxygen at the surface 22 a of the counter electrode. Theoretically, in the domain of the working electrode there is significantly less net loss of oxygen than in the region of the counter electrode. In addition, there is a close correlation between the ability of the counter electrode to maintain current balance and sensor function. Taken together, it appears that counter electrode function becomes limited before the enzyme reaction becomes limited when oxygen concentration is lowered.
  • [0006]
    Those practicing in the field of implantable glucose oxidase sensors have focused on improving sensor function by increasing the local concentration of oxygen in the region of the working electrode. (Fraser, D. M. supra).
  • [0007]
    We have observed that in some cases, loss of glucose oxidase sensor function may not be due to a limitation of oxygen in the enzyme layer near the working electrode, but may instead be due to a limitation of oxygen at the counter electrode. In the presence of increasing glucose concentrations, a higher peroxide concentration results, thereby increasing the current at the working electrode. When this occurs, the counter electrode limitation begins to manifest itself as this electrode moves to increasingly negative voltages in the search for reducible species. When a sufficient supply of reducible species, such as oxygen, are not available, the counter electrode voltage reaches a circuitry limit of −0.6V resulting in compromised sensor function (see FIG. 3).
  • [0008]
    [0008]FIG. 3 shows simultaneous measurement of counter-electrode voltage and sensor output to glucose levels from a glucose sensor implanted subcutaneously in a canine host. It can be observed that as glucose levels increase, the counter electrode voltage decreases. When the counter electrode voltage reaches −0.6V, the signal to noise ratio increases significantly. This reduces the accuracy of the device. FIG. 4 shows a further example of another glucose sensor in which the counter-electrode reaches the circuitry limit. Again, once the counter electrode reaches −0.6V, the sensitivity and/or signal to noise ratio of the device is compromised. In both of these examples, glucose levels reached nearly 300 mg/dl. However, in FIG. 3 the sensor showed a greater than three-fold higher current output than the sensor in FIG. 4. These data suggest that there may be a limitation of reducible species at the counter electrode, which may limit the sensitivity of the device as the glucose levels increase. In contrast, FIG. 5 shows a glucose sensor in which the counter electrode voltage did not reach −0.6V. In FIG. 5 it can be observed that the sensor was able to maintain a current balance between the working and counter electrodes, thereby enabling accurate measurements throughout the course of the experiment. The results shown in FIGS. 3, 4 and 5 led the present inventors to postulate that by keeping the counter electrode from reaching the circuitry limit, one could maintain sensitivity and accuracy of the device.
  • [0009]
    Two approaches have been utilized by others to relieve the counter electrode limitation described above. The first approach involves the widening of the potential range over which the counter electrode can move in the negative direction to avoid reaching circuitry limitations. Unfortunately, this approach increases undesirable products that are produced at lower potentials. One such product, hydrogen, may form at the counter electrode, which may then diffuse back to the working electrode. This may contribute to additional current resulting in erroneously high glucose concentration readings. Additionally, at these increasingly negative potentials, the probability of passivating or poisoning the counter electrode greatly increases. This effectively reduces the counter electrode surface area requiring a higher current density at the remaining area to maintain current balance. Furthermore, increased current load increases the negative potentials eventually resulting in electrode failure.
  • [0010]
    The second approach is utilizing the metal case of the device as a counter electrode (see U.S. Pat. No. 4,671,288, Gough or U.S. Pat. No. 5,914,026, Blubaugh). This provides an initial excess in surface area which is expected to serve the current balancing needs of the device over its lifetime. However, when the counter electrode reaction is a reduction reaction, as in Blubaugh, the normally present metal oxide layer will be reduced to bare metal over time leaving the surface subject to corrosion, poisoning, and eventual cascade failure. This problem is magnified when considering the various constituents of the body fluid that the metal casing is exposed to during in vivo use. To date, there has been no demonstration of long-term performance of such a device with this counter electrode geometry.
  • [0011]
    Consequently, there is a need for a sensor that will provide accurate analyte measurements, that reduces the potential for cascade failure due to increasing negative potentials, corrosion and poisoning, and that will function effectively and efficiently in low oxygen concentration environments.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0012]
    In one aspect of the present invention, a sensor head for use in a device that measures the concentration of an analyte in a biological fluid is provided that includes a nonconductive body; a working electrode, a reference electrode and a counter electrode, wherein the electrodes pass through the non-conductive body forming an electrochemically reactive surface at one location on the body and forming an electronic connection at another location on the body, and further wherein the electrochemically reactive surface of the counter electrode is greater than the surface area of the working electrode; and a multi-region membrane affixed to the nonconductive body and covering the working electrode, reference electrode and counter electrode.
  • [0013]
    In another aspect of the present invention, a sensor head for use in an implantable analyte measuring device is provided which includes the same sensor head components as those described above.
  • [0014]
    The sensor heads of the present invention include a multi-region membrane that controls the number of species that are able to reach the surface of the electrodes. In particular, such a membrane allows the passage of desired substrate molecules (e.g. oxygen and glucose) and rejects other larger molecules that may interfere with accurate detection of an analyte. The sensor heads of the present invention also provide a larger counter electrode reactive surface that balances the current between the working and counter electrodes, thereby minimizing negative potential extremes that may interfere with accurate analyte detection.
  • [0015]
    In another aspect of the present invention, an implantable device for measuring an analyte in a biological fluid is provided including at least one of the sensor heads described above. In still another aspect of the present invention, a method of monitoring glucose levels is disclosed which includes the steps of providing a host, and an implantable device as provided above and implanting the device in the host.
  • [0016]
    Further encompassed by the invention is a method of measuring glucose in a biological fluid including the steps of providing a host and a implantable device described above, which includes a sensor head capable of accurate continuous glucose sensing; and implanting the device in the host.
  • [0017]
    The sensor head, membrane architectures, devices and methods of the present invention allow for the collection of continuous information regarding desired analyte levels (e.g. glucose). Such continuous information enables the determination of trends in glucose levels, which can be extremely important in the management of diabetic patients.
  • [0018]
    Definitions
  • [0019]
    In order to facilitate an understanding of the present invention, a number of terms are defined below.
  • [0020]
    The term “sensor head” refers to the region of a monitoring device responsible for the detection of a particular analyte. The sensor head generally comprises a non-conductive body, a working electrode (anode), a reference electrode and a counter electrode (cathode) passing through and secured within the body forming an electrochemically reactive surface at one location on the body and an electronic connective means at another location on the body, and a multi-region membrane affixed to the body and covering the electrochemically reactive surface. The counter electrode has a greater electrochemically reactive surface area than the working electrode. During general operation of the sensor a biological sample (e.g., blood or interstitial fluid) or a portion thereof contacts (directly or after passage through one or more membranes or domains) an enzyme (e.g., glucose oxidase); the reaction of the biological sample (or portion thereof) results in the formation of reaction products that allow a determination of the analyte (e.g. glucose) level in the biological sample. In preferred embodiments of the present invention, the multi-region membrane further comprises an enzyme domain, and an electrolyte phase (i.e., a free-flowing liquid phase comprising an electrolyte-containing fluid described further below).
  • [0021]
    The term “analyte” refers to a substance or chemical constituent in a biological fluid (e.g., blood, interstitial fluid, cerebral spinal fluid, lymph fluid or urine) that can be analyzed. A preferred analyte for measurement by the sensor heads, devices and methods of the present invention is glucose.
  • [0022]
    The term “electrochemically reactive surface” refers to the surface of an electrode where an electrochemical reaction takes place. In the case of the working electrode, the hydrogen peroxide produced by the enzyme catalyzed reaction of the analyte being detected reacts creating a measurable electronic current (e.g. detection of glucose analyte utilizing glucose oxidase produces H2O2 peroxide as a by product, H2O2 reacts with the surface of the working electrode producing two protons (2H+), two electrons (2e) and one molecule of oxygen (O2) which produces the electronic current being detected). In the case of the counter electrode, a reducible species, e.g. O2 is reduced at the electrode surface in order to balance the current being generated by the working electrode.
  • [0023]
    The term “electronic connection” refers to any electronic connection known to those in the art that may be utilized to interface the sensor head electrodes with the electronic circuitry of a device such as mechanical (e.g., pin and socket) or soldered.
  • [0024]
    The term “domain” refers to regions of the membrane of the present invention that may be layers, uniform or non-uniform gradients (e.g. anisotropic) or provided as portions of the membrane.
  • [0025]
    The term “multi-region membrane” refers to a permeable membrane that may be comprised of two or more domains and constructed of biomaterials of a few microns thickness or more which are permeable to oxygen and may or may not be permeable to glucose. One of the the membranes may be placed over the sensor body to keep host cells (e.g., macrophages) from gaining proximity to, and thereby damaging, the enzyme membrane or forming a barrier cell layer and interfering with the transport of analyte across the tissue-device interface.
  • [0026]
    The phrase “distant from” refers to the spatial relationship between various elements in comparison to a particular point of reference. For example, some embodiments of a biological fluid measuring device comprise a multi-region membrane that may be comprised of a number of domains. If the electrodes of the sensor head are deemed to be the point of reference, and one of the multi-region membrane domains is positioned farther from the electrodes, than that domain is distant from the electrodes.
  • [0027]
    The term “oxygen antenna domain” and the like refers to a domain composed of a material that has higher oxygen solubility than aqueous media so that it concentrates oxygen from the biological fluid surrounding the biointerface membrane. The domain can then act as an oxygen reservoir during times of minimal oxygen need and has the capacity to provide on demand a higher oxygen gradient to facilitate oxygen transport across the membrane. This enhances function in the enzyme reaction domain and at the counter electrode surface when glucose conversion to hydrogen peroxide in the enzyme domain consumes oxygen from the surrounding domains. Thus, this ability of the oxygen antenna domain to apply a higher flux of oxygen to critical domains when needed improves overall sensor function.
  • [0028]
    The term “solid portions” and the like refer to a material having a structure that may or may not have an open-cell configuration but in either case prohibits whole cells from traveling through or residing within the material.
  • [0029]
    The term “substantial number” refers to the number of cavities or solid portions having a particular size within a domain in which greater than 50 percent of all cavities or solid portions are of the specified size, preferably greater than 75 percent and most preferably greater than 90 percent of the cavities or solid portions have the specified size.
  • [0030]
    The term “co-continuous” and the like refers to a solid portion wherein an unbroken curved line in three dimensions exists between any two points of the solid portion.
  • [0031]
    The term “host” refers to both humans and animals.
  • [0032]
    The term “accurately” means, for example, 90% of measured glucose values are within the “A” and “B” region of a standard Clarke error grid when the sensor measurements are compared to a standard reference measurement. It is understood that like any analytical device, calibration, calibration validation and recalibration are required for the most accurate operation of the device.
  • [0033]
    The phrase “continuous glucose sensing” refers to the period in which monitoring of plasma glucose concentration is continuously performed, for example, about every 10 minutes.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0034]
    [0034]FIG. 1 Illustration of thermodynamically favored reactions at the working electrode and counter electrode at the desired voltage potentials.
  • [0035]
    [0035]FIG. 2A depicts a cross-sectional exploded view of a sensor head of the present invention wherein the multi-region membrane comprises three regions.
  • [0036]
    [0036]FIG. 2B depicts a cross-sectional exploded view of a sensor head of the present invention wherein a portion of the second membrane region does not cover the working electrode.
  • [0037]
    [0037]FIG. 2C depicts a cross-sectional exploded view of a sensor head of the present invention which includes two distinct regions, wherein the region adjacent the electrochemically reactive surfaces includes a portion positioned over the counter electrode which corresponds to a silicone domain.
  • [0038]
    [0038]FIG. 2D depicts a cross-sectional exploded view of a sensor head of the present invention wherein an active enzyme of the immobilized enzyme domain is positioned only over the working electrode.
  • [0039]
    [0039]FIG. 2E depicts a cross-sectional exploded view of a sensor head of the present invention wherein the enzyme positioned over the counter electrode has been inactivated.
  • [0040]
    [0040]FIG. 2F depicts a cross-sectional exploded view of a sensor head of the present invention wherein the membrane region containing immobilized enzyme is positioned only over the working electrode.
  • [0041]
    [0041]FIG. 3 Illustration of an implantable glucose sensor's ability to measure glucose concentration during an infusion study in a canine when the counter electrode voltage drops to the electronic circuitry limit at approximately 0.75 hours wherein the sensor current output reaches 2.50 nA.
  • [0042]
    [0042]FIG. 4 Illustration of an implantable glucose sensor's ability to measure glucose concentration during an infusion study in a canine when the counter electrode voltage drops to the electronic circuitry limit after 0.5 hours wherein the sensor current output reaches 0.50 nA.
  • [0043]
    [0043]FIG. 5 Illustration of an implantable glucose sensor's ability to measure glucose concentration during an infusion study in a canine when the counter electrode voltage is maintained above the electronic circuitry limit.
  • [0044]
    [0044]FIG. 6A shows a schematic representation of a cylindrical analyte measuring device including a sensor head according to the present invention.
  • [0045]
    [0045]FIG. 6B is an exploded view of the sensor head of the device shown in FIG. 6A.
  • [0046]
    [0046]FIG. 7 Graphical representation of the function of a device of the present invention utilizing the multi-region membrane architecture of FIG. 2B in vitro at 400 mg/dL glucose.
  • [0047]
    [0047]FIG. 8 depicts a cross-sectional exploded view of the electrode and membrane regions of a prior sensor device where the electrochemical reactive surface of the counter electrode is substantially equal to the surface area of the working electrode.
  • [0048]
    [0048]FIG. 9 Graphical representation of the counter electrode voltage as a function of oxygen concentration at 400 mg/dL glucose for sensor devices including the membrane shown in FIG. 8.
  • DETILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0049]
    In a preferred embodiment, the sensor heads, devices and methods of the present invention may be used to determine the level of glucose or other analytes in a host. The level of glucose is a particularly important measurement for individuals having diabetes in that effective treatment depends on the accuracy of this measurement.
  • [0050]
    The present invention increases the effectiveness of counter electrode function by a method that does not depend on increasing the local concentration of oxygen. In a preferred embodiment, the counter electrode has an electrochemical reactive surface area greater than twice the surface area of the working electrode thereby substantially increasing the electrodes ability to utilize oxygen as a substrate. Further enhancement of the counter electrode's activity may be achieved if the electrode were made of gold. In a second preferred embodiment, the counter electrode has a textured surface, with surface topography that increases the surface area of the electrode while the diameter of the electrode remains constant. In a third preferred embodiment, the proximity of the glucose oxidase enzyme to the counter electrode may be decreased. Since the enzyme depletes oxygen locally, the counter electrode would best be situated at a location distant from the enzyme. This could be achieved by depleting the enzyme from or inactivating the enzyme located in the region near and over the counter electrode by methods known to those skilled in the art such as laser ablation, or chemical ablation. Alternatively, the membrane could be covered with an additional domain where glucose is selectively blocked from the area over the counter electrode.
  • [0051]
    In particular, the present invention reduces the potential for electrode poisoning by positioning all electrodes underneath a multi-region membrane so that there is control of the species reaching the electrode surfaces. These membranes allow passage of dissolved oxygen to support the counter electrode reactions at reasonable negative potentials while rejecting larger molecules which when reduced would coat the surface of the counter electrode eventually leading to cascade failure. The positioning of the counter electrode underneath the membrane assures that all currents are passing through the same conductive media, thereby reducing voltage losses due to membrane or solution resistance. In addition, the counter electrode will be able to collect enough species for the balancing current while minimizing the need to move towards negative potential extremes.
  • [0052]
    Although the description that follows is primarily directed at glucose monitoring sensor heads, devices and methods for their use, the sensor heads, devices and methods of the present invention are not limited to glucose measurement. Rather, the devices and methods may be applied to detect and quantitate other analytes present in biological fluids (including, but not limited to, amino acids and lactate), especially those analytes that are substrates for oxidase enzymes [see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,703,756 to Gough et al., hereby incorporated by reference].
  • [0053]
    I. Nature of the Foreign Body Capsule
  • [0054]
    Devices and probes that are implanted into subcutaneous tissue will almost always elicit a foreign body capsule (FBC) as part of the body's response to the introduction of a foreign material. Therefore, implantation of a glucose sensor results in an acute inflammatory reaction followed by building of fibrotic tissue. Ultimately, a mature FBC comprising primarily a vascular fibrous tissue forms around the device (Shanker and Greisler, Inflammation and Biomaterials in Greco R S, ed. Implantation Biology: The Host Response and Biomedical Devices, pp68-80, CRC Press (1994)).
  • [0055]
    In general, the formation of a FBC has precluded the collection of reliable, continuous information, reportedly because of poor vascularization (Updike, S. J. et al., “Principles of Long-term Fully Implanted Sensors with Emphasis on Radiotelemetric Monitoring of Blood Glucose from inside a Subcutaneous Foreign Body Capsule (FBC)” in “Biosensors and the Body,” D. M. Fraser, ed., 1997, pp. 117-38, John Wiley and Sons, New York). Thus, those skilled in the art have previously attempted to minimize FBC formation by, for example, using a short-lived needle geometry or sensor coatings to minimize the foreign body.
  • [0056]
    In contrast to the prior art, the teachings of the present invention recognize that FBC formation is the dominant event surrounding long-term implantation of any sensor and must be managed to support, rather than hinder or block, sensor performance. It has been observed that during the early periods following implantation of an analyte sensing device, particularly a glucose sensing device, that glucose sensors function well. However, after a few days to two or more weeks of implantation, these device lose their function.
  • [0057]
    We have observed that this lack of sensor function is most likely due to cells (barrier cells) that associate with the outer surface of the device and physically block the transport of glucose into the device (i.e. form a a barrier cell layer). Increased vascularization would not be expected to overcome this blockage. The present invention contemplates the use of particular biointerface membrane architectures that interfere with barrier cell layer formation on the membrane's surface. The present invention also contemplates the use of these membranes with a variety of implantable devices (e.g. analyte measuring devices particularly glucose measuring devices).
  • [0058]
    II. The Sensor Head
  • [0059]
    In one embodiment of the sensor head of the invention, the body is made of a non-conductive material such as ceramic, glass, or polymer.
  • [0060]
    In a preferred embodiment, the sensor head interface region may include several different layers and/or membranes that cover and protect the electrodes of an implantable analyte-measuring device. The characteristics of these layers and/or membranes are now discussed in more detail. The layers and/or membranes prevent direct contact of the biological fluid sample with the electrodes, while permitting selected substances (e.g., analytes) of the fluid to pass therethrough for reaction in an enzyme rich domain with subsequent electrochemical reaction of formed products at the electrodes.
  • [0061]
    It is well known in the art that electrode surfaces exposed to a wide range of biological molecules may suffer poisoning of catalytic activity and possible corrosion that could result in failure. However, utilizing the unique multi-region membrane architectures of the present invention, the active electrochemical surfaces of the sensor electrodes are preserved, retaining activity for extended periods of time in vivo. By limiting access to the electrochemically reactive surface of the electrodes to a small number of molecular species such as, for example, molecules having a molecular weight of about 34 Daltons (the molecular weight of peroxide) or less, only a small subset of the many molecular species present in biological fluids are permitted to contact the sensor. Use of such membranes has enabled sustained function of devices for over one year in vivo.
  • [0062]
    A. Multi-Region Membrane
  • [0063]
    The multi-region membrane is constructed of two or more regions. The multi-region membrane may be provided in a number of different architectures. In one architecture, the multi-region membrane includes a first region distant from the electrochemically reactive surfaces, a second region less distant from the electrochemically reactive surfaces and a third region adjacent to the electrochemically reactive surfaces. The first region includes a cell disruptive domain distant from the electrochemically reactive surfaces and a cell impermeable domain less distant from the electrochemically reactive surfaces. The second region is a glucose exclusion domain and the third region includes a resistance domain distant from the electrochemically reactive surfaces, an immobilized enzyme domain less distant from the electrochemically reactive surfaces, an interference domain less distant from the electrochemically reactive surfaces than the immobilized enzyme domain and a hydrogel domain adjacent to the electrochemically reactive surfaces.
  • [0064]
    In another architecture, the multi-region membrane includes a first region distant from the electrochemically reactive surfaces and a further region less distant from the electrochemically reactive surfaces. The first region includes a cell disruptive domain and a cell impermeable domain as described above. The “further region” includes a resistance domain, immobilized enzyme domain, interference domain, and hydrogel domain and serves as the equivalent of the “third region” described above. In certain embodiments of the sensor head, the multi-region membrane further includes an oxygen antenna domain. Each of these domains will now be described in further detail.
  • [0065]
    i. Cell Disruptive Domain
  • [0066]
    The domain of the multi-region membrane positioned most distal to the electrochemically reactive surfaces corresponds to the cell disruptive domain. This domain includes a material that supports tissue in-growth and may be vascularized. The cell disruptive domain prevents formation of the barrier cell layer on the surface of the membrane, which as described above, blocks the transport of glucose into the sensor device. A useful cell disruptive domain is described in a U.S. application entitled “Membrane for use with Implantable Devices” which was filed on the same day as the present application. The cell disruptive domain may be composed of an open-cell configuration having cavities and solid portions. Cells may enter into the cavities, however, they can not travel through or wholly exist within the solid portions. The cavities allow most substances to pass through, including, e.g., macrophages.
  • [0067]
    The open-cell configuration yields a co-continuous solid domain that contains greater than one cavity in three dimensions substantially throughout the entirety of the membrane. In addition, the cavities and cavity interconnections may be formed in layers having different cavity dimensions.
  • [0068]
    A linear line can be used to define a dimension across a cavity or solid portion the length of which is the distance between two points lying at the interface of the cavity and solid portion. In this way, a substantial number of the cavities are not less than 20 microns in the shortest dimension and not more than 1000 microns in the longest dimension. Preferably, a substantial number of the cavities are not less than 25 microns in the shortest dimension and not more than 500 microns in the longest dimension.
  • [0069]
    Furthermore, the solid portion has not less than 5 microns in a substantial number of the shortest dimensions and not more than 2000 microns in a substantial number of the longest dimensions. Preferably, the solid portion is not less than 10 microns in a substantial number of the shortest dimensions and not more than 1000 microns in a substantial number of the longest dimensions and most preferably, not less than 10 microns in a substantial number of the shortest dimensions and not more than 400 microns in a substantial number of the longest dimensions.
  • [0070]
    The solid portion may be made of polytetrafluoroethylene or polyethylene-cotetrafluoroethylene, for example. Preferably, the solid portion includes polyurethanes or block copolymers and, most preferably, includes silicone.
  • [0071]
    When non-woven fibers are utilized as the solid portion of the present invention, the non-woven fibers may be greater than 5 microns in the shortest dimension. Preferably, the non-woven fibers are about 10 microns in the shortest dimension and most preferably, the non-woven fibers are greater than or equal to 10 microns in the shortest dimension.
  • [0072]
    The non-woven fibers may be constructed of polypropylene (PP), polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polyether ether ketone (PEEK), polyurethanes, cellulosic polymers, polysulfones, and block copolymers thereof including, for example, di-block, tri-block, alternating, random and graft copolymers (block copolymers are discussed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,803,243 and 4,686,044, hereby incorporated by reference). Preferably, the non-woven fibers are comprised of polyolefins or polyester or polycarbonates or polytetrafluoroethylene.
  • [0073]
    A subset of the cell disruptive domain is the oxygen antenna domain. This domain can act as an oxygen reservoir during times of minimal oxygen need and has the capacity to provide on demand a higher oxygen gradient to facilitate oxygen transport across the membrane. This domain may be composed of a material such as silicone, that has higher oxygen solubility than aqueous media so that it concentrates oxygen from the biological fluid surrounding the biointerface membrane. This enhances function in the enzyme reaction domain and at the counter electrode surface when glucose conversion to hydrogen peroxide in the enzyme domain consumes oxygen from the surrounding domains. Thus, this ability of the oxygen antenna domain to apply a higher flux of oxygen to critical domains when needed improves overall sensor function. Preferably, this domain is composed of silicone and has a thickness of about 100 microns
  • [0074]
    The thickness of the cell disruptive domain is usually not less than about 20 microns and not more than about 2000 microns.
  • [0075]
    ii. Cell Impermeable Domain
  • [0076]
    The cell impermeable of the first region is positioned less distal to the electrochemically reactive surfaces than the cell disruptive domain of the same region. This domain is impermeable to host cells, such as macrophages. Cell impermeable domains are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,001,067, herein incorporated by reference, and in copending, commonly owned U.S. application entitled “Membrane for use with Implantable Devices”, Ser. No. ______, filed on even date herewith. The inflammatory response that initiates and sustains a FBC is associated with disadvantages in the practice of sensing analytes. Inflammation is associated with invasion of inflammatory response cells (e.g. macrophages) which have the ability to overgrow at the interface and form barrier cell layers, which may block transport of glucose across the biointerface membrane. These inflammatory cells may also biodegrade many artificial biomaterials (some of which were, until recently, considered nonbiodegradable). When activated by a foreign body, tissue macrophages degranulate, releasing from their cytoplasmic myeloperoxidase system hypochlorite (bleach) and other oxidative species. Hypochlorite and other oxidative species are known to break down a variety of polymers, including ether based polyurethanes, by a phenomenon referred to as environmental stress cracking. Alternatively, polycarbonate based polyurethanes are believed to be resistant to environmental stress cracking and have been termed biodurable. In addition, because hypochlorite and other oxidizing species are short-lived chemical species in vivo, biodegradation will not occur if macrophages are kept a sufficient distance from the enzyme active membrane.
  • [0077]
    The present invention contemplates the use of cell impermeable biomaterials of a few microns thickness or more (i.e., a cell impermeable domain) in most of its membrane architectures. This domain of the biointerface membrane is permeable to oxygen and may or may not be permeable to glucose and is constructed of biodurable materials (e.g. for period of several years in vivo) that are impermeable by host cells (e.g. macrophages) such as for example polymer blends of polycarbonate based polyurethane and PVP.
  • [0078]
    The thickness of the cell impermeable domain is not less than about 10 microns and not more than about 100 microns.
  • [0079]
    iii. Glucose Exclusion Domain
  • [0080]
    The glucose exclusion domain includes a thin, hydrophobic membrane that is non-swellable and blocks diffusion of glucose while being permeable to oxygen. The glucose exclusion domain serves to allow analytes and other substances that are to be measured or utilized by the sensor to pass through, while preventing passage of other substances. Preferably, the glucose exclusion domain is constructed of a material such as, for example, silicone.
  • [0081]
    The glucose exclusion domain has a preferred thickness not less than about 130 microns, more preferably not less than about 5 and not more than about 75 microns and most preferably not less than 15 microns and not more than about 50 microns.
  • [0082]
    iv. Resistance Domain
  • [0083]
    In one embodiment of the sensor head the “third region” or “further region” of the multi-region membrane includes a resistance domain. When present, the resistance domain is located more distal to the electrochemically reactive surfaces relative to other domains in this region. As described in further detail below, the resistance domain controls the flux of oxygen and glucose to the underlying enzyme domain. There is a molar excess of glucose relative to the amount of oxygen in samples of blood. Indeed, for every free oxygen molecule in extra-cellular fluid, there are typically more than 100 glucose molecules present [Updike et al., Diabetes Care 5:207-21(1982)]. However, an immobilized enzyme-based sensor using oxygen (O2) as cofactor must be supplied with oxygen in non-rate-limiting excess in order to respond linearly to changes in glucose concentration, while not responding to changes in oxygen tension. More specifically, when a glucose-monitoring reaction is oxygen-limited, linearity is not achieved above minimal concentrations of glucose. Without a semipermeable membrane over the enzyme domain, linear response to glucose levels can be obtained only up to about 40 mg/dL; however, in a clinical setting, linear response to glucose levels are desirable up to at least about 500 mg/dL.
  • [0084]
    The resistance domain includes a semipermeable membrane that controls the flux of oxygen and glucose to the underlying enzyme domain (i.e., limits the flux of glucose), rendering the necessary supply of oxygen in non-rate-limiting excess. As a result, the upper limit of linearity of glucose measurement is extended to a much higher value than that which could be achieved without the resistance domain. The devices of the present invention contemplate resistance domains including polymer membranes with oxygen-to-glucose permeability ratios of approximately 200: 1; as a result, one-dimensional reactant diffusion is adequate to provide excess oxygen at all reasonable glucose and oxygen concentrations found in the subcutaneous matrix [Rhodes et al., Anal. Chem., 66:1520-1529 (1994)].
  • [0085]
    In preferred embodiments, the resistance domain is constructed of a polyurethane urea/polyurethane-block-polyethylene glycol blend and has a thickness of not more than about 45 microns, more preferably not less than about 15 microns, and not more than about 40 microns and, most preferably, not less than about 20 microns, and not more than about 35 microns.
  • [0086]
    v. Immobilized Enzyme Domain
  • [0087]
    When the resistance domain is combined with the cell-impermeable domain, it is the immobilized enzyme domain which corresponds to the outermost domain of the “third region” or “further region”, i.e. it is located more distal to the electrochemically reactive surfaces as compared to the other domains in this region. In one embodiment, the enzyme domain includes glucose oxidase. In addition to glucose oxidase, the present invention contemplates the use of a domain impregnated with other oxidases, e.g., galactose oxidase or uricase, For an enzyme-based electrochemical glucose sensor to perform well, the sensor's response must neither be limited by enzyme activity nor cofactor concentration. Because enzymes, including glucose oxidase, are subject to deactivation as a function of ambient conditions, this behavior needs to be accounted for in constructing sensors for long-term use.
  • [0088]
    Preferably, the domain is constructed of aqueous dispersions of colloidal polyurethane polymers including the enzyme. Preferably, the coating has a thickness of not less than about 2.5 microns and not more than about 12.5 microns, preferably about 6.0 microns.
  • [0089]
    vi. Interference Domain
  • [0090]
    The interference domain in the “third region” or “further region” is located less distant from the electrochemically reactive surfaces than the immobilized enzyme domain in this same region. It includes a thin membrane that can limit diffusion of molecular weight species greater than 34 kD. The interference domain serves to allow analytes and other substances that are to be measured by the electrodes to pass through, while preventing passage of other substances, including potentially interfering substances. The interference domain is preferably constructed of a polyurethane.
  • [0091]
    The interference domain has a preferred thickness of not more than about 5 microns, more preferably not less than about 0.1 microns, and not more than about 5 microns and, most preferably, not less than about 0.5 microns, and not more than about 3 microns.
  • [0092]
    vii. Hydrogel Domain
  • [0093]
    The hydrogel domain is located adjacent to the electrochemically reactive surfaces. To ensure electrochemical reaction, the hydrogel domain includes a semipermeable coating that maintains hydrophilicity at the electrode region of the sensor interface. The hydrogel domain enhances the stability of the interference domain of the present invention by protecting and supporting the membrane that makes up the interference domain. Furthermore, the hydrogel domain assists in stabilizing operation of the device by overcoming electrode start-up problems and drifting problems caused by inadequate electrolyte. The buffered electrolyte solution contained in the hydrogel domain also protects against pH-mediated damage that may result from the formation of a large pH gradient between the hydrophobic interference domain and the electrode (or electrodes) due to the electrochemical activity of the electrode(s).
  • [0094]
    Preferably, the hydrogel domain includes a flexible, water-swellable, substantially solid gel-like film having a “dry film” thickness of not less than about 2.5 microns and not more than about 12.5 microns; preferably, the thickness is about 6.0 microns. “Dry film” thickness refers to the thickness of a cured film cast from a coating formulation onto the surface of the membrane by standard coating techniques
  • [0095]
    Suitable hydrogel domains are formed of a curable copolymer of a urethane polymer and a hydrophilic film-forming polymer. Particularly preferred coatings are formed of a polyurethane polymer having anionic carboxylate functional groups and non-ionic hydrophilic polyether segments, which is crosslinked in the present of polyvinylpyrrolidone and cured at a moderate temperature of about 50 C.
  • [0096]
    B. Electrolyte Phase
  • [0097]
    The electrolyte phase is a free-fluid phase including a solution containing at least one compound, usually a soluble chloride salt, that conducts electric current. The electrolyte phase flows over the electrodes and is in contact with the hydrogel domain. The devices of the present invention contemplate the use of any suitable electrolyte solution, including standard, commercially available solutions.
  • [0098]
    Generally speaking, the electrolyte phase should have the same or less osmotic pressure than the sample being analyzed. In preferred embodiments of the present invention, the electrolyte phase includes normal saline.
  • [0099]
    C. Membrane Architectures
  • [0100]
    Prior art teaches that an enzyme containing membrane that resides above an amperometric electrochemical sensor can possess the same architecture throughout the electrode surfaces. However, the function of converting glucose into hydrogen peroxide by glucose oxidase may only by necessary above the working electrode. In fact, it may be beneficial to limit the conversion of glucose into hydrogen peroxide above the counter electrode. Therefore, the present invention contemplates a number of membrane architectures that include a multi-region membrane wherein the regions include at least one domain.
  • [0101]
    Referring now to FIG. 2A, which shows one desired embodiment of the general architecture of a three region membrane, first region 33 is permeable to oxygen and glucose and includes a cell disruptive domain distant from the electrodes and a cell impermeable domain less distant from the electrodes. The second region 31 is permeable to oxygen and includes a glucose exclusion domain and region three 32 includes a resistance domain, distant from the electrochemically reactive surfaces, an immobilized enzyme domain less distant from the electrochemically reactive surfaces, an interference domain less distant from the electrochemically reactive surfaces than the immobilized enzyme and a hydrogel domain adjacent to the electrochemically reactive surfaces. The multi-region membrane is positioned over the sensor interface 30 of the non-conductive body 10, covering the working electrode 21, the reference electrode 20 and the counter electrode 22. The electrodes are brazed to the sensor head and back filled with epoxy 28.
  • [0102]
    In FIG. 2B, the glucose exclusion domain has been positioned over the electrochemically reactive surfaces such that it does not cover the working electrode 21. To illustrate this, a hole 35 has been created in the second region 31 and positioned directly above the working electrode 21. In this way, glucose is blocked from entering the underlying enzyme membrane above the counter electrode 22 and O2 is conserved above the counter electrode because it is not being consumed by the glucose oxidation reaction. The glucose-blocking domain is made of a material that allows sufficient O2 to pass to the counter electrode. The glucose-blocking domain may be made of a variety of materials such as silicone or silicone containing copolymers. Preferably, the glucose-blocking domain is made of silicone.
  • [0103]
    In FIG. 2C, the multi-region membrane is shown as being constructed of two regions: a first region 33 which includes a cell disruptive domain and a cell impermeable domain; and a further region 32. Region 32 is defined herein as including an enzyme immobilized domain, interference domain, and hydrogel domain and may also include a resistance domain. Region 32 is referred to as the “third region” in embodiments where the multi-region membrane includes three regions. In the embodiment shown, a silicone domain plug 36 positioned over the counter electrode 22 in order to eliminate the consumption of O2 above the counter electrode by the oxidation of glucose with glucose oxidase. The enzyme immobilized domain can be fabricated as previously described, then a hole punched into the domain. The silicone domain plug 36 may be cut to fit the hole, and then adhered into place, for example, with silicone adhesive (e.g., MED-1511, NuSil, Carpinteria, Calif.).
  • [0104]
    In FIG. 2D, the immobilized enzyme domain of the multi-region membrane can be fabricated such that active enzyme 37 is positioned only above the working electrode 21. In this architecture, the immobilized enzyme domain may be prepared so that the glucose oxidase only exists above the working electrode 21. During the preparation of the multi-region membrane, the immobilized enzyme domain coating solution can be applied as a circular region similar to the diameter of the working electrode. This fabrication can be accomplished in a variety of ways such as screen printing or pad printing. Preferably, the enzyme domain is pad printed during the enzyme membrane fabrication with equipment as available from Pad Print Machinery of Vermont (Manchester, Vt.). These architectures eliminate the consumption of O2 above the counter electrode 22 by the oxidation of glucose with glucose oxidase.
  • [0105]
    In FIG. 2E, the immobilized enzyme of the multi-region membrane in region 32 may be deactivated 38 except for the area covering the working electrode 21. In some of the previous membrane architectures, the glucose oxidase is distributed homogeneously throughout the immobilized enzyme domain. However, the active enzyme need only reside above the working electrode. Therefore, the enzyme may be deactivated 38 above the counter 22 and reference 20 electrodes by irradiation. A mask that covers the working electrode 21, such as those used for photolithography can be placed above the membrane. In this way, exposure of the masked membrane to ultraviolet light deactivates the glucose oxidase in all regions except that covered by the mask.
  • [0106]
    [0106]FIG. 2F shows an architecture in which the third region 32 which includes immobilized enzyme only resides over the working electrode 21. In this architecture, consumption of O2 above the counter electrode 22 by the oxidation of glucose with glucose oxidase is eliminated.
  • [0107]
    D. The Electrode Assembly
  • [0108]
    The electrode assembly of this invention comprises a non-conductive body and three electrodes affixed within the body having electrochemically reactive surfaces at one location on the body and an electronic connection means at another location on the body and may be used in the manner commonly employed in the making of amperometric measurements. A sample of the fluid being analyzed is placed in contact with a reference electrode, e.g., silver/silver-chloride, a working electrode which is preferably formed of platinum, and a counter electrode which is preferably formed of gold or platinum. The electrodes are connected to a galvanometer or polarographic instrument and the current is read or recorded upon application of the desired D.C. bias voltage between the electrodes.
  • [0109]
    The ability of the present device electrode assembly to accurately measure the concentration of substances such as glucose over a broad range of concentrations in fluids including undiluted whole blood samples enables the rapid and accurate determination of the concentration of those substances. That information can be employed in the study and control of metabolic disorders including diabetes.
  • [0110]
    The present invention contemplates several structural architectures that effectively increase the electrochemically reactive surface of the counter electrode. In one embodiment, the diameter of wire used to create the counter electrode is at least twice the diameter of the working electrode. In this architecture, it is preferable that the electrochemically reactive surface of the counter electrode be not less than about 2 and not more than about 100 times the surface area of the working electrode. More preferably, the electrochemically reactive surface of the counter electrode is not less than about 2 and not more than about 50, not less than about 2 and not more than about 25 or not less than about 2 and not more than about 10 times the surface area of the working electrode. In another embodiment, the electrochemically reactive surface is larger that the wire connecting this surface to the sensor head. In this architecture, the electrode could have a cross-sectional view that resembles a “T”. The present invention contemplates a variety of configurations of the electrode head that would provide a large reactive surface, while maintaining a relatively narrow connecting wire. Such configurations could be prepared by micromachining with techniques such as reactive ion etching, wet chemical etching and focused ion beam machining as available from Norsam Technologies (Santa Fe, N. Mex.).
  • [0111]
    In another embodiment, the diameter of the counter electrode is substantially similar to the working electrode; however, the surface of the counter electrode has been modified to increase the surface area such that it has at least twice the surface area of the working electrode. More specifically the counter electrodes surface may be textured, effectively increasing its surface area without significantly increasing its diameter. This may be accomplished by a variety of methods known to those skilled in the art including, such as acid etching. The electrochemically reactive surface may be provided in a variety of shapes and sizes (e.g. round, triangular, square or free form) provided that it is at least twice the surface area of the working electrode.
  • [0112]
    In all of the architectures described, the electrodes are prepared from a 0.020″ diameter wire having the desired modified reactive surface. The electrodes are secured inside the non-conductive body by brazing. The counter electrode is preferably made of gold or platinum.
  • [0113]
    III. Analyte Measuring Device
  • [0114]
    A preferred embodiment of an analyte measuring device including a sensor head according to the present invention is shown in FIG. 6A. In this embodiment, a ceramic body 1 and ceramic head 10 houses the sensor electronics that include a circuit board 2, a microprocessor 3, a battery 4, and an antenna 5. Furthermore, the ceramic body 1 and head 10 possess a matching taper joint 6 that is sealed with epoxy. The electrodes are subsequently connected to the circuit board via a socket 8.
  • [0115]
    As indicated in detail in FIG. 6B, three electrodes protrude through the ceramic head 10, a platinum working electrode 21, a platinum counter electrode 22 and a silver/silver chloride reference electrode 20. Each of these is hermetically brazed 26 to the ceramic head 10 and further secured with epoxy 28. The sensing region 24 is covered with a multi-region membrane described above and the ceramic head 10 contains a groove 29 so that the membrane may be affixed into place with an o-ring.
  • [0116]
    IV. Experimental
  • [0117]
    The following examples serve to illustrate certain preferred embodiments and aspects of the present invention and are not to be construed as limiting the scope thereof
  • [0118]
    In the preceding description and the experimental disclosure which follows, the following abbreviations apply: Eq and Eqs (equivalents); mEq (milliequivalents); M (molar); mM (millimolar) μM (micromolar); N (Normal); mol (moles); mmol (millimoles); μmol (micromoles); nmol (nanomoles); g (grams); mg (milligrams); μg (micrograms); Kg (kilograms); L (liters); mL (milliliters); dL (deciliters); μL (microliters); cm (centimeters); mm (millimeters); um (micrometers); nm (nanometers); h and hr (hours); min. (minutes); s and sec. (seconds); C. (degrees Centigrade); Astor Wax (Titusville, Pa.); BASF Wyandotte Corporation (Parsippany, N.J.); Data Sciences, Inc. (St. Paul, Minn.); DuPont (DuPont Co., Wilmington, Del.); Exxon Chemical (Houston, Tex.); GAF Corporation (New York, N.Y.); Markwell Medical (Racine, Wis.); Meadox Medical, Inc. (Oakland, N.J.); Mobay (Mobay Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pa.); NuSil Technologies (Carpenteria, Calif.) Sandoz (East Hanover, N.J.); and Union Carbide (Union Carbide Corporation; Chicago, Ill.).
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • [0119]
    Preparation of the Multi-region Membrane
  • [0120]
    A. Preparation of the First Region
  • [0121]
    The cell disruptive domain may be an ePTFE filtration membrane and the cell impermeable domain may then be coated on this domain layer. The cell impermeable domain was prepared by placing approximately 706 gm of dimethylacetamide (DMAC) into a 3L stainless steel bowl to which a polycarbonateurethane solution (1325 g, Chronoflex AR 25% solids in DMAC and 5100 cp) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (125 g, Plasdone K-90D) are added. The bowl was then fitted to a planetary mixer with a paddle type blade and the contents were stirred for 1 hour at room temperature. This solution was then coated on the cell disruptive domain by knife edge drawn at a gap of 0.006″ and dried at 60 C. for 24 hours.
  • [0122]
    Alternatively, the polyurethane polyvinylpyrrolidone solution prepared above can be coated onto a PET release liner using a knife over roll coating machine. This material is then dried at 305 F. for approximately 2 minutes. Next the ePTFE membrane is immersed in 50:50 (w/v) mixture of THF/DMAC and then placed atop the coated polyurethane polyvinylpyrrolidone material. Light pressure atop the assembly intimately embeds the ePTFE into the polyurethane polyvinylpyrrolidone. The membrane is then dried at 60 C. for 24 hours.
  • [0123]
    B. Preparation of the Glucose Exclusion Domain
  • [0124]
    An oxime cured silicone dispersion (NuSil Technologies, MED-6607) was cast onto a polypropylene sheet and cured at 40 C. for three days.
  • [0125]
    C. Preparation of the Third Region
  • [0126]
    The “third region” or “further region” includes a resistance domain, an immobilized enzyme domain, an interference domain and an hydrogel domain. The resistance domain was prepared by placing approximately 281 gm of dimethylacetamide into a 3 L stainless steel bowl to which a solution of polyetherurethaneurea (344 gm of Chronothane H, 29,750 cp at 25% solids in DMAC). To this mixture was added another polyetherurethaneurea (312 gm, Chronothane 1020, 6275 cp at 25% solids in DMAC.) The bowl was fitted to a planetary mixer with a paddle type blade and the contents were stirred for 30 minutes at room temperature. The resistance domain coating solutions produced is coated onto a PET release liner (Douglas Hansen Co., Inc. Minneapolis, Minn.) using a knife over roll set at a 0.012″ gap. This film is then dried at 305 F. The final film is approximately 0.0015″ thick.
  • [0127]
    The immobilized enzyme domain was prepared by placing 304 gm polyurethane latex (Bayhydrol 140AQ, Bayer, Pittsburgh, Pa.) into a 3 L stainless steel bowl to which 51 gm of pyrogen free water and 5.85 gm of glucose oxidase (Sigma type VII from Aspergillus niger) is added. The bowl was then fitted to a planetary mixer with a whisk type blade and the mixture was stirred for 15 minutes. Approximately 24 hr prior to coating a solution of glutaraldehyde (15.4 mL of a 2.5% solution in pyrogen free water) and 14 mL of pyrogen free water was added to the mixture. The solution was mixed by inverting a capped glass bottle by hand for about 3 minutes at room temperature. This mixture was then coated over the resistance domain with a #10 Mayer rod and dried above room temperature preferably at about 50 C.
  • [0128]
    The interference domain was prepared by placing 187 gm of tetrahydrofuran into a 500 mL glass bottle to which an 18.7 gm aliphatic polyetherurethane (Tecoflex SG-85A, Thermedics Inc., Woburn, Mass.) was added. The bottle was placed onto a roller at approximately 3 rpm within an oven set at 37 C. The mixture was allowed to roll for 24 hr. This mixture was coated over the dried enzyme domain using a flexible knife and dried above room temperature preferably at about 50 C.
  • [0129]
    The hydrogel domain was prepared by placing 388 gm of polyurethane latex (Bayhydrol 123, Bayer, Pittsburgh, Pa. in a 3 L stainless steel bowl to which 125 gm of pyrogen free water and 12.5 gm polyvinylpyrrolidone (Plasdone K-90D) was added. The bowl was then fitted to a planetary mixer with a paddle type blade and stirred for 1 hr at room temperature. Within 30 minutes of coating approximately 13.1 mL of carbodiimide (UCARLNK) was added and the solution was mixed by inverting a capped polyethylene jar by hand for about 3 min at room temperature. This mixture was coated over the dried interference domain with a #10 Mayer rod and dried above room temperature preferably at about 50 C.
  • [0130]
    In order to affix this multi-region membrane to a sensor head, it is first placed into buffer for about 2 minutes. It is then stretched over the nonconductive body of sensor head and affixed into place with an o-ring.
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • [0131]
    In vitro Evaluation of Sensor Devices
  • [0132]
    This example describes experiments directed at sensor function of several sensor devices contemplated by the present invention.
  • [0133]
    In vitro testing of the sensor devices was accomplished in a manner similar to that previously described. [Gilligan et al., Diabetes Care 17:882-887 (1994)]. Briefly, devices were powered on and placed into a polyethylene container containing phosphate buffer (450 ml, pH 7.30) at 37 C. The container was placed onto a shaker (Lab Line Rotator, model 1314) set to speed 2. The sensors were allowed to equilibrate for at least 30 minutes and their output value recorded. After this time, a glucose solution (9.2 ml of 100 mg/ml glucose in buffer) was added in order to raise the glucose concentration to 200 mg/dl within the container. The sensors were allowed to equilibrate for at least 30 minutes and their output value recorded. Again, a glucose solution (9.4 ml of 100 mg/ml glucose in buffer) was added in order to raise the glucose concentration to 400 mg/dl within the container. The sensors were allowed to equilibrate for at least 30 minutes and their output value recorded. In this way, the sensitivity of the sensor to glucose is given as the slope of sensor output versus glucose concentration. The container was then fitted with an O2 meter (WTW, model Oxi-340) and a gas purge. A mixture of compressed air and nitrogen was used to decrease the O2 concentration. Sensor output was recorded at an ambient O2 level, then sensor output was recorded for the following O2 concentrations; 1 mg/L, 0.85 to 0.75 mg/L, 0.65 to 0.55 mg/L and 0.40 to 0.30 mg/L. In this way, the function of the sensor could be compared to its function at ambient O2.
  • [0134]
    Sensor devices like the one shown in FIGS. 6A and 6B, which included inventive sensor heads having a multi-region membrane with the architecture shown in FIG. 2B, were tested in vitro. Eight of these devices were fitted with membranes that possessed a 0.020″ diameter hole, four with a 0.0015″ thick polyurethane (Chronoflex AR, CardioTech International Inc.) and four with a 0.032″ thick silicone (MED-1511, NuSil Technologies Inc.). The hole was positioned above the working electrode and both membranes were secured to the device with an o-ring. Four control devices were also tested which were fitted with a multi-region membrane which lacked region 31 shown in FIB. 2B.
  • [0135]
    As discussed above, for oxygen to be consumed in the sensing region 32 above the electrodes, glucose is required. By placing region 31 shown in FIG. 2B, which includes a glucose blocking domain, above all areas other than above the working electrode 21, oxygen consumption in areas other than working electrode areas is limited. In contrast, by eliminating region 31 in the control devices, less overall oxygen becomes available to electrode surfaces due to the increased availability of glucose.
  • [0136]
    The devices were activated, placed into a 500 ml-polyethylene container with sodium phosphate buffered solution (300 ml, pH 7.3) and allowed to equilibrate. Each device's baseline value was recorded. Then 12 ml of glucose solution (100 mg/ml in sodium phosphate buffer) was added to the container so that the total glucose concentration became 400 mg/dL. After this, the container was covered and fitted with an oxygen sensor and a source of nitrogen and compressed air. In this way, the oxygen concentration was controlled with a gas sparge. A glucose value was recorded for each device at decreasing oxygen concentrations from ambient to approximately 0.1 mg/L.
  • [0137]
    [0137]FIG. 7 graphically represents the formation of a device of the present invention utilizing the multi-region membrane architecture in FIG. 2B in vitro. The data is expressed in percent Device Function at 400 mg/dL glucose vs. oxygen concentration. The percent function of the device is simply the device output at any given oxygen concentration divided by that device's output at ambient oxygen. The results from FIG. 7 indicate that inventive sensor devices containing the silicone membrane have better function at lower oxygen concentrations relative to both the control devices and the devices containing the polyurethane membrane. For example, at an oxygen concentration of about 0.5 mg/L, devices containing the silicone membrane are providing 100% output as compared to 80% output for the control devices.
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • [0138]
    The Effect of Varying the Size and Material of the Counter Electrode on Sensor Response and Accuracy
  • [0139]
    An in vitro testing procedure used in this example was similar to that described in Example 2. Six devices similar to the one shown in FIGS. 6A and 6B were fitted with the multi-region membrane described herein. Two of these tested devices were comparative devices that possessed Pt counter electrodes having a 0.020″ diameter; this diameter provided for an electrochemically reactive surface of the counter electrode which was substantially equal to the surface area of the working electrode, as schematically shown in FIG. 8. In FIG. 8, the electrode-membrane region includes two distinct regions, the compositions and functions of which have already been described. Region 32 includes an immobilized enzyme. Region 33 includes a cell disruptive domain and a cell impermeable domain. The top ends of electrodes 21 (working), 20 (reference) and 22 (counter) are in contact with an electrolyte phase 30, a free-flowing phase. Two other tested devices possessed Pt counter electrodes having a 0.060″ diameter. Finally, two additional devices possessed Au counter electrodes having a 0.060″ diameter. The 0.006″ diameter devices provided for an electrochemically reactive surface of the counter electrode which was approximately six times the surface area of the working electrode. Each of the devices including counter electrodes of 0.060″ diameter include a multi-region membrane above the electrode region which is similar to that shown in FIG. 8.
  • [0140]
    The devices were activated, placed into a 500 ml-polyethylene container with sodium phosphate buffered solution (300 ml, pH 7.3) and allowed to equilibrate. Each device's baseline value was recorded. Then 12ml of glucose solution (100 mg/ml in sodium phosphate buffer) was added to the container so that the total glucose concentration became 400 mg/dL. After this, the container was covered and fitted with an oxygen sensor and a source of nitrogen and compressed air. In this way, the oxygen concentration was controlled with a gas sparge. A counter electrode voltage was recorded for each device at decreasing oxygen concentrations from ambient to approximately 0.1 mg/L.
  • [0141]
    [0141]FIG. 9 graphically presents the counter electrode voltage as a function of oxygen concentration and 400 mg/dL glucose. This figure demonstrates that both the large Pt and Au counter electrode devices do not begin to reach the circuitry limits at low oxygen concentrations. Therefore, increased performance and accuracy can be obtained from a counter electrode that has an electrochemical reactive surface greater than the surface area of the working electrode.
  • [0142]
    The description and experimental materials presented above are intended to be illustrative of the present invention while not limiting the scope thereof. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that variations and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.
Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4353888 *23 Dec 198012 Oct 1982Sefton Michael VEncapsulation of live animal cells
US4431004 *27 Oct 198114 Feb 1984Bessman Samuel PImplantable glucose sensor
US4436094 *27 Jan 198213 Mar 1984Evreka, Inc.Monitor for continuous in vivo measurement of glucose concentration
US4453537 *4 Aug 198112 Jun 1984Spitzer Daniel EApparatus for powering a body implant device
US4484987 *19 May 198327 Nov 1984The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaMethod and membrane applicable to implantable sensor
US4686044 *9 Dec 198511 Aug 1987Akzo NvPolycarbonate-polyether-copolymer membrane
US4703756 *6 May 19863 Nov 1987The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaComplete glucose monitoring system with an implantable, telemetered sensor module
US4757022 *19 Nov 198712 Jul 1988Markwell Medical Institute, Inc.Biological fluid measuring device
US4759828 *9 Apr 198726 Jul 1988Nova Biomedical CorporationGlucose electrode and method of determining glucose
US4787398 *25 Jul 198629 Nov 1988Garid, Inc.Glucose medical monitoring system
US4803243 *25 Mar 19877 Feb 1989Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd.Block-graft copolymer
US4823808 *6 Jul 198725 Apr 1989Clegg Charles TMethod for control of obesity, overweight and eating disorders
US4871440 *6 Jul 19883 Oct 1989Daiken Industries, Ltd.Biosensor
US4890620 *17 Feb 19882 Jan 1990The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaTwo-dimensional diffusion glucose substrate sensing electrode
US4902294 *30 Nov 198720 Feb 1990Olivier GosserezImplantable mammary prosthesis adapted to combat the formation of a retractile shell
US4994167 *7 Jul 198819 Feb 1991Markwell Medical Institute, Inc.Biological fluid measuring device
US5165407 *9 Apr 199124 Nov 1992The University Of KansasImplantable glucose sensor
US5171689 *18 Apr 198915 Dec 1992Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Solid state bio-sensor
US5190041 *27 Dec 19912 Mar 1993Palti Yoram ProfSystem for monitoring and controlling blood glucose
US5314471 *1 Apr 199224 May 1994Baxter International Inc.Tissue inplant systems and methods for sustaining viable high cell densities within a host
US5321414 *20 Aug 199314 Jun 1994Her Majesty In Right Of Canada As Represented By The Minister Of CommunicationsDual polarization dipole array antenna
US5322063 *4 Oct 199121 Jun 1994Eli Lilly And CompanyHydrophilic polyurethane membranes for electrochemical glucose sensors
US5344454 *1 Apr 19926 Sep 1994Baxter International Inc.Closed porous chambers for implanting tissue in a host
US5380536 *5 Aug 199110 Jan 1995The Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas SystemBiocompatible microcapsules
US5384028 *27 Aug 199324 Jan 1995Nec CorporationBiosensor with a data memory
US5390671 *15 Mar 199421 Feb 1995Minimed Inc.Transcutaneous sensor insertion set
US5391250 *15 Mar 199421 Feb 1995Minimed Inc.Method of fabricating thin film sensors
US5417395 *30 Jun 199323 May 1995Medex, Inc.Modular interconnecting component support plate
US5421923 *3 Dec 19936 Jun 1995Baxter International, Inc.Ultrasonic welding horn with sonics dampening insert
US5431160 *9 Nov 199311 Jul 1995University Of New MexicoMiniature implantable refillable glucose sensor and material therefor
US5453278 *28 Jan 199426 Sep 1995Baxter International Inc.Laminated barriers for tissue implants
US5462064 *14 Mar 199431 Oct 1995International Medical Associates, Inc.Integrated system for biological fluid constituent analysis
US5469846 *27 Sep 199428 Nov 1995Duquesne University Of The Holy GhostImplantable non-enzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor
US5476094 *15 Nov 199319 Dec 1995Eli Lilly And CompanyAcrylic copolymer membranes for biosensors
US5497772 *19 Nov 199312 Mar 1996Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific ResearchGlucose monitoring system
US5538511 *25 Apr 199523 Jul 1996Minimed Inc.Indwelling catheter with stable enzyme coating
US5545223 *30 Mar 199513 Aug 1996Baxter International, Inc.Ported tissue implant systems and methods of using same
US5549675 *11 Jan 199427 Aug 1996Baxter International, Inc.Method for implanting tissue in a host
US5569186 *25 Apr 199429 Oct 1996Minimed Inc.Closed loop infusion pump system with removable glucose sensor
US5569462 *31 Mar 199529 Oct 1996Baxter International Inc.Methods for enhancing vascularization of implant devices
US5575930 *6 Oct 199319 Nov 1996Tietje-Girault; JordisMethod of making gas permeable membranes for amperometric gas electrodes
US5578463 *2 Aug 199426 Nov 1996Genencor International, Inc.Heterologous polypeptides expressed in filamentous fungi, processes for making same, and vectors for making same
US5593440 *23 May 199414 Jan 1997Baxter International Inc.Tissue implant systems and methods for sustaining viable high cell densities within a host
US5628890 *27 Sep 199513 May 1997Medisense, Inc.Electrochemical sensor
US5653756 *2 Sep 19945 Aug 1997Baxter International Inc.Closed porous chambers for implanting tissue in a host
US5660163 *18 May 199526 Aug 1997Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific ResearchGlucose sensor assembly
US5683562 *14 Sep 19954 Nov 1997Avl Medical Instruments AgPlanar sensor for determining a chemical parameter of a sample
US5713888 *5 Jun 19953 Feb 1998Baxter International, Inc.Tissue implant systems
US5733336 *30 Mar 199531 Mar 1998Baxter International, Inc.Ported tissue implant systems and methods of using same
US5741330 *7 Jun 199521 Apr 1998Baxter International, Inc.Close vascularization implant material
US5777060 *26 Sep 19967 Jul 1998Minimed, Inc.Silicon-containing biocompatible membranes
US5782912 *17 Mar 199421 Jul 1998Baxter International, Inc.Close vascularization implant material
US5791344 *4 Jan 199611 Aug 1998Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific ResearchPatient monitoring system
US5800529 *7 Jun 19951 Sep 1998Baxter International, Inc.Close vascularization implant material
US5807406 *7 Oct 199415 Sep 1998Baxter International Inc.Porous microfabricated polymer membrane structures
US5882354 *7 Jun 199516 Mar 1999Baxter International Inc.Close vascularization implant material
US5882494 *28 Aug 199516 Mar 1999Minimed, Inc.Polyurethane/polyurea compositions containing silicone for biosensor membranes
US5964261 *28 May 199712 Oct 1999Baxter International Inc.Implantation assembly
US5985129 *28 Apr 199216 Nov 1999The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaMethod for increasing the service life of an implantable sensor
US6001067 *4 Mar 199714 Dec 1999Shults; Mark C.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US6119028 *20 Oct 199712 Sep 2000Alfred E. Mann FoundationImplantable enzyme-based monitoring systems having improved longevity due to improved exterior surfaces
US6122536 *8 Jul 199619 Sep 2000Animas CorporationImplantable sensor and system for measurement and control of blood constituent levels
US6144869 *11 May 19997 Nov 2000Cygnus, Inc.Monitoring of physiological analytes
US6175752 *30 Apr 199816 Jan 2001Therasense, Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US6180416 *30 Sep 199830 Jan 2001Cygnus, Inc.Method and device for predicting physiological values
US6200772 *17 Aug 199813 Mar 2001Sensalyse Holdings LimitedModified polyurethane membrane sensors and analytical methods
US6201980 *5 Oct 199813 Mar 2001The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaImplantable medical sensor system
US6208894 *25 Mar 199827 Mar 2001Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research And Advanced BionicsSystem of implantable devices for monitoring and/or affecting body parameters
US6212416 *22 May 19983 Apr 2001Good Samaritan Hospital And Medical CenterDevice for monitoring changes in analyte concentration
US6223080 *28 Oct 199824 Apr 2001Medtronic, Inc.Power consumption reduction in medical devices employing multiple digital signal processors and different supply voltages
US6223083 *16 Apr 199924 Apr 2001Medtronic, Inc.Receiver employing digital filtering for use with an implantable medical device
US6230059 *17 Mar 19998 May 2001Medtronic, Inc.Implantable monitor
US6233471 *11 May 199915 May 2001Cygnus, Inc.Signal processing for measurement of physiological analysis
US6254586 *14 Sep 19993 Jul 2001Minimed Inc.Method and kit for supplying a fluid to a subcutaneous placement site
US6256522 *17 Aug 19953 Jul 2001University Of Pittsburgh Of The Commonwealth System Of Higher EducationSensors for continuous monitoring of biochemicals and related method
US6259937 *19 Jun 199810 Jul 2001Alfred E. Mann FoundationImplantable substrate sensor
US6272364 *11 May 19997 Aug 2001Cygnus, Inc.Method and device for predicting physiological values
US6272382 *28 Sep 19997 Aug 2001Advanced Bionics CorporationFully implantable cochlear implant system
US6299578 *18 Sep 19979 Oct 2001Cygnus, Inc.Methods for monitoring a physiological analyte
US6309351 *28 Aug 200030 Oct 2001Cygnus, Inc.Methods for monitoring a physiological analyte
US6326160 *27 Sep 19994 Dec 2001Cygnus, Inc.Microprocessors for use in a device for predicting physiological values
US6329161 *22 Sep 200011 Dec 2001Therasense, Inc.Subcutaneous glucose electrode
US6360888 *10 Feb 200026 Mar 2002Minimed Inc.Glucose sensor package system
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US707430721 Jul 200411 Jul 2006Dexcom, Inc.Electrode systems for electrochemical sensors
US710877821 Jul 200419 Sep 2006Dexcom, Inc.Electrochemical sensors including electrode systems with increased oxygen generation
US729908227 Oct 200420 Nov 2007Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method of calibrating an analyte-measurement device, and associated methods, devices and systems
US73645929 Feb 200529 Apr 2008Dexcom, Inc.Biointerface membrane with macro-and micro-architecture
US7366556 *4 Oct 200629 Apr 2008Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US737976521 Jul 200427 May 2008Dexcom, Inc.Oxygen enhancing membrane systems for implantable devices
US7424318 *4 Oct 20069 Sep 2008Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US7460898 *4 Oct 20062 Dec 2008Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US7467003 *4 Oct 200616 Dec 2008Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US765159626 Jan 2010Dexcom, Inc.Cellulosic-based interference domain for an analyte sensor
US765342526 Jan 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing calibration of an analyte sensor in an analyte monitoring system
US76549562 Feb 2010Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US76572972 Feb 2010Dexcom, Inc.Implantable analyte sensor
US767940727 Apr 200416 Mar 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing peak detection circuitry for data communication systems
US769796728 Sep 200613 Apr 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing analyte sensor insertion
US771140222 Dec 20044 May 2010Dexcom, Inc.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US771357410 Mar 200511 May 2010Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US77158933 Dec 200411 May 2010Dexcom, Inc.Calibration techniques for a continuous analyte sensor
US772253614 Jul 200425 May 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Glucose measuring device integrated into a holster for a personal area network device
US772718113 Apr 20051 Jun 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Fluid delivery device with autocalibration
US773165730 Aug 20058 Jun 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor introducer and methods of use
US773631030 Jan 200615 Jun 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.On-body medical device securement
US7753873 *29 Dec 200813 Jul 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Fluid delivery device with autocalibration
US7753874 *13 Jul 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Fluid delivery device with autocalibration
US775656130 Sep 200513 Jul 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing rechargeable power in data monitoring and management systems
US776113020 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US77668294 Nov 20053 Aug 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing basal profile modification in analyte monitoring and management systems
US7766864 *29 Dec 20083 Aug 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Fluid delivery device with autocalibration
US776838631 Jul 20073 Aug 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US776838714 Apr 20083 Aug 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing dynamic multi-stage signal amplification in a medical device
US776840817 May 20063 Aug 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing data management in data monitoring system
US77713521 May 200810 Aug 2010Dexcom, Inc.Low oxygen in vivo analyte sensor
US777414510 Aug 2010Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US777868017 Aug 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US778333310 Mar 200524 Aug 2010Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous medical device with variable stiffness
US77925627 Sep 2010Dexcom, Inc.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US779702814 Sep 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US780158231 Mar 200621 Sep 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring and management system and methods therefor
US781123112 Oct 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Continuous glucose monitoring system and methods of use
US782245526 Oct 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensors and methods of use
US78263822 Nov 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Close proximity communication device and methods
US782687928 Feb 20062 Nov 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensors and methods of use
US78269812 Nov 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US782872814 Feb 20079 Nov 2010Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US78312879 Nov 2010Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US783577716 Nov 2010Dexcom, Inc.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US785776022 Feb 200628 Dec 2010Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US78605447 Mar 200728 Dec 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US786054526 Feb 200828 Dec 2010Dexcom, Inc.Analyte measuring device
US786985311 Jan 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US787529310 May 200425 Jan 2011Dexcom, Inc.Biointerface membranes incorporating bioactive agents
US78817632 May 20061 Feb 2011Dexcom, Inc.Optimized sensor geometry for an implantable glucose sensor
US788346430 Sep 20058 Feb 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Integrated transmitter unit and sensor introducer mechanism and methods of use
US78847292 Aug 20108 Feb 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing data management in data monitoring system
US78856978 Feb 2011Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US788569828 Feb 20068 Feb 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing continuous calibration of implantable analyte sensors
US78856998 Feb 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US78968093 Nov 20081 Mar 2011Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US789951117 Jan 20061 Mar 2011Dexcom, Inc.Low oxygen in vivo analyte sensor
US79013541 May 20088 Mar 2011Dexcom, Inc.Low oxygen in vivo analyte sensor
US790583321 Jun 200515 Mar 2011Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US791445029 Mar 2011Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US791718629 Mar 2011Dexcom, Inc.Calibration techniques for a continuous analyte sensor
US79187965 Apr 2011Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Volumetric measurement and visual feedback of tissues
US79209069 Mar 20065 Apr 2011Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data for sensor calibration
US79209077 Jun 20075 Apr 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and method
US792245829 Dec 200812 Apr 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Variable volume, shape memory actuated insulin dispensing pump
US792532123 Mar 201012 Apr 2011Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US792727419 Apr 2011Dexcom, Inc.Integrated receiver for continuous analyte sensor
US792885019 Apr 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US793363926 Apr 2011Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US79350573 May 2011Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US794698424 May 2011Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US79483692 Aug 201024 May 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing dynamic multi-stage signal amplification in a medical device
US794837014 Aug 200924 May 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data communication in data monitoring and management systems
US794938111 Apr 200824 May 2011Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US795108031 May 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.On-body medical device securement
US795526123 Mar 20107 Jun 2011Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US795956923 Mar 201014 Jun 2011Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US797044828 Jun 2011Dexcom, Inc.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US79746725 Jul 2011Dexcom, Inc.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US797649212 Jul 2011Dexcom, Inc.Integrated delivery device for continuous glucose sensor
US797677812 Jul 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Blood glucose tracking apparatus
US797910412 Jul 2011Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US798103428 Feb 200619 Jul 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Smart messages and alerts for an infusion delivery and management system
US798698623 Mar 201026 Jul 2011Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US79931089 Aug 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Variable volume, shape memory actuated insulin dispensing pump
US79931099 Aug 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Variable volume, shape memory actuated insulin dispensing pump
US79960549 Aug 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Electrochemical analyte sensor
US799615814 May 20089 Aug 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US799807114 Oct 200916 Aug 2011Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US800090116 Aug 2011Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US800552423 Aug 2011Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US800552523 Aug 2011Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US8010174 *22 Aug 200330 Aug 2011Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US80292454 Oct 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Variable volume, shape memory actuated insulin dispensing pump
US80292504 Oct 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Variable volume, shape memory actuated insulin dispensing pump
US802944128 Feb 20064 Oct 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor transmitter unit configuration for a data monitoring and management system
US802944326 Sep 20084 Oct 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Glucose measuring device integrated into a holster for a personal area network device
US80294594 Oct 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing integrated medication infusion and analyte monitoring system
US80294604 Oct 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing integrated medication infusion and analyte monitoring system
US804781129 Dec 20081 Nov 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Variable volume, shape memory actuated insulin dispensing pump
US804781229 Dec 20081 Nov 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Variable volume, shape memory actuated insulin dispensing pump
US80507311 Nov 2011Dexcom, Inc.Techniques to improve polyurethane membranes for implantable glucose sensors
US80526018 Nov 2011Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US805301815 Jan 20108 Nov 2011Dexcom, Inc.Techniques to improve polyurethane membranes for implantable glucose sensors
US806017315 Nov 2011Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US806017414 Apr 200615 Nov 2011Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensing biointerface
US8064977 *29 Jul 200922 Nov 2011Dexcom, Inc.Silicone based membranes for use in implantable glucose sensors
US80666394 Jun 200429 Nov 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Glucose measuring device for use in personal area network
US807351914 Oct 20096 Dec 2011Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US80735206 Dec 2011Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US808515126 Jun 200827 Dec 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Signal converting cradle for medical condition monitoring and management system
US808629227 Oct 200927 Dec 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring and management system and methods therefor
US80893633 Jan 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing data management in data monitoring system
US809519810 Jan 2012Warsaw Orthopedic. Inc.Methods for detecting osteolytic conditions in the body
US810345624 Jan 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and device for early signal attenuation detection using blood glucose measurements
US810347114 May 200824 Jan 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US811213826 Sep 20087 Feb 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing rechargeable power in data monitoring and management systems
US811224029 Apr 20057 Feb 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing leak detection in data monitoring and management systems
US811563524 Nov 200914 Feb 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.RF tag on test strips, test strip vials and boxes
US811684030 Oct 200714 Feb 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method of calibrating of an analyte-measurement device, and associated methods, devices and systems
US811887717 Jan 200721 Feb 2012Dexcom, Inc.Porous membranes for use with implantable devices
US812185714 Feb 200821 Feb 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Device and method for automatic data acquisition and/or detection
US81236861 Mar 200728 Feb 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing rolling data in communication systems
US812856214 Oct 20096 Mar 2012Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US813317822 Feb 200613 Mar 2012Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US813554826 Oct 200713 Mar 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method, system and computer program product for real-time detection of sensitivity decline in analyte sensors
US81372774 Mar 201120 Mar 2012Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Volumetric measurement and visual feedback of tissues
US814014214 Apr 200820 Mar 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in medical communication system
US814031231 Jan 200820 Mar 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for determining analyte levels
US814910323 May 20113 Apr 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing dynamic multi-stage amplification in a medical device
US814911729 Aug 20093 Apr 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US815048814 Oct 20093 Apr 2012Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US815572328 Jan 201010 Apr 2012Dexcom, Inc.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US816066917 Apr 2012Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US81606703 Jul 200817 Apr 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring: stabilizer for subcutaneous glucose sensor with incorporated antiglycolytic agent
US81606711 Sep 201017 Apr 2012Dexcom, Inc.Calibration techniques for a continuous analyte sensor
US816090017 Apr 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring and management device and method to analyze the frequency of user interaction with the device
US816282930 Mar 200924 Apr 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US81678011 May 2012Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US81756739 Nov 20098 May 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US817771621 Dec 200915 May 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US818518122 May 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for detecting false hypoglycemic conditions
US818718311 Oct 201029 May 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Continuous glucose monitoring system and methods of use
US81952659 Feb 20115 Jun 2012Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US820629626 Jun 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing integrated analyte monitoring and infusion system therapy management
US820629726 Jun 2012Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US82110163 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing analyte monitoring
US821613720 Jul 200910 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing analyte monitoring
US821613810 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Correlation of alternative site blood and interstitial fluid glucose concentrations to venous glucose concentration
US821613923 Sep 200910 Jul 2012Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US821917330 Sep 200810 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Optimizing analyte sensor calibration
US821917429 Jun 200910 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method of calibrating an analyte-measurement device, and associated methods, devices and systems
US821917529 Jun 200910 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method of calibrating an analyte-measurement device, and associated methods, devices and systems
US822302117 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.RF tag on test strips, test strip vials and boxes
US822441310 Oct 200817 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US822441529 Jan 200917 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and device for providing offset model based calibration for analyte sensor
US822655518 Mar 200924 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US822655724 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US822655827 Sep 201024 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US822689124 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring devices and methods therefor
US822953424 Jul 2012Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US822953524 Jul 2012Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for blood glucose monitoring and alert delivery
US822953624 Jul 2012Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US823153131 Jul 2012Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US823153230 Apr 200731 Jul 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US823395812 Oct 200931 Jul 2012Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US823395931 Jul 2012Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US823589621 Dec 20097 Aug 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US823624212 Feb 20107 Aug 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Blood glucose tracking apparatus and methods
US82391667 Aug 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US82496841 Sep 201021 Aug 2012Dexcom, Inc.Calibration techniques for a continuous analyte sensor
US825190615 Apr 200928 Aug 2012Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US825222910 Apr 200928 Aug 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for sterilizing an analyte sensor
US825503025 Apr 200628 Aug 2012Dexcom, Inc.Oxygen enhancing membrane systems for implantable devices
US825503117 Mar 200928 Aug 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US825503215 Jan 201028 Aug 2012Dexcom, Inc.Oxygen enhancing membrane systems for implantable devices
US825503325 Apr 200628 Aug 2012Dexcom, Inc.Oxygen enhancing membrane systems for implantable devices
US82572594 Sep 2012Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US82603924 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US82603934 Sep 2012Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal data artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US826055814 May 20084 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US826572511 Sep 2012Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US826572611 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US826824328 Dec 200918 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Blood glucose tracking apparatus and methods
US827302225 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US827329524 Nov 200925 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Apparatus for providing power management in data communication systems
US827543723 Mar 200725 Sep 2012Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US82754399 Nov 200925 Sep 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US82777133 May 20042 Oct 2012Dexcom, Inc.Implantable analyte sensor
US828047523 Feb 20092 Oct 2012Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US82825499 Oct 2012Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US828255029 Jul 20089 Oct 2012Dexcom, Inc.Integrated receiver for continuous analyte sensor
US828535423 Mar 20109 Oct 2012Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US82874537 Nov 200816 Oct 2012Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US828745416 Oct 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US829056116 Oct 2012Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US829056216 Oct 2012Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US829281027 Jan 201123 Oct 2012Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US83065989 Nov 20096 Nov 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US831174913 Nov 2012Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US831343420 Nov 2012Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor inserter system
US832114927 Nov 2012Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US833200823 Mar 201011 Dec 2012Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US833371410 Sep 200618 Dec 2012Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing an integrated analyte sensor insertion device and data processing unit
US834309224 Nov 20091 Jan 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing integrated medication infusion and analyte monitoring system
US834309328 May 20101 Jan 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Fluid delivery device with autocalibration
US834496631 Jan 20061 Jan 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing a fault tolerant display unit in an electronic device
US83463351 Jan 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor calibration management
US834633618 Mar 20091 Jan 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US834633730 Jun 20091 Jan 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US83463381 Jan 2013Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US835382921 Dec 200915 Jan 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US835388128 Dec 200515 Jan 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Infusion sets for the delivery of a therapeutic substance to a patient
US835709122 Jan 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US835821022 Jan 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.RF tag on test strips, test strip vials and boxes
US836290429 Jan 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US836422929 Jan 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensors having a signal-to-noise ratio substantially unaffected by non-constant noise
US836661430 Mar 20095 Feb 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US83685565 Feb 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing data communication in continuous glucose monitoring and management system
US836991924 Oct 20085 Feb 2013Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing sensor data
US837200521 Dec 200912 Feb 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US837466716 Oct 200812 Feb 2013Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US837466823 Oct 200812 Feb 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor with lag compensation
US837694523 Nov 200919 Feb 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing calibration of an analyte sensor in an analyte monitoring system
US837703131 Aug 200819 Feb 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Closed loop control system with safety parameters and methods
US838027319 Feb 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US838600426 Feb 2013Dexcom, Inc.Calibration techniques for a continuous analyte sensor
US83904555 Mar 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.RF tag on test strips, test strip vials and boxes
US839194517 Mar 20095 Mar 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US839402112 Mar 2013Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US839652812 Mar 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US84090932 Apr 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Assessing measures of glycemic variability
US84091317 Mar 20072 Apr 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US84123012 Apr 2013Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US841731224 Oct 20089 Apr 2013Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing sensor data
US84175459 Apr 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Device and method for automatic data acquisition and/or detection
US842311316 Apr 2013Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing sensor data
US84231141 Oct 200716 Apr 2013Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US842729823 Apr 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing dynamic multi-stage amplification in a medical device
US842867816 May 201223 Apr 2013Dexcom, Inc.Calibration techniques for a continuous analyte sensor
US842867926 Mar 201023 Apr 2013Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US843517927 Jan 20117 May 2013Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US84379667 May 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for transferring analyte test data
US844261021 Aug 200814 May 2013Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US844456014 May 200821 May 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US845236828 May 2013Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US84563018 May 20084 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US84577084 Jun 2013Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US846024310 Jun 200311 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Glucose measuring module and insulin pump combination
US84619858 May 200811 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US846335011 Jun 2013Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US84633516 Aug 201011 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Electrochemical analyte sensor
US846542518 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US846797218 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Closed loop blood glucose control algorithm analysis
US846988623 Sep 200925 Jun 2013Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US847171430 Dec 201125 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing data management in data monitoring system
US847302131 Jul 200925 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US847302230 Jan 200925 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor with time lag compensation
US847322023 Jan 201225 Jun 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and device for early signal attenuation detection using blood glucose measurements
US84743976 May 20102 Jul 2013Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US847537317 Jul 20082 Jul 2013Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US847855730 Jul 20102 Jul 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing analyte monitoring system calibration accuracy
US848058019 Apr 20079 Jul 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US848379111 Apr 20089 Jul 2013Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US848379329 Oct 20109 Jul 2013Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US848396728 Apr 20109 Jul 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing real time analyte sensor calibration with retrospective backfill
US848397420 Nov 20099 Jul 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for transferring analyte test data
US848400519 Mar 20129 Jul 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for determining analyte levels
US849147427 Jan 201123 Jul 2013Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US849777715 Apr 201030 Jul 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system having an alert
US850268223 Dec 20116 Aug 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Signal converting cradle for medical condition monitoring and management system
US85064827 Feb 201113 Aug 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing continuous calibration of implantable analyte sensors
US85091071 Nov 201013 Aug 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Close proximity communication device and methods
US850987128 Oct 200813 Aug 2013Dexcom, Inc.Sensor head for use with implantable devices
US851223920 Apr 200920 Aug 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Glucose measuring device for use in personal area network
US851224330 Sep 200520 Aug 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Integrated introducer and transmitter assembly and methods of use
US851224426 Sep 200820 Aug 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Integrated analyte sensor and infusion device and methods therefor
US851224615 Mar 201020 Aug 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing peak detection circuitry for data communication systems
US851408630 Aug 201020 Aug 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Displays for a medical device
US851551610 Mar 200520 Aug 2013Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US851551730 Sep 200920 Aug 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for dynamically updating calibration parameters for an analyte sensor
US851551828 Dec 200520 Aug 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring
US851551926 Feb 200920 Aug 2013Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US852702522 Nov 19993 Sep 2013Dexcom, Inc.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US85270262 Mar 20123 Sep 2013Dexcom, Inc.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US853293516 Jul 201210 Sep 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and device for providing offset model based calibration for analyte sensor
US854212217 Jan 201324 Sep 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Glucose measurement device and methods using RFID
US854318323 Dec 201124 Sep 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring and management system and methods therefor
US854318420 Oct 201124 Sep 2013Dexcom, Inc.Silicone based membranes for use in implantable glucose sensors
US854540328 Dec 20061 Oct 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Medical device insertion
US854855114 May 20101 Oct 2013Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US854855322 Jun 20121 Oct 2013Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US856003726 Mar 201015 Oct 2013Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data for sensor calibration
US856003814 May 200815 Oct 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US856003917 Sep 200915 Oct 2013Dexcom, Inc.Particle-containing membrane and particulate electrode for analyte sensors
US856008230 Jan 200915 Oct 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Computerized determination of insulin pump therapy parameters using real time and retrospective data processing
US856025018 Aug 201015 Oct 2013Abbott LaboratoriesMethod and system for transferring analyte test data
US85625585 Jun 200822 Oct 2013Dexcom, Inc.Integrated medicament delivery device for use with continuous analyte sensor
US85658487 May 200922 Oct 2013Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US856584914 May 201022 Oct 2013Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US857162429 Dec 200429 Oct 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for mounting a data transmission device in a communication system
US857162514 May 201029 Oct 2013Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US857180823 Jan 201229 Oct 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US85798167 Jan 201012 Nov 2013Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data for sensor calibration
US857985331 Oct 200612 Nov 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Infusion devices and methods
US85832045 Mar 201012 Nov 2013Dexcom, Inc.Polymer membranes for continuous analyte sensors
US858320516 Apr 201012 Nov 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor calibration management
US858559110 Jul 201019 Nov 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing basal profile modification in analyte monitoring and management systems
US85888812 Mar 200719 Nov 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Subcutaneous glucose electrode
US858888216 Dec 200919 Nov 2013Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US85914101 Jun 200926 Nov 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing glycemic control
US859145520 Feb 200926 Nov 2013Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for customizing delivery of sensor data
US85931093 Nov 200926 Nov 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for powering an electronic device
US859328720 Jul 201226 Nov 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US859718820 Jun 20083 Dec 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Health management devices and methods
US85971893 Mar 20093 Dec 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US859757523 Jul 20123 Dec 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring devices and methods therefor
US860068114 May 20083 Dec 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US86029917 Jun 201010 Dec 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor introducer and methods of use
US86119787 Jan 201017 Dec 2013Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data for sensor calibration
US861215916 Feb 200417 Dec 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US861216330 Aug 201217 Dec 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US861370329 May 200824 Dec 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Insertion devices and methods
US861389230 Jun 200924 Dec 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte meter with a moveable head and methods of using the same
US861528222 Feb 200624 Dec 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US861706920 Jun 200831 Dec 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Health monitor
US861707121 Jun 200731 Dec 2013Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US862290325 May 20127 Jan 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Continuous glucose monitoring system and methods of use
US862290511 Dec 20097 Jan 2014Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US862290621 Dec 20097 Jan 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US862298831 Aug 20087 Jan 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Variable rate closed loop control and methods
US863504622 Jun 201121 Jan 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for evaluating analyte sensor response characteristics
US863822023 May 201128 Jan 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data communication in data monitoring and management systems
US864161826 Jun 20084 Feb 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and structure for securing a monitoring device element
US864161921 Dec 20094 Feb 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US864726920 Apr 200911 Feb 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Glucose measuring device for use in personal area network
US86498413 Apr 200711 Feb 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US865204320 Jul 201218 Feb 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US865397721 Jun 201318 Feb 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing data management in data monitoring system
US865774516 Oct 200825 Feb 2014Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US86577475 Apr 201125 Feb 2014Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US866062717 Mar 200925 Feb 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US866310929 Mar 20104 Mar 2014Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US866509130 Jun 20094 Mar 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and device for determining elapsed sensor life
US866646916 Nov 20074 Mar 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US86686453 Jan 200311 Mar 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US867081530 Apr 200711 Mar 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US867284427 Feb 200418 Mar 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US867284525 Mar 201018 Mar 2014Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US867628711 Dec 200918 Mar 2014Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US867628822 Jun 201118 Mar 2014Dexcom, Inc.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US867651321 Jun 201318 Mar 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and device for early signal attenuation detection using blood glucose measurements
US86766018 Apr 201318 Mar 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Device and method for automatic data acquisition and/or detection
US86824085 Mar 201025 Mar 2014Dexcom, Inc.Polymer membranes for continuous analyte sensors
US868259827 Aug 200925 Mar 2014Abbott LaboratoriesMethod and system for transferring analyte test data
US86826154 Aug 201225 Mar 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US868493029 Jun 20091 Apr 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method of calibrating an analyte-measurement device, and associated methods, devices and systems
US868818830 Jun 20091 Apr 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US869077511 Apr 20088 Apr 2014Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US869861522 Apr 201315 Apr 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing dynamic multi-stage signal amplification in a medical device
US87001178 Dec 200915 Apr 2014Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US870618010 Jun 201322 Apr 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Electrochemical analyte sensor
US871099321 Nov 201229 Apr 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Mitigating single point failure of devices in an analyte monitoring system and methods thereof
US871873928 Dec 20126 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor calibration management
US871895812 Mar 20126 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method, system and computer program product for real-time detection of sensitivity decline in analyte sensors
US871896524 Jun 20136 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing analyte monitoring system calibration accuracy
US872154522 Mar 201013 May 2014Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US872158530 Mar 201213 May 2014Dex Com, Inc.Integrated delivery device for continuous glucose sensor
US872798225 Jun 201220 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing integrated analyte monitoring and infusion system therapy management
US873005829 Jul 201320 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system having an alert
US873163022 Mar 201020 May 2014Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US873218815 Feb 200820 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing contextual based medication dosage determination
US873434429 May 201127 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.On-body medical device securement
US873434630 Apr 200727 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US873434817 Mar 200927 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US873442231 Aug 200827 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Closed loop control with improved alarm functions
US87372595 Aug 201327 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Close proximity communication device and methods
US87381093 Mar 200927 May 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US87415903 Apr 20073 Jun 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Subcutaneous glucose electrode
US87445453 Mar 20093 Jun 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US874454628 Apr 20063 Jun 2014Dexcom, Inc.Cellulosic-based resistance domain for an analyte sensor
US87445479 Jul 20123 Jun 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Optimizing analyte sensor calibration
US874731523 Sep 200910 Jun 2014Dexcom. Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US87509552 Nov 200910 Jun 2014Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US876185627 Apr 201224 Jun 2014Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US876465730 Mar 20121 Jul 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Medical device inserters and processes of inserting and using medical devices
US876505927 Oct 20101 Jul 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Blood glucose tracking apparatus
US877118316 Feb 20058 Jul 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing data communication in continuous glucose monitoring and management system
US877118731 May 20118 Jul 2014Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US877488724 Mar 20078 Jul 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US877488820 Jan 20108 Jul 2014Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US87778534 Apr 201215 Jul 2014Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US878800611 Dec 200922 Jul 2014Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US87880078 Mar 201222 Jul 2014Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US878800831 May 201122 Jul 2014Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US879026014 Oct 200929 Jul 2014Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US879295319 Mar 201029 Jul 2014Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US879295419 Mar 201029 Jul 2014Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US87929559 Jun 201129 Jul 2014Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US87929562 Apr 201229 Jul 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring: stabilizer for subcutaneous glucose sensor with incorporated antiglycolytic agent
US879517714 Jan 20095 Aug 2014Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US879525216 Oct 20095 Aug 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Robust closed loop control and methods
US879893423 Jul 20105 Aug 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Real time management of data relating to physiological control of glucose levels
US880161024 Jul 200912 Aug 2014Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US880161122 Mar 201012 Aug 2014Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US880161227 Apr 201212 Aug 2014Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US880200627 Aug 201212 Aug 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for sterilizing an analyte sensor
US880818227 Apr 201219 Aug 2014Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US881207217 Apr 200819 Aug 2014Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous medical device with variable stiffness
US88120731 Jun 201019 Aug 2014Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US881686219 Aug 201326 Aug 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Displays for a medical device
US88214009 Feb 20112 Sep 2014Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US882512714 May 20102 Sep 2014Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US883436631 Jul 200716 Sep 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing analyte sensor calibration
US88405528 Dec 200923 Sep 2014Dexcom, Inc.Membrane for use with implantable devices
US884055326 Feb 200923 Sep 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US88431871 Jun 201023 Sep 2014Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US885210130 Sep 20097 Oct 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing analyte sensor insertion
US886219817 Dec 201214 Oct 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing an integrated analyte sensor insertion device and data processing unit
US886524928 Sep 201221 Oct 2014Dexcom, Inc.Techniques to improve polyurethane membranes for implantable glucose sensors
US887675514 Jul 20094 Nov 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Closed loop control system interface and methods
US888013718 Apr 20034 Nov 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US888013830 Sep 20054 Nov 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Device for channeling fluid and methods of use
US888274130 Apr 201211 Nov 2014Dexcom, Inc.Integrated delivery device for continuous glucose sensor
US888627222 Feb 200611 Nov 2014Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US88862737 Nov 200811 Nov 2014Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US890630718 Aug 20109 Dec 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Apparatus for providing power management in data communication systems
US890931420 Jul 20119 Dec 2014Dexcom, Inc.Oxygen enhancing membrane systems for implantable devices
US891136915 Dec 200816 Dec 2014Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US89158493 Feb 200923 Dec 2014Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US891585028 Mar 201423 Dec 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US892031928 Dec 201230 Dec 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US892040130 Apr 201230 Dec 2014Dexcom, Inc.Integrated delivery device for continuous glucose sensor
US892394723 Jul 201330 Dec 2014Dexcom, Inc.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US89241591 Jun 200930 Dec 2014Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing glycemic control
US892658530 Mar 20126 Jan 2015Dexcom, Inc.Integrated delivery device for continuous glucose sensor
US892996819 Jul 20106 Jan 2015Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US89302033 Feb 20106 Jan 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Multi-function analyte test device and methods therefor
US89322167 Aug 200613 Jan 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing data management in integrated analyte monitoring and infusion system
US893366425 Nov 201313 Jan 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for powering an electronic device
US893754024 Feb 201420 Jan 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing dynamic multi-stage signal amplification in a medical device
US895412818 Oct 201310 Feb 2015Dexcom, Inc.Polymer membranes for continuous analyte sensors
US89743861 Nov 200510 Mar 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US898620830 Sep 200824 Mar 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor sensitivity attenuation mitigation
US898620913 Jul 201224 Mar 2015Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US8989833 *10 Mar 200524 Mar 2015Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US899333131 Aug 201031 Mar 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods for managing power and noise
US900092922 Nov 20137 Apr 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US900874314 Apr 200814 Apr 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in medical communication system
US901133129 Dec 200421 Apr 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US901133230 Oct 200721 Apr 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US90147737 Mar 200721 Apr 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US902057210 Sep 201028 Apr 2015Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing, transmitting and displaying sensor data
US90316301 Nov 201012 May 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensors and methods of use
US903576730 May 201319 May 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US90399752 Dec 201326 May 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring devices and methods therefor
US90429532 Mar 200726 May 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US904419910 Mar 20052 Jun 2015Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US905004121 May 20129 Jun 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for detecting false hypoglycemic conditions
US905041330 Apr 20129 Jun 2015Dexcom, Inc.Integrated delivery device for continuous glucose sensor
US905590114 Sep 201216 Jun 2015Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US906071913 Dec 201323 Jun 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US906074219 Mar 201023 Jun 2015Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US906410730 Sep 201323 Jun 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Infusion devices and methods
US90666943 Apr 200730 Jun 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US906669512 Apr 200730 Jun 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US906669727 Oct 201130 Jun 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US906670917 Mar 201430 Jun 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and device for early signal attenuation detection using blood glucose measurements
US906953630 Oct 201230 Jun 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Electronic devices having integrated reset systems and methods thereof
US907247721 Jun 20077 Jul 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US907860717 Jun 201314 Jul 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US907860813 Jul 201214 Jul 2015Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data for sensor calibration
US907862631 Mar 201114 Jul 2015Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US908845231 Jan 201321 Jul 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing data communication in continuous glucose monitoring and management system
US909529027 Feb 20124 Aug 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing rolling data in communication systems
US9101304 *2 Jul 200911 Aug 2015Maquet Critical Care AbOn-line measuring system of body substances
US910762315 Apr 200918 Aug 2015Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US91099268 Dec 201418 Aug 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing power management in data communication systems
US91138289 Jul 201225 Aug 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing analyte monitoring
US911958230 Jun 20061 Sep 2015Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Integrated analyte sensor and infusion device and methods therefor
US912554814 May 20088 Sep 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US914356920 Feb 200922 Sep 2015Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing, transmitting and displaying sensor data
US91492199 Feb 20116 Oct 2015Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US9155496 *18 Feb 201113 Oct 2015Dexcom, Inc.Low oxygen in vivo analyte sensor
US915584326 Jul 201213 Oct 2015Dexcom, Inc.Integrated delivery device for continuous glucose sensor
US917360630 Jan 20143 Nov 2015Dexcom, Inc.Polymer membranes for continuous analyte sensors
US917360730 Jan 20143 Nov 2015Dexcom, Inc.Polymer membranes for continuous analyte sensors
US917745610 Jun 20133 Nov 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US917875225 Apr 20143 Nov 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system having an alert
US917986910 Sep 201410 Nov 2015Dexcom, Inc.Techniques to improve polyurethane membranes for implantable glucose sensors
US918487525 Apr 201410 Nov 2015Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Close proximity communication device and methods
US918609824 Mar 201117 Nov 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Medical device inserters and processes of inserting and using medical devices
US918611311 Aug 201417 Nov 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Displays for a medical device
US919232823 Sep 200924 Nov 2015Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US920482714 Apr 20088 Dec 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in medical communication system
US921599224 Mar 201122 Dec 2015Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Medical device inserters and processes of inserting and using medical devices
US92204499 Jul 201329 Dec 2015Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data for sensor calibration
US922670128 Apr 20105 Jan 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Error detection in critical repeating data in a wireless sensor system
US92267148 Jan 20155 Jan 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Displays for a medical device
US92479004 Jun 20132 Feb 2016Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US92479012 Aug 20062 Feb 2016Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US925917523 Oct 200616 Feb 2016Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Flexible patch for fluid delivery and monitoring body analytes
US926545324 Mar 201123 Feb 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Medical device inserters and processes of inserting and using medical devices
US928292525 Mar 201015 Mar 2016Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US928917911 Apr 201422 Mar 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Mitigating single point failure of devices in an analyte monitoring system and methods thereof
US931023024 Jun 201312 Apr 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing real time analyte sensor calibration with retrospective backfill
US931419531 Aug 201019 Apr 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte signal processing device and methods
US93141967 Sep 201219 Apr 2016Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data for sensor calibration
US93141983 Apr 201519 Apr 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods
US931765621 Nov 201219 Apr 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Compatibility mechanisms for devices in a continuous analyte monitoring system and methods thereof
US932046129 Sep 201026 Apr 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing notification function in analyte monitoring systems
US93204625 May 201426 Apr 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor calibration management
US932046821 Jun 201326 Apr 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor with time lag compensation
US932389815 Nov 201326 Apr 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing basal profile modification in analyte monitoring and management systems
US932670710 Nov 20093 May 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Alarm characterization for analyte monitoring devices and systems
US93267099 Mar 20113 May 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Systems, devices and methods for managing glucose levels
US932671429 Jun 20103 May 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US93267165 Dec 20143 May 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US932672715 May 20143 May 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.On-body medical device securement
US932837116 Jul 20133 May 2016Dexcom, Inc.Sensor head for use with implantable devices
US933293329 Sep 201410 May 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing analyte sensor insertion
US93329348 Feb 201310 May 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor with lag compensation
US933294431 Jan 201410 May 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing data management in data monitoring system
US933921721 Nov 201217 May 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte monitoring system and methods of use
US933922231 May 201317 May 2016Dexcom, Inc.Particle-containing membrane and particulate electrode for analyte sensors
US933922330 Dec 201317 May 2016Dexcom, Inc.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US935166812 Oct 200931 May 2016Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US935166930 Sep 201031 May 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Interconnect for on-body analyte monitoring device
US935795919 Aug 20137 Jun 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for dynamically updating calibration parameters for an analyte sensor
US93641493 Oct 201114 Jun 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor transmitter unit configuration for a data monitoring and management system
US936417323 Sep 200914 Jun 2016Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US93809715 Dec 20145 Jul 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for powering an electronic device
US939296931 Aug 200819 Jul 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Closed loop control and signal attenuation detection
US939887228 Aug 201426 Jul 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing analyte sensor calibration
US939888210 Sep 200626 Jul 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing analyte sensor and data processing device
US94025441 Feb 20102 Aug 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor and apparatus for insertion of the sensor
US940257011 Dec 20122 Aug 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte sensor devices, connections, and methods
US940258414 Jan 20152 Aug 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and apparatus for providing dynamic multi-stage signal amplification in a medical device
US940856613 Feb 20139 Aug 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and system for providing calibration of an analyte sensor in an analyte monitoring system
US941477710 Mar 200516 Aug 2016Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US94209651 Jul 201123 Aug 2016Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US94209662 Feb 201523 Aug 2016Maquet Critical Care AbOn-line measuring system of body substances
US94209684 Apr 201223 Aug 2016Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US9427183 *12 Jul 201130 Aug 2016Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US943958629 Mar 201313 Sep 2016Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Assessing measures of glycemic variability
US943958925 Nov 201413 Sep 2016Dexcom, Inc.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US20030217966 *22 May 200227 Nov 2003Dexcom, Inc.Techniques to improve polyurethane membranes for implantable glucose sensors
US20040186362 *29 Jan 200423 Sep 2004Dexcom, Inc.Membrane for use with implantable devices
US20040199059 *22 Aug 20037 Oct 2004Dexcom, Inc.Optimized sensor geometry for an implantable glucose sensor
US20040254434 *10 Jun 200316 Dec 2004Goodnow Timothy T.Glucose measuring module and insulin pump combination
US20050009126 *4 Jun 200413 Jan 2005Therasense, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing power management in data communication systems
US20050013684 *14 Jul 200420 Jan 2005Wu Kung ChrisSingle reticle transfer system
US20050027181 *1 Aug 20033 Feb 2005Goode Paul V.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20050027462 *1 Aug 20033 Feb 2005Goode Paul V.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20050051427 *21 Jul 200410 Mar 2005Brauker James H.Rolled electrode array and its method for manufacture
US20050051440 *21 Jul 200410 Mar 2005Simpson Peter C.Electrochemical sensors including electrode systems with increased oxygen generation
US20050054909 *21 Jul 200410 Mar 2005James PetisceOxygen enhancing membrane systems for implantable devices
US20050056552 *21 Jul 200417 Mar 2005Simpson Peter C.Increasing bias for oxygen production in an electrode system
US20050090607 *28 Oct 200328 Apr 2005Dexcom, Inc.Silicone composition for biocompatible membrane
US20050103625 *22 Dec 200419 May 2005Rathbun RhodesSensor head for use with implantable devices
US20050112169 *22 Aug 200326 May 2005Dexcom, Inc.Porous membranes for use with implantable devices
US20050115832 *21 Jul 20042 Jun 2005Simpson Peter C.Electrode systems for electrochemical sensors
US20050143635 *3 Dec 200430 Jun 2005Kamath Apurv U.Calibration techniques for a continuous analyte sensor
US20050161346 *7 Dec 200428 Jul 2005Peter SimpsonSystems and methods for improving electrochemical analyte sensors
US20050176136 *16 Nov 200411 Aug 2005Dexcom, Inc.Afinity domain for analyte sensor
US20050177036 *22 Dec 200411 Aug 2005Shults Mark C.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US20050182451 *11 Jan 200518 Aug 2005Adam GriffinImplantable device with improved radio frequency capabilities
US20050187720 *18 Jan 200525 Aug 2005Dexcom, Inc.System and method for processing analyte sensor data
US20050197554 *28 Feb 20058 Sep 2005Michael PolchaComposite thin-film glucose sensor
US20050203360 *8 Dec 200415 Sep 2005Brauker James H.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20050235732 *13 Apr 200527 Oct 2005Rush Benjamin MFluid delivery device with autocalibration
US20050238503 *13 Apr 200527 Oct 2005Rush Benjamin MVariable volume, shape memory actuated insulin dispensing pump
US20050239154 *27 Oct 200427 Oct 2005Feldman Benjamin JA method of calibrating an analyte-measurement device, and associated methods, devices and systems
US20050242479 *3 May 20043 Nov 2005Petisce James RImplantable analyte sensor
US20050245795 *3 May 20043 Nov 2005Dexcom, Inc.Implantable analyte sensor
US20050245799 *3 May 20043 Nov 2005Dexcom, Inc.Implantable analyte sensor
US20050251083 *9 Feb 200510 Nov 2005Victoria Carr-BrendelBiointerface with macro-and micro-architecture
US20050287620 *19 Apr 200529 Dec 2005Therasense, Inc.Method of determining analyte level using subcutaneous electrode
US20060015020 *6 Jul 200419 Jan 2006Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for manufacture of an analyte-measuring device including a membrane system
US20060015024 *10 Mar 200519 Jan 2006Mark BristerTranscutaneous medical device with variable stiffness
US20060016700 *21 Jun 200526 Jan 2006Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20060019327 *10 Mar 200526 Jan 2006Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20060020187 *10 Mar 200526 Jan 2006Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20060020190 *10 Mar 200526 Jan 2006Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20060020192 *10 Mar 200526 Jan 2006Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20060036139 *10 Mar 200516 Feb 2006Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20060036140 *10 Mar 200516 Feb 2006Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20060036142 *10 Mar 200516 Feb 2006Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20060036144 *21 Jun 200516 Feb 2006Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20060036145 *21 Jun 200516 Feb 2006Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20060086624 *16 Nov 200527 Apr 2006Tapsak Mark ATechniques to improve polyurethane membranes for implantable glucose sensors
US20060118415 *20 Feb 20068 Jun 2006Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Electrochemical Analyte Sensor
US20060142651 *22 Feb 200629 Jun 2006Mark BristerAnalyte sensor
US20060183984 *22 Feb 200617 Aug 2006Dobbles J MAnalyte sensor
US20060189856 *25 Apr 200624 Aug 2006James PetisceOxygen enhancing membrane systems for implantable devices
US20060198864 *3 May 20067 Sep 2006Mark ShultsBiointerface membranes incorporating bioactive agents
US20060200019 *25 Apr 20067 Sep 2006James PetisceOxygen enhancing membrane systems for implantable devices
US20060200022 *2 May 20067 Sep 2006Brauker James HOptimized sensor geometry for an implantable glucose sensor
US20060204536 *3 May 200614 Sep 2006Mark ShultsBiointerface membranes incorporating bioactive agents
US20060224108 *2 May 20065 Oct 2006Brauker James HOptimized sensor geometry for an implantable glucose sensor
US20060224141 *21 Mar 20065 Oct 2006Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and system for providing integrated medication infusion and analyte monitoring system
US20060249381 *28 Apr 20069 Nov 2006Petisce James RCellulosic-based resistance domain for an analyte sensor
US20060252027 *28 Apr 20069 Nov 2006Petisce James RCellulosic-based resistance domain for an analyte sensor
US20060253012 *28 Apr 20069 Nov 2006Petisce James RCellulosic-based resistance domain for an analyte sensor
US20060257996 *14 Apr 200616 Nov 2006Simpson Peter CAnalyte sensing biointerface
US20060258761 *14 Apr 200616 Nov 2006Robert BoockSilicone based membranes for use in implantable glucose sensors
US20060270923 *23 May 200630 Nov 2006Brauker James HAnalyte sensor
US20070016381 *1 Sep 200618 Jan 2007Apurv KamathSystems and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20070027381 *29 Jul 20051 Feb 2007Therasense, Inc.Inserter and methods of use
US20070027384 *4 Oct 20061 Feb 2007Mark BristerDual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US20070027385 *4 Oct 20061 Feb 2007Mark BristerDual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US20070032717 *4 Oct 20068 Feb 2007Mark BristerDual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US20070060814 *30 Aug 200515 Mar 2007Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Analyte sensor introducer and methods of use
US20070093704 *4 Oct 200626 Apr 2007Mark BristerDual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US20070163880 *1 Mar 200719 Jul 2007Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US20070173709 *17 Jan 200726 Jul 2007Petisce James RMembranes for an analyte sensor
US20070176867 *31 Jan 20062 Aug 2007Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and system for providing a fault tolerant display unit in an electronic device
US20070179568 *31 Jan 20062 Aug 2007Sdgi Holdings, Inc.Methods for detecting osteolytic conditions in the body
US20070197890 *14 Feb 200723 Aug 2007Robert BoockAnalyte sensor
US20070203407 *28 Feb 200630 Aug 2007Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Analyte sensors and methods of use
US20070203966 *23 Mar 200730 Aug 2007Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20070213611 *27 Mar 200713 Sep 2007Simpson Peter CDual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US20070235331 *18 May 200711 Oct 2007Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensors having a signal-to-noise ratio substantially unaffected by non-constant noise
US20070238998 *11 Apr 200611 Oct 2007Sdgi Holdings, Inc.Volumetric measurement and visual feedback of tissues
US20070244379 *14 Apr 200618 Oct 2007Robert BoockSilicone based membranes for use in implantable glucose sensors
US20070249922 *28 Dec 200625 Oct 2007Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Medical Device Insertion
US20080004601 *28 Jun 20063 Jan 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Analyte Monitoring and Therapy Management System and Methods Therefor
US20080021666 *1 Oct 200724 Jan 2008Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20080027287 *26 Jul 200631 Jan 2008Rajiv ShahMethods and materials for stabilizing analyte sensors
US20080033254 *13 Jun 20077 Feb 2008Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal data artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20080033268 *28 Sep 20067 Feb 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and Apparatus for Providing Analyte Sensor Insertion
US20080039702 *9 Aug 200614 Feb 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and System for Providing Calibration of an Analyte Sensor in an Analyte Monitoring System
US20080060955 *20 Sep 200713 Mar 2008Therasense, Inc.Glucose measuring device integrated into a holster for a personal area network device
US20080071156 *26 Oct 200720 Mar 2008Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20080071157 *7 Jun 200720 Mar 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Analyte monitoring system and method
US20080081969 *30 Oct 20073 Apr 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method of calibrating of an analyte-measurement device, and associated methods, devices and systems
US20080083617 *1 Oct 200710 Apr 2008Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US20080097246 *10 Sep 200624 Apr 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, IncMethod and System for Providing An Integrated Analyte Sensor Insertion Device and Data Processing Unit
US20080119710 *31 Oct 200622 May 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Medical devices and methods of using the same
US20080146900 *29 Feb 200819 Jun 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing power management in data communication systems
US20080172205 *26 Oct 200717 Jul 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method, system and computer program product for real-time detection of sensitivity decline in analyte sensors
US20080183061 *4 Apr 200831 Jul 2008Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20080188731 *11 Apr 20087 Aug 2008Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20080189051 *7 Apr 20087 Aug 2008Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20080194935 *11 Apr 200814 Aug 2008Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20080194937 *14 Apr 200814 Aug 2008Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20080195232 *15 Apr 200814 Aug 2008Dexcom, Inc.Biointerface with macro- and micro-architecture
US20080195967 *14 Apr 200814 Aug 2008Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20080199894 *14 Feb 200821 Aug 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Device and method for automatic data acquisition and/or detection
US20080201169 *14 Feb 200821 Aug 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Device and method for automatic data acquisition and/or detection
US20080214918 *28 Apr 20084 Sep 2008Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US20080255437 *14 Apr 200816 Oct 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in medical communication system
US20080256048 *14 Apr 200816 Oct 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in medical communication system
US20080275313 *17 Jul 20086 Nov 2008Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20080287762 *14 May 200820 Nov 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US20080287763 *14 May 200820 Nov 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US20080287764 *29 Jul 200820 Nov 2008Dexcom, Inc.Integrated receiver for continuous analyte sensor
US20080288180 *14 May 200820 Nov 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US20080296155 *1 May 20084 Dec 2008Dexcom, Inc.Low oxygen in vivo analyte sensor
US20080300476 *29 May 20084 Dec 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Insertion devices and methods
US20080306368 *21 Aug 200811 Dec 2008Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20080306435 *5 Jun 200811 Dec 2008Dexcom, Inc.Integrated medicament delivery device for use with continuous analyte sensor
US20080312841 *14 May 200818 Dec 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US20080312842 *14 May 200818 Dec 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US20080312845 *14 May 200818 Dec 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US20080319294 *20 Jun 200825 Dec 2008Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Health management devices and methods
US20090002179 *26 Jun 20081 Jan 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Signal converting cradle for medical condition monitoring and management system
US20090005665 *14 May 20081 Jan 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US20090006034 *14 May 20081 Jan 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US20090012377 *26 Jun 20088 Jan 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and structure for securing a monitoring device element
US20090012379 *20 Aug 20088 Jan 2009Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20090030294 *7 Oct 200829 Jan 2009Dexcom, Inc.Implantable analyte sensor
US20090033482 *31 Jul 20075 Feb 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US20090036760 *31 Jul 20075 Feb 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data processing and control in a medical communication system
US20090043182 *16 Oct 200812 Feb 2009Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20090043525 *16 Oct 200812 Feb 2009Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20090043541 *16 Oct 200812 Feb 2009Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20090043542 *16 Oct 200812 Feb 2009Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20090048501 *14 Jul 200419 Feb 2009Therasense, Inc.Glucose measuring device integrated into a holster for a personal area network device
US20090054745 *7 Aug 200626 Feb 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and System for Providing Data Management in Integrated Analyte Monitoring and Infusion System
US20090054746 *30 Sep 200526 Feb 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Device for channeling fluid and methods of use
US20090054750 *7 Aug 200626 Feb 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and System for Providing Integrated Analyte Monitoring and Infusion System Therapy Management
US20090055149 *31 Jan 200826 Feb 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and system for determining analyte levels
US20090068954 *31 Oct 200512 Mar 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and apparatus for providing data communication in data monitoring and management systems
US20090069649 *26 Sep 200812 Mar 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and System for Providing Analyte Monitoring
US20090076356 *3 Nov 200819 Mar 2009Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US20090076358 *17 May 200619 Mar 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and System for Providing Data Management in Data Monitoring System
US20090076359 *31 Mar 200619 Mar 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Analyte monitoring and management system and methods therefor
US20090083003 *27 Apr 200426 Mar 2009Reggiardo Christopher VMethod and apparatus for providing peak detection circuitry for data communication systems
US20090088614 *30 Jan 20062 Apr 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.On-body medical device securement
US20090099436 *15 Dec 200816 Apr 2009Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US20090102678 *28 Feb 200623 Apr 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Analyte sensor transmitter unit configuration for a data monitoring and management system
US20090105568 *23 Oct 200823 Apr 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Assessing Measures Of Glycemic Variability
US20090105569 *28 Apr 200623 Apr 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Introducer Assembly and Methods of Use
US20090105571 *30 Jun 200623 Apr 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and System for Providing Data Communication in Data Management Systems
US20090105658 *28 Dec 200523 Apr 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Infusion sets for the delivery of a therapeutic substance to a patient
US20090124877 *14 Jan 200914 May 2009Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20090124878 *14 Jan 200914 May 2009Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20090124879 *14 Jan 200914 May 2009Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20090143659 *7 Nov 20084 Jun 2009Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US20090143660 *5 Dec 20084 Jun 2009Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20090143661 *26 Jun 20084 Jun 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, IncAnalyte monitoring and management device and method to analyze the frequency of user interaction with the device
US20090164190 *31 Jan 200825 Jun 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Physiological condition simulation device and method
US20090164239 *30 Sep 200825 Jun 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Dynamic Display Of Glucose Information
US20090171269 *29 Jun 20062 Jul 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Infusion Device and Methods Therefor
US20090177160 *29 Dec 20089 Jul 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Fluid Delivery Device with Autocalibration
US20090179044 *29 Dec 200816 Jul 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Fluid Delivery Device with Autocalibration
US20090182276 *29 Dec 200816 Jul 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Fluid Delivery Device with Autocalibration
US20090192380 *24 Oct 200830 Jul 2009Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing sensor data
US20090192745 *30 Jul 2009Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing sensor data
US20090198118 *30 Jan 20096 Aug 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Analyte Sensor with Time Lag Compensation
US20090204340 *9 Apr 200913 Aug 2009Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method Of Calibrating An Analyte-Measurement Device, And Associated Methods, Devices And Systems
US20090204341 *15 Apr 200913 Aug 2009Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20090240120 *20 Feb 200924 Sep 2009Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing, transmitting and displaying sensor data
US20090240128 *20 Feb 200924 Sep 2009Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for blood glucose monitoring and alert delivery
US20090240193 *20 Feb 200924 Sep 2009Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for customizing delivery of sensor data
US20090247855 *27 Mar 20091 Oct 2009Dexcom, Inc.Polymer membranes for continuous analyte sensors
US20090247857 *30 Jan 20091 Oct 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Analyte Sensor Calibration Management
US20090257911 *10 Apr 200915 Oct 2009Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and System for Sterilizing an Analyte Sensor
US20090259118 *31 Mar 200915 Oct 2009Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Shallow Implantable Analyte Sensor with Rapid Physiological Response
US20090275817 *29 Jun 20095 Nov 2009Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method of Calibrating an Analyte-Measurement Device, and Associated Methods, Devices and Systems
US20090281407 *20 Jul 200912 Nov 2009Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and System for Providing Analyte Monitoring
US20090287073 *29 Jul 200919 Nov 2009Dexcom, Inc.Silicone based membranes for use in implantable glucose sensors
US20090292188 *31 Jul 200926 Nov 2009Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte Sensors and Methods of Use
US20090299151 *3 Dec 2009Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and Apparatus for Providing Glycemic Control
US20090299162 *3 Dec 2009Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20090300616 *3 Dec 2009Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Automated task execution for an analyte monitoring system
US20090320978 *31 Dec 2009Martinez Johnny CSound-emitting wallet
US20100010324 *14 Jan 2010Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20100010331 *14 Jan 2010Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20100010332 *23 Sep 200914 Jan 2010Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20100016687 *23 Sep 200921 Jan 2010Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20100016698 *21 Jan 2010Dexcom, Inc.Integrated receiver for continuous analyte sensor
US20100022855 *23 Sep 200928 Jan 2010Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20100027169 *30 Jul 20094 Feb 2010Arnold KnottPower distribution arrangement
US20100030038 *12 Oct 20094 Feb 2010Dexcom. Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20100030046 *31 Aug 20094 Feb 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Subcutaneous Glucose Electrode
US20100030048 *31 Aug 20094 Feb 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Subcutaneous Glucose Electrode
US20100030053 *4 Feb 2010Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20100030484 *4 Feb 2010Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20100036215 *11 Feb 2010Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20100036216 *14 Oct 200911 Feb 2010Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20100036222 *14 Oct 200911 Feb 2010Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20100036223 *11 Feb 2010Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20100036224 *14 Oct 200911 Feb 2010DecCom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20100036225 *14 Oct 200911 Feb 2010Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20100045465 *25 Feb 2010Dexcom Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20100049024 *25 Feb 2010Dexcom, Inc.Composite material for implantable device
US20100049025 *30 Oct 200925 Feb 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.On-Body Medical Device Securement
US20100051479 *4 Mar 2010Adam HellerSubcutaneous Glucose Electrode
US20100057040 *4 Mar 2010Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Robust Closed Loop Control And Methods
US20100057041 *31 Aug 20084 Mar 2010Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Closed Loop Control With Reference Measurement And Methods Thereof
US20100057044 *4 Mar 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Robust Closed Loop Control And Methods
US20100057057 *4 Mar 2010Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Closed Loop Control And Signal Attenuation Detection
US20100063373 *11 Mar 2010Dexcom, Inc.Calibration techniques for a continuous analyte sensor
US20100076283 *17 Sep 200925 Mar 2010Dexcom, Inc.Particle-containing membrane and particulate electrode for analyte sensors
US20100076288 *25 Mar 2010Brian Edmond ConnollyMethod and System for Transferring Analyte Test Data
US20100076293 *30 Nov 200925 Mar 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Health Monitor
US20100081909 *1 Apr 2010Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Optimizing Analyte Sensor Calibration
US20100082364 *1 Apr 2010Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Medical Information Management
US20100087724 *8 Apr 2010Dexcom, Inc.Membrane for use with implantable devices
US20100099174 *22 Dec 200922 Apr 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and Apparatus for Providing Power Management in Data Communication Systems
US20100099966 *27 Oct 200922 Apr 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte Monitoring and Management System and Methods Therefor
US20100119693 *15 Jan 201013 May 2010Dexcom, Inc.Techniques to improve polyurethane membranes for implantable glucose sensors
US20100121166 *31 Aug 200913 May 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Subcutaneous Glucose Electrode
US20100121167 *10 Nov 200913 May 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Alarm Characterization for Analyte Monitoring Devices and Systems
US20100121168 *20 Nov 200913 May 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and System for Transferring Analyte Test Data
US20100145172 *15 Jan 201010 Jun 2010Dexcom, Inc.Oxygen enhancing membrane systems for implantable devices
US20100168540 *11 Dec 20091 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20100168541 *11 Dec 20091 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20100168542 *11 Dec 20091 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20100168543 *11 Dec 20091 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20100168544 *11 Dec 20091 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20100168545 *7 Jan 20101 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data for sensor calibration
US20100168546 *7 Jan 20101 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data for sensor calibration
US20100168657 *11 Dec 20091 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20100174158 *8 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20100174163 *22 Mar 20108 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20100179400 *15 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.Signal processing for continuous analyte sensor
US20100179401 *25 Mar 201015 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.Integrated receiver for continuous analyte sensor
US20100179402 *15 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data for sensor calibration
US20100179406 *15 Jul 2010DesCom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20100179408 *15 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20100179409 *15 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20100185065 *26 Mar 201022 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20100185069 *22 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20100185070 *22 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
US20100185072 *23 Mar 201022 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20100191082 *19 Mar 201029 Jul 2010Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20100191085 *29 Jan 200929 Jul 2010Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.Method and Device for Providing Offset Model Based Calibration for Analyte Sensor
US20100198036 *5 Aug 2010Dexcom, Inc.Calibration techniques for a continuous analyte sensor
US20100204554 *15 Apr 201012 Aug 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Electrochemical Analyte Sensor
US20100204555 *19 Apr 201012 Aug 2010Dexcom, Inc.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US20100204559 *12 Aug 2010Dexcom, Inc.Device and method for determining analyte levels
US20100212583 *26 Aug 2010Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20100214104 *26 Aug 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20100217106 *26 Aug 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20100217555 *26 Aug 2010Dexcom, IncSystem and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20100217557 *20 Jan 201026 Aug 2010Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20100223013 *2 Sep 2010Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20100223022 *14 May 20102 Sep 2010Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20100223023 *2 Sep 2010Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20100230285 *26 Feb 201016 Sep 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte Sensors and Methods of Making and Using the Same
US20100235106 *25 May 201016 Sep 2010Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20100240975 *23 Sep 2010Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20100240976 *23 Sep 2010Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20100247775 *31 Mar 201030 Sep 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Precise Fluid Dispensing Method and Device
US20100249565 *7 Jun 201030 Sep 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte Sensor Introducer and Methods of Use
US20100265073 *15 Apr 201021 Oct 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte Monitoring System Having An Alert
US20100274107 *28 Oct 2010Dexcom, Inc.Polymer membranes for continuous analyte sensors
US20100274515 *28 Apr 201028 Oct 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Dynamic Analyte Sensor Calibration Based On Sensor Stability Profile
US20100282616 *26 Jul 201011 Nov 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method of Calibrating an Analyte-Measurement Device, and Associated Methods, Devices and Systems
US20100298686 *2 Aug 201025 Nov 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and System for Providing Data Management in Data Monitoring System
US20100305422 *2 Dec 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Electrochemical Analyte Sensor
US20100305869 *2 Dec 2010Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20100309001 *18 Aug 20109 Dec 2010Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and System for Transferring Analyte Test Data
US20100312085 *18 Aug 20109 Dec 2010Therasense, Inc.Method and Apparatus for Providing Power Management in Data Communication Systems
US20100317953 *16 Dec 2010Reggiardo Christopher VMedical Devices and Methods of Using the Same
US20100331648 *1 Sep 201030 Dec 2010Dexcom, Inc.Calibration techniques for a continuous analyte sensor
US20110029269 *3 Feb 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and Apparatus for Providing Analyte Monitoring System Calibration Accuracy
US20110046465 *1 Nov 201024 Feb 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Analyte Sensors and Methods of Use
US20110118579 *19 May 2011Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20110118580 *19 May 2011Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20110124997 *26 May 2011Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20110130970 *2 Jun 2011Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20110130971 *2 Jun 2011Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20110137601 *9 Jun 2011Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20110144464 *16 Jun 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Integrated Transmitter Unit and Sensor Introducer Mechanism and Methods of Use
US20110144465 *16 Jun 2011Dexcom, Inc.Low oxygen in vivo analyte sensor
US20110160587 *4 Mar 201130 Jun 2011Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Volumetric measurement and visual feedback of tissues
US20110178378 *21 Jul 2011Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20110184258 *28 Jul 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Balloon Catheter Analyte Measurement Sensors and Methods for Using the Same
US20110191044 *30 Sep 20104 Aug 2011Stafford Gary AInterconnect for on-body analyte monitoring device
US20110193704 *11 Aug 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Displays for a medical device
US20110213230 *2 Jul 20091 Sep 2011Stefan LindgrenOn-Line Measuring System of Body Substances
US20110218414 *8 Sep 2011Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20110224522 *15 Sep 2011Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.Method and Apparatus for Providing Dynamic Multi-Stage Amplification in a Medical Device
US20110231107 *22 Sep 2011Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
US20110231140 *22 Sep 2011Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20110231141 *22 Sep 2011Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20110231142 *22 Sep 2011Dexcom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data
US20110270062 *3 Nov 2011Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for replacing signal artifacts in a glucose sensor data stream
US20120209097 *26 Apr 201216 Aug 2012Andre MangSensor with increased biocompatibility
US20140194713 *17 Sep 201310 Jul 2014Google Inc.Contact lenses having two-electrode electrochemical sensors
USRE43039 *20 Dec 2011Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
USRE4339913 Jun 200822 May 2012Dexcom, Inc.Electrode systems for electrochemical sensors
USRE446951 May 20127 Jan 2014Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
CN102725629A *1 Oct 201010 Oct 2012美敦力迷你迈德公司Analyte sensor apparatuses having interference rejection membranes and methods for making and using them
CN102725629B *1 Oct 201010 Dec 2014美敦力迷你迈德公司Analyte sensor apparatuses having interference rejection membranes and methods for making and using them
EP1701654A2 *16 Dec 200420 Sep 2006Subq LLCImplantable biosensor and methods of use thereof
EP1701654A4 *16 Dec 200423 Jun 2010Subq LlcImplantable biosensor and methods of use thereof
EP2223710A124 Feb 20051 Sep 2010DexCom, Inc.Integrated delivery device for continuous glucose sensor
EP2226086A124 Feb 20058 Sep 2010DexCom, Inc.Integrated delivery device for continuous glucose sensor
EP2228642A17 Dec 200415 Sep 2010DexCom, Inc.Systems and methods for improving electrochemical analyte sensors
EP2322094A113 Jul 200518 May 2011DexCom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
EP2329770A113 Jul 20058 Jun 2011DexCom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
EP2329771A213 Jul 20058 Jun 2011DexCom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
EP2332466A113 Jul 200515 Jun 2011DexCom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
EP2335581A113 Jul 200522 Jun 2011DexCom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
EP2335582A113 Jul 200522 Jun 2011DexCom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
EP2335583A213 Jul 200522 Jun 2011DexCom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
EP2335585A213 Jul 200522 Jun 2011DexCom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
EP2335586A113 Jul 200522 Jun 2011DexCom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
EP2335587A213 Jul 200522 Jun 2011DexCom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
EP2407093A122 Feb 200618 Jan 2012DexCom, Inc.Analyte sensor
EP2407094A122 Feb 200618 Jan 2012DexCom, Inc.Analyte sensor
EP2407095A122 Feb 200618 Jan 2012DexCom, Inc.Analyte sensor
EP2499969A120 Jun 200619 Sep 2012DexCom, Inc.Analyte sensor
EP2517623A120 Jun 200631 Oct 2012DexCom, Inc.Analyte sensor
EP2532302A120 Jun 200612 Dec 2012DexCom, Inc.Analyte sensor
EP2561807A110 Mar 200627 Feb 2013DexCom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data for sensor calibration
EP2596747A110 Mar 200629 May 2013DexCom, Inc.System and methods for processing analyte sensor data for sensor calibration
EP2659831A1 *16 Dec 20046 Nov 2013Metronom Health, Inc.Stabilized oxygen transport matrix
EP2796090A121 Sep 200729 Oct 2014DexCom, Inc.Analyte sensor
EP2796093A125 Mar 200829 Oct 2014DexCom, Inc.Analyte sensor
EP2829224A222 Feb 200628 Jan 2015DexCom, Inc.Analyte sensor
EP3001952A113 Jul 20056 Apr 2016DexCom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensor
WO2008041984A1 *4 Oct 200610 Apr 2008Dexcom, Inc.Dual electrode system for a continuous analyte sensor
WO2013152090A23 Apr 201310 Oct 2013Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous analyte sensors, applicators therefor, and associated methods
WO2014011488A23 Jul 201316 Jan 2014Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for leveraging smartphone features in continuous glucose monitoring
WO2014158327A227 Jan 20142 Oct 2014Dexcom, Inc.Advanced calibration for analyte sensors
WO2014158405A212 Feb 20142 Oct 2014Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing and transmitting sensor data
WO2015156966A116 Mar 201515 Oct 2015Dexcom, Inc.Sensors for continuous analyte monitoring, and related methods
Classifications
U.S. Classification600/347, 600/366, 73/61.43, 600/365
International ClassificationA61B5/145, A61B5/00, A61B5/1473, A61B5/1486, C12Q1/00, G01N27/327, G01N27/416
Cooperative ClassificationG01N33/48707, G01N27/3272, C12Q1/006, G01N33/48785, A61B5/14532, A61B5/14865, C12Q1/002
European ClassificationA61B5/145G, A61B5/1486B, C12Q1/00B6B, C12Q1/00B2
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
16 Oct 2001ASAssignment
Owner name: DEXCOM, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:RHODES, RATHBUN;SHULTS, MARK C.;TAPSAK, MARK A.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:012265/0884;SIGNING DATES FROM 20010917 TO 20011001