US 20010018640 A1 Abstract An obstacle detecting apparatus is disclosed, with which obstacles can be reliably detected so that a self-controlled robot or vehicle can drive safely. The apparatus comprises a first section having a distance sensor, for measuring the distance of each measurement point of objects existing in a visual field of the distance sensor and obtaining a three-dimensional coordinate value for each measurement point, so as to generate a distance image; a second section for projecting each measurement point of the objects onto at least one of predetermined horizontal and vertical planes, where each plane is divided into grid cells, and the resolution of the divided grid cells is lower than the measurement resolution of the distance sensor; and calculating the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell in the relevant plane, and generating a three-dimensional histogram indicating the distribution of the measurement points in the grid cells, a third section for converting the histogram to binary data by comparing the histogram with a predetermined threshold value; and a fourth section for extracting one or more obstacles by performing a clustering operation on the binary data, and generating an obstacle map by which the positional relationship between the distance sensor and each obstacle is determined.
Claims(11) 1. An obstacle detecting apparatus comprising:
a distance image obtaining section having a distance sensor, for measuring the distance of each measurement point of objects existing in a visual field in front of the distance sensor and obtaining a three-dimensional coordinate value for each measurement point, and generating a distance image based on the three-dimensional coordinate values of the measurement points; a histogram generating section for:
projecting each measurement point of the objects onto a predetermined plane which is divided into grid cells; and
calculating the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell in the plane, and generating a three-dimensional histogram indicating the distribution of the measurement points in the grid cells; and
an obstacle map generating section for extracting one or more obstacles and generating an obstacle map based on the histogram, where the positional relationship between the distance sensor and each obstacle is determined by the obstacle map. 2. An obstacle detecting apparatus comprising:
a distance image obtaining section having a distance sensor, for measuring the distance of each measurement point of objects existing in a visual field in front of the distance sensor and obtaining a three-dimensional coordinate value for each measurement point, and generating a distance image based on the three-dimensional coordinate values of the measurement points; a histogram generating section for:
projecting each measurement point of the objects onto at least one of predetermined horizontal and vertical planes, where each plane is divided into grid cells, and the resolution of the divided grid cells is lower than the measurement resolution of the distance sensor; and
calculating the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell in the relevant plane, and generating a three-dimensional histogram indicating the distribution of the measurement points in the grid cells;
a binary converting section for converting the histogram to binary data by comparing the histogram with a predetermined threshold value; and an obstacle map generating section for extracting one or more obstacles by performing a clustering operation on the binary data obtained by the binary converting section, and generating an obstacle map by which the positional relationship between the distance sensor and each obstacle is determined. 3. An obstacle detecting apparatus as claimed in claim 2 a correcting section for correcting the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell, calculated by the histogram generating section, based on the distance from the distance sensor to each measurement point. 4. A vehicle drive control apparatus comprising an obstacle detecting apparatus as claimed in one of claims 2 and 3, comprising:
a movement control section for controlling the driving of a vehicle by referring to the obstacle map and controlling the vehicle to avoid the obstacles defined in the obstacle map.
5. A self-controlled robot comprising an obstacle detecting apparatus as claimed in one of claims 2 and 3, comprising:
a movement control section for controlling the movement of the robot by referring to the obstacle map and making the robot avoid the obstacles defined in the obstacle map.
6. An obstacle detecting method comprising:
a distance image obtaining step of measuring the distance of each measurement point of objects existing in a visual field in front of a distance sensor and obtaining a three-dimensional coordinate value for each measurement point, and generating a distance image based on the three-dimensional coordinate values of the measurement points; a histogram generating step of:
projecting each measurement point of the objects onto a predetermined plane which is divided into grid cells; and
calculating the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell in the plane, and generating a three-dimensional histogram indicating the distribution of the measurement points in the grid cells; and
an obstacle map generating step of extracting one or more obstacles and generating an obstacle map based on the histogram, where the positional relationship between the distance sensor and each obstacle is determined by the obstacle map. 7. An obstacle detecting method comprising:
a distance image obtaining step of measuring the distance of each measurement point of objects existing in a visual field in front of a distance sensor and obtaining a three-dimensional coordinate value for each measurement point, and generating a distance image based on the three-dimensional coordinate values of the measurement points; a histogram generating step of:
projecting each measurement point of the objects onto at least one of predetermined horizontal and vertical planes, where each plane is divided into grid cells, and the resolution of the divided grid cells is lower than the measurement resolution of the distance sensor; and
calculating the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell in the relevant plane, and generating a three-dimensional histogram indicating the distribution of the measurement points in the grid cells;
a binary converting step of converting the histogram to binary data by comparing the histogram with a predetermined threshold value; and an obstacle map generating step of extracting one or more obstacles by performing the clustering operation of the binary data obtained in the binary converting step, and generating an obstacle map by which the positional relationship between the distance sensor and each obstacle is determined. 8. An obstacle detecting method as claimed in claim 7 a correcting step of correcting the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell, calculated in the histogram generating step, based on the distance from the distance sensor to each measurement point. 9. A computer readable storage medium storing a program for making a computer execute an operation of detecting obstacles existing in a visual field of a distance sensor, the operation comprising:
a distance image obtaining step of measuring the distance of each measurement point of objects existing in a visual field in front of a distance sensor and obtaining a three-dimensional coordinate value for each measurement point, and generating a distance image based on the three-dimensional coordinate values of the measurement points; a histogram generating step of:
projecting each measurement point of the objects onto a predetermined plane which is divided into grid cells; and
calculating the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell in the plane, and generating a three-dimensional histogram indicating the distribution of the measurement points in the grid cells; and
an obstacle map generating step of extracting one or more obstacles and generating an obstacle map based on the histogram, where the positional relationship between the distance sensor and each obstacle is determined by the obstacle map. 10. A computer readable storage medium storing a program for making a computer execute an operation of detecting obstacles existing in a visual field of a distance sensor, the operation comprising:
a histogram generating step of:
projecting each measurement point of the objects onto at least one of predetermined horizontal and vertical planes, where each plane is divided into grid cells, and the resolution of the divided grid cells is lower than the measurement resolution of the distance sensor; and
calculating the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell in the relevant plane, and generating a three-dimensional histogram indicating the distribution of the measurement points in the grid cells;
a binary converting step of converting the histogram to binary data by comparing the histogram with a predetermined threshold value; and an obstacle map generating step of extracting one or more obstacles by performing a clustering operation on the binary data obtained in the binary converting step, and generating an obstacle map by which the positional relationship between the distance sensor and each obstacle is determined. 11. A computer readable storage medium as claimed in claim 10 a correcting step of correcting the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell, calculated in the histogram generating step, based on the distance from the distance sensor to each measurement point. Description [0001] 1. Field of the Invention [0002] The present invention relates to an obstacle detecting apparatus and method, and a storage medium storing a program for detecting obstacles, in which obstacles are detected using a distance image (which indicates the distance of each measurement point) when a robot or vehicle moves. [0003] 2. Description of the Related Art [0004] In conventional obstacle detecting methods, some constraints are imposed on the shapes of target objects to be detected (i.e., obstacles), and the obstacle detection is performed under the above constraints, by using a concentration image (based on the gray scale) or a distance image. [0005] However, in actual indoor environments in which robots move, or on general roads on which vehicles drive, obstacles having various shapes exist; thus, it is not practical to detect obstacles under such constraints imposed on the shapes. [0006] On the other hand, an obstacle map called an elevation map is known, in which each cell in a two-dimensional grid has assigned data relating to the height or the probability of existence. However, the method using the elevation map requires complicated operations using, for example, a potential-field method, so as to select a route for avoiding obstacles. [0007] In consideration of the above circumstances, an objective of the present invention is to provide an obstacle detecting apparatus and method, and a storage medium storing a program for detecting obstacles, by which obstacles can be reliably detected so that a self-controlled robot or vehicle can drive safely. [0008] Therefore, the present invention provides an obstacle detecting apparatus comprising: [0009] a distance image obtaining section having a distance sensor, for measuring the distance of each measurement point of objects existing in a visual field in front of the distance sensor and obtaining a three-dimensional coordinate value for each measurement point, and generating a distance image based on the three-dimensional coordinate values of the measurement points; [0010] a histogram generating section for: [0011] projecting each measurement point of the objects onto a predetermined plane which is divided into grid cells; and [0012] calculating the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell in the plane, and generating a three-dimensional histogram indicating the distribution of the measurement points in the grid cells; and [0013] an obstacle map generating section for extracting one or more obstacles and generating an obstacle map based on the histogram, where the positional relationship between the distance sensor and each obstacle is determined by the obstacle map. [0014] As a more specific structure, the present invention provides an obstacle detecting apparatus comprising: [0015] a distance image obtaining section (e.g., the distance image obtaining section [0016] a histogram generating section (e.g., the image processing section [0017] projecting each measurement point of the objects onto at least one of predetermined horizontal and vertical planes, where each plane is divided into grid cells, and the resolution of the divided grid cells is lower than the measurement resolution of the distance sensor; and [0018] calculating the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell in the relevant plane, and generating a three-dimensional histogram indicating the distribution of the measurement points in the grid cells; [0019] a binary converting section (e.g., the image processing section [0020] an obstacle map generating section (e.g., the image processing section [0021] According to the above structure, a histogram is generated by projecting the measurement points in the distance image onto each of one or two planes, and the obstacle map is generated based on the histogram(s). Therefore, obstacles can be easily detected, and the environment around the relevant vehicle, robot, or the like (which has this obstacle detection apparatus) can be easily recognized. [0022] The obstacle detecting apparatus may further comprise a correcting section (e.g., the image processing section [0023] In this case, the data are corrected according to each distance (of the measurement point) to the object; thus, the accuracy of the obstacle map can be improved. [0024] The present invention also provides a vehicle drive control apparatus comprising an obstacle detecting apparatus as explained above, comprising: [0025] a movement control section (e.g., the movement control section [0026] According to this structure, the environment around the vehicle can be easily recognized, and the positioning control of the vehicle can be performed with high accuracy. [0027] The present invention also provides a self-controlled robot comprising an obstacle detecting apparatus as explained above, comprising: [0028] a movement control section (e.g., the movement control section [0029] According to this structure, the environment around the robot can be easily recognized, and the positioning control of the robot can be performed with high accuracy. [0030] The present invention also provides an obstacle detecting method comprising: [0031] a distance image obtaining step of measuring the distance of each measurement point of objects existing in a visual field in front of a distance sensor and obtaining a three-dimensional coordinate value for each measurement point, and generating a distance image based on the three-dimensional coordinate values of the measurement points; [0032] a histogram generating step of: [0033] projecting each measurement point of the objects onto a predetermined plane which is divided into grid cells; and [0034] calculating the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell in the plane, and generating a three-dimensional histogram indicating the distribution of the measurement points in the grid cells; and [0035] an obstacle map generating step of extracting one or more obstacles and generating an obstacle map based on the histogram, where the positional relationship between the distance sensor and each obstacle is determined by the obstacle map. [0036] As a more specific method, the present invention provides an obstacle detecting method comprising: [0037] a distance image obtaining step (corresponding to, for example, step S [0038] a histogram generating step (corresponding to, for example, steps S [0039] projecting each measurement point of the objects onto at least one of predetermined horizontal and vertical planes, where each plane is divided into grid cells, and the resolution of the divided grid cells is lower than the measurement resolution of the distance sensor; and [0040] calculating the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell in the relevant plane, and generating a three-dimensional histogram indicating the distribution of the measurement points in the grid cells; [0041] a binary converting step (corresponding to, for example, steps S [0042] an obstacle map generating step (corresponding to, for example, step S [0043] According to the above method, the histogram is generated by projecting the measurement points in the distance image onto each of one or two planes, and the obstacle map is generated based on the histogram(s). Therefore, obstacles can be easily detected, and the environment around the relevant vehicle, robot, or the like (which has this obstacle detection apparatus) can be easily recognized. [0044] The obstacle detecting method may further comprise a correcting step (corresponding to, for example, step S [0045] In this case, the data are corrected according to each distance (of the measurement point) to the object; thus, the accuracy of the obstacle map can be improved. [0046] The present invention also provides a computer readable storage medium storing a program for making a computer execute an operation of detecting obstacles existing in a visual field of a distance sensor, the operation comprising: [0047] a distance image obtaining step of measuring the distance of each measurement point of objects existing in a visual field in front of a distance sensor and obtaining a three-dimensional coordinate value for each measurement point, and generating a distance image based on the three-dimensional coordinate values of the measurement points; [0048] a histogram generating step of: [0049] projecting each measurement point of the objects onto a predetermined plane which is divided into grid cells; and [0050] calculating the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell in the plane, and generating a three-dimensional histogram indicating the distribution of the measurement points in the grid cells; and [0051] an obstacle map generating step of extracting one or more obstacles and generating an obstacle map based on the histogram, where the positional relationship between the distance sensor and each obstacle is determined by the obstacle map. [0052] As a computer readable storage medium storing a more specific program, the present invention provides a computer readable storage medium storing a program for making a computer execute an operation of detecting obstacles existing in a visual field of a distance sensor, the operation comprising: [0053] a distance image obtaining step of measuring the distance of each measurement point of objects existing in a visual field in front of a distance sensor and obtaining a three-dimensional coordinate value for each measurement point, and generating a distance image based on the three-dimensional coordinate values of the measurement points; [0054] a histogram generating step of: [0055] projecting each measurement point of the objects onto at least one of predetermined horizontal and vertical planes, where each plane is divided into grid cells, and the resolution of the divided grid cells is lower than the measurement resolution of the distance sensor; and [0056] calculating the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell in the relevant plane, and generating a three-dimensional histogram indicating the distribution of the measurement points in the grid cells; [0057] a binary converting step of converting the histogram to binary data by comparing the histogram with a predetermined threshold value; and [0058] an obstacle map generating step of extracting one or more obstacles by performing a clustering operation on the binary data obtained in the binary converting step, and generating an obstacle map by which the positional relationship between the distance sensor and each obstacle is determined. [0059] In the computer readable storage medium, the operation may further comprise a correcting step of correcting the number of the measurement points projected onto each grid cell, calculated in the histogram generating step, based on the distance from the distance sensor to each measurement point. [0060]FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing the structure of the obstacle detecting apparatus as an embodiment according to the present invention. [0061]FIG. 2 is a flowchart showing the operation of the image processing section [0062]FIG. 3 is a diagram showing an example of the distance image obtained by the distance image obtaining section [0063]FIG. 4 is a diagram showing an example of the histogram stored in the histogram storage section [0064]FIG. 5 is a diagram showing an example of the lookup table [0065]FIG. 6 is a diagram showing an example of the obstacle map stored in the obstacle map storage section [0066]FIG. 7 is a diagram for explaining the method of generating the lookup table [0067] Hereinafter, the obstacle detecting apparatus as an embodiment according to the present invention will be explained in detail, with reference to the drawings. [0068]FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing the structure of the obstacle detecting apparatus of the embodiment. In the figure, reference numeral [0069] In the following explanations, it is assumed that the obstacle detecting apparatus as shown in FIG. 1 is built in a self-controlled robot which moves inside a room. [0070] Here, the coordinate system used in the present embodiment is defined. The coordinate system consists of three orthogonal axes, where the front (distance) direction of the robot corresponds to the X axis, the right-left direction of the robot corresponds to the Y axis, and the vertical direction corresponds to the Z direction. In addition, the “distance” specifically indicates the distance of the straight line from the position of the distance image obtaining section [0071] Below, the operation of the obstacle detecting apparatus as shown in FIG. 1 will be explained with reference to FIG. 2. FIG. 2 is a flowchart showing the operation of generating an obstacle map based on the distance image, performed by the image processing section [0072] First, the image processing section [0073] In the next step, after the distance image is stored in the image storage section [0074] In the next step S [0075] In the following step S [0076]FIG. 5 shows an example of the lookup table [0077] In the next step S [0078] The threshold value used in step S [0079] In the following step S [0080] When the clustering operation is completed, the operation of generating an obstacle map based on the distance image obtained in the step S [0081] The movement control section [0082] The method of generating the lookup table [0083] In the example of FIG. 7, an object having a height of h meters is assumed. When the object is positioned at [0084] As explained above, the histograms relating to measurement points projected onto two planes are generated, and an obstacle map is generated based on the histograms. Therefore, obstacles can be easily detected. In addition, measured data are corrected according to the distance to each object; thus, the accuracy of the obstacle map can be improved. Furthermore, the movement of the robot is controlled while the obstacle map is continuously referred to; thus, the positioning control of the robot can be accurately performed. [0085] In the above embodiments, each accumulated number is corrected using the lookup table Referenced by
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