US 1979548 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
2 Sheets-Sheet 1 w. H. HoRscH ELECTRIC VIBRATOR Filed Feb. 27. 1933 Nov. 6, 1934.
Jay/WW Nov. 6, 1934. w. H. HORSCH' ELECTRIC VIBRATOR Filed Feb. 27. 1933 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Nov. 6, 1934 UNITED STATES ELECTRIC VIBRATQR Walter H. Horsch, Wheaton, lllL, assignor to Massey Concrete Products Corporation, Chicago, 111., a corporation of Virginia Application February 27, 1933, Serial No.-658,85l
The present invention relates to electric vibrators, and is particularly concerned with electric vibrators adapted to be used for high frequency vibration of concrete and other molded products.
55 The vibrator is capable, however, of general application, and I do not wish to limit myself to any particular use of the apparatus.
One of the objects of the invention is the provision of an improved vibrator which may be more quickly and conveniently attached to and detached from the concrete forms with which the vibrator is intended to be used'. withoutnecessity for using any wrenches or other tools and without any possibility of the vibrator jarring loose.
Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved vibrator which is adapted to vibrate at a higher frequency than any of the devices of the prior art and which is adapted to provide balanced vibrations by virtue of the improved structure of the vibrator.
Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved vibrator structure of the rotary type, by means of which the eccentric thrust which is placed upon the rotating shafts which support the eccentric weights, is eliminated and the armature shaft is not subjected to eccen trio forces.
Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved vibrator which is sturdy, capable of economical manufacture and also capable of long use without necessity for replacement or repair, and which has a minimum of moving parts I so as to reduce friction and reduce the possibility of parts wearing out.
Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved vibrator structure having separately mounted eccentrically supported weights and having an improved mode of drive connection between these weights and the motor whereby centrifugal action upon the universal joint is reduced to a minimum and the joint is capable of operat on at a higher speed.
Another object of the invention is the provision type employing eccentrically mounted rotating of an improved high frequency vibrator of the undue strain upon the electric motor and its bearings.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings, in which similar 60 characters of reference indicate similar parts throughout the several views.
Referring to the drawings, of which there are two sheets:
Fig. 1 is a front elevational view of an electric vibrator constructed according to the present invention and applied to a concrete pipe form of large size;
Fig. 2 is a transverse horizontal sectional view taken on the plane of the axis of the motor shaft, with the motor shaft in plan, showing the details of construction of the vibrator and its mode of attachment;
Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken on the plane of the line 33 of Fig. 2, showing the details of con- 'struction and shape of the eccentrically mounted rotating weight;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on the plane of the-line 33 of Fig. 2, showing the details of construction of the handle;
Fig. 5 is an elevational view of the eccentric weight as viewed from the end of the weight, looking toward the supporting shaft;
Fig. 6 is an exploded fragmentary view in perspective of the details of construction of the 35 motor shaft and weight supporting shaft and the connecting universal joint;
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on the plane of the line 7-7 of Fig. 1, showing the details of the mode of attachment of the vibra- 9 tor to the concrete pipe form;
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary front elevational view of the supporting apparatus on the pipe, with the vibrator removed; a
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary sectional view of one end of another type of vibrator which is adapted to produce vibrations in a predetermined direction;
Figs. 10 and 11 are two diagrams showing the' relative arrangements of the eccentric weights of the vibrator of Fig. 9, which result in the production of vibrations in predetermined directions. r
Referring to Fig 1, 10 indicates'in its entirety a metal form for a concrete pipe consisting of two halves provided with radially extending flanges 11 which are secured together to form the outer shell of the pipe. The form is provided with an appropriate core, and preferably supported with the bell end of the pipe upward.
The form is supported upon a truck 12 consisting of a platform 13 carried by flange wheels 14 guided upon rails 15 so that one form after another may be brought into position beneath the concrete mixing and discharging apparatus.
Fixedly supported upon the form is a con crete vibrator, indicated in its entirety by the numeral 16, and the concrete vibrator 16 is preferably of the rotary type comprising a motor and one or more eccentrically mounted weights rotated by the motor in order to produce vibration.
In order to provide a vibrator capable of vibration at a higher rate of speed, it is necessary to increase the speed of rotation of the motor, and therefore the motor is preferably an induction motor, such as a three phase induction motor which does not require any commutator or brushes, and therefore the possibility of excessive wear and sparking at brushes is eliminated.
This problem would otherwise become very serious at high rates of speed.
The three phase induction motor of the vibrator 16 is energized through the three supply conductors 17, which preferably lead to a frequency changer 18 which is energized by conductors 19 leading to the 60 cycle alternating current power supply.
For example, one embodiment of the invention comprises a ninety cycle 110 volt, three phase motor of approximately one and one-half horse power rating, capable of rotation at 5300 R. P. M. By increasing the frequency of the energizing current, that embodiment of the vibrator might be caused to vibrate at. any multiple of forty-five or sixty cycles, or any desired frequency, by means of appropriate energizing current.
The present vibrators are capable of producing vibrations at frequencies as high as from eight thousand to twelve thousand R. P. M., the principal difficulties being the provision of parts of suflicient strength to withstand the higher rates of frequencies.
Referring to Figs. '7 and 8, these are views showing the mode of attachment of the vibrator on the form. The form 10, which is filled with concrete 20, may be provided with a pair of vertically extending" angle irons 21, 22, each having one flange riveted, welded, or otherwise fixedly secured to the form.
Theangle irons have the-opposite flange extending outwardly from the form 10, and these transverse flanges may be formed with laterally projecting feet 23 at each end. The feet 23 may be bolted, riveted, or welded to the outwardly projecting flanges 24 of circumferentially extending angle irons 25, 26 fixedly mounted. on the form 10.
A vertically extending channelled member 27 of stock shape may be provided with a body 28 and side flanges 29 and 30, and the flanges 29 and 30 may be bolted to the outwardly projecting.
flanges of the angle irons 21 and 22, thereby fixedly securing the channelled member 27 to the form.
' The channelled member 27 fixedly supports a tapered metal member 31 which is provided with a flat rear side 32 for engagement with the body 28 of the channel 27. The tapered metal member 31 may be provided with transverse bores 33 for passing bolts 34, the heads of which are countersunk below the forward surface 35 of the metal member 31.- The metal member 31 has outwardly flaring sides 36, 37, the angularity of which in a horizontal plane is complementary to the angularity of the recess ina socket member 38.- The flaring surfaces 36 and 37, however, also slope outward toward the bottom at a predetermined angle, which has been carefully determined by experiment and use. If this angle is not sufficient, the recessed complementary member 38 will be wedged so tightly on the member 31 that it will be impossible to remove it, and if the angle is greater than a predetermined amount the wedging action'will not be sufficient, and the vibrator will ride upward on its support and become loose. If this angularity is too great, so that sufficient wedging action is not present, it is necessary to use a securing device on top of the member 31 to engage the top of the member 38 and prevent the vibrator from riding upward and becoming loose.
Such a securing member might take the form of a plate bolted to the member 31, but many of the advantages of the securing device are lost if it is necessary to screw or unscrew bolts effecting a fastening or unfastening of the vibrator from the form.
It is the object of the present invention to avoid the use of any such devices, which, however, have been tried and eliminated by the use of a predetermined angle. The taper of the member 31 should preferably be about two degrees from the vertical or within the range of one and one-half to two and one-half degrees. This taper results in a firm wedging of the so-called keystone 31 in its socket without the vibrator riding upward and becoming loose during the vibration.
The device is still capable of being separated from the form by means of a sharp blow with a hammer, so that the vibrator may be quickly detached from any form and attached to another form.
.The socket member 38 is, of course, provided with diagonally and inwardly extending surfaces 39, 40, which also flare outwardly toward the A such as a three phase alternating current induction motor, but in some cases single phase or two phase motors may be used with appropriate starting windings, or any type of motor might be applied which is considered suitable.
The motor preferably is of a type not having any commutator, as higher speeds may be attained when commutator troubles are eliminated. The rotor 45 may consist of a motor shaft 46 with an appropriate core 47 of laminations, provided with suitable squirrel cage windings and fixedly mounted on the shaft 46. The shaft 46 may be provided with reduced ends forming annular shoulders 48 for engaging one side of the ball bearing race 49which supports the balls 50 engaging the complementary outer 'race 51.
The bearings used are preferably of the self-,-
alignin ".vpe and preferably of the sealed type provided with an oil seal for preventing thelubricant from escaping from the bearing, but, if necessary, the motor housing may be provided with grooves 52 for receiving an oil sealing member 53 surrounding the motor shaft 46.- All of the anti-friction bearings used are preferably of the sealed type. The construction at the opposite end of the motor shaft in Fig. 2 is exactly the same, and therefore need not be described in detail, and in general both ends of the vibrator may be similar, and therefore only one end will be described.
The field windings 54 are carried by a laminated field core 55 having a suitable number of poles, and the laminations of the field core 55 may be clamped between two clamping members 56, 57, to which they may be secured by rivets and bolts or other securing devices. The clamping members 56 comprise annular metal members having outer cylindrical surfaces and having flat surfaces engaging the laminations 55 and with the laminations 55 the clamping members 56, 57 form the outer casing of the middle part of the motor.
The side surfaces of the members 56, 57 are preferably provided with flat annular surfaces 58, 59 which are separated by a' cylindrical shoulder 60 adapted to align the end housing member with the medial part of the motor housing. The end housing member 61 consists of a cast metal member which is formed with an inwardly extending boss 62 having a bore 63 for passing the motor shaft 46.
The boss 62 is also formed with an annular shoulder 64 and an enlarged recess 65 for receiv ing the outer race 51 of the motor anti-friction bearing, and the recess 65 tapers outward at 66 to communicate with a larger recess 67 having an annular shoulder 68 against which is seated a similar but larger type of anti-friction bearing 69 spaced from the motor bearing 70;
The motor end plate 61 is provided with an outwardly extending boss 71 which is formed with the socket 67, shoulder 68 and tapered intermediate portion 66. The annular end plate 61 is also formed with a. plurality of threaded bores 72 preferably equally spaced about its periphery and adapted to receive the threaded bolts 73 which secure thevibrator housings 74 to the motor housing. The end plates 61 are also provided with symmetrically located and equally spaced transverse bores 75 which-register with the bores 76 passing through the clamping members .56, 57 and laminations 55 for receiving the assembly bolts 77, which pass all the way through the motor housing and secure the end plates, clamping members and field core together.
At the opposite sides of the housing, the end plates 61 are provided with sockets 78 surrounding the bores 75for receiving the flat ends 79 of a U shaped handle 80. The sockets 78 may be substantially rectangular, having fiat sides 81, 82
engaging the flat sides of the ends 79 of the handle, and when secured by the bolt 77, which passes through the end of the handle, as well asthe motor housing, thehandle 80 is also secured against rotation.
Two of the handles 80 are preferably provided, one at each side of the housing, but anynumber of handles maybe utilized. 1
These handles may also be employed for hooking or otherwise fastening lifting devices. I
The end plates 61 are provided with the rearwardly projecting flanges 81', upon which are formed the surfaces 39, 40, 41, 42, which form the socket for the keystone 31, previously described.
The vibrator housing 74 comprises a cast metal member of substantially cup shape, one of the housings being preferably provided for each end of the vibrator. This vibrator is preferably provided with an eccentric weight 82, 83 at each end of the motor shaft. The vibrator housing is formed with a substantially cylindrical socket 84,.capable of receiving the outer race of a second vibrator shaft bearing 85, which may be of the same type as the bearings previously described.
The vibrator shaft 86 is shown in detail at the right of Fig. 2, and it comprises a short shaft having reduced ends 87, 88, the ends 87, .88 supporting the inner races of the bearings 69, 85 which are seated against the annular shoulders 89, 90. All of the races of the bearings in this device are preferably a close frictional fit with the parts which they engage, the outer races being fixedly mounted by a frictional fit in their sockets, andthe inner races being fixedly mounted on the shaft by a close frictional fit on the shaft.
The vibrator shaft 86 is provided with a slot 91 for receiving a key 92, and the eccentric weight '83 has a hub 93 provided with a bore 94 for receiving shaft 86 and with a similar slot 95 for receiving the key 92. The eccentric weight is thus fixedly mounted on the shaft 86 to rotate with it.
The hub 93 supports at one side a weight 83, the specific shape of which is shown in Figs. 2 and 5. Looking at the weight in elevation in Fig. 2, it will be observed that the weight is curved about its periphery, but it is provided with a relatively blunt point 96 at the front and the back. The weight tapers outwardly at 97 from the hub toward the pointed part 96 and is substantially stream-lined from front to back from one point 96 to the other point. The weight is thus adapted to be rotated in either direction, and is substantially stream lined so as to reduce the air resistance as much as possible and thus reduce the power required to effect operation of the device.
All of the parts of the device are preferably so constructed that they may be quickly manufactured upon a lathe and so constructed that all of the bearings will be in alignment when the device is assembled. Thus the end plates 61 are formed with outer fiat surfaces 98 which are annular in shape and bounded on the inner side by an annular cylindrical shoulder 99.
The vibrator housing has a complementary flat surface and an inwardly projecting annular part 100 which fits within the cylindrical shoulder 99 in order to align the vibrator housing with the motor housing. In order to assure the alignment of these parts, the vibrator housing is placed in the lathe, and the socket 84 may be cut or formed truly concentric with the housing, and while the housing is still held in the same position, the surfaces 98 and 100 and the annular shoulder 99 may be formed on the end housing.
The end plate 61 is likewise formed with its sockets 65, 67 and its bore 63, annular shoulder 99, and annular shoulder 60, all of these parts having the same axis. When the parts are assembled with the other parts of the motor housing, the bearing sockets are thus placed in substantial alignment with each other, and the separate motor and vibrator shafts are substantially aligned so that they may be driven together.
The motor shaft is preferably formed at each end with substantially triangular axially extending lugs;101, 102 located diametrically opposite to eachother and separated by the cut-out spaces 103, 104 which communicate between the lugs 101, 102. See Fig. 6.
The vibrator shafts 86 each have one end similarly formed with lugs 105, 106 and when the 107 is adapted to provide a universal connection between the motor shaft and vibrator shafts. The fiber member 107 may be of leather, fiber, rubber, or any convenient material, and the ends of the shafts are slightly spaced, as shown at the right in Fig. 2, to permit universal movement.
A loose metal or rubber tubular casing 108 may surround the ends of the shafts at the universal joint to prevent the access of grease or other lubricant to the fiber member.
The vibrator being provided with a separate shaft for each eccentric weight, there is no eccentric radial thrust placed upon the motor shaft, and the motor is capable of operation with a minimum amount of wear and tear on its bearings. Suitable larger bearings are provided for the eccentric weights, and each eccentric weight has a bearing at each end of its shaft. The eccentric weights preferably extend in the same angular direction with respect to each other when they are assembled with the motor and shaft so that they rotate together and tend to cause the vibrator to vibrate back and forth rather than to twist, but in some embodiments of the invention the eccentric weights may be oppositely disposed to effect a twisting action of the vibrator.
Referring to Fig. 9, this is a modification in which the details of construction of the motor housing and vibrator housing may be substantially the same, with the following exceptions. The vibrator shaft 109 is provided with a bevel gear 110 having a weight 111 eccentrically located at one side of the gear. The weighted gear 110 is fixedly secured to the shaft 109, shaft 109 being rotatably mounted upon suitable anti-friction bearings 112, 113. Shaft 109 also supports the inner race of an anti-friction bearing 114, which rotatably supports a second bevel'gear 115 on the shaft 109. p
The vibrator housing 74 in this embodiment is formed with a socket 116 at one side for receiving an anti-friction bearing 117, which rotatably supports a stub shaft 118 carried by a bevel gear 119'. Shaft 109 drives gear 110 in one direction, and through the gear 119 the gear 115 is driven in the opposite direction.
Gear 115 is likewise provided with an eccentric weight 119 at one side, by being thickened at one side, and the vibrator thus has two eccentric weights rotating in opposite directions.
These eccentric weights may be so arranged with respect to each other that they both reach the bottom shown in Fig. 10 at the same time or so that the weight 111 is at the top when the weight 119 is at the bottom.
Referring to the arrows of Fig. 10, it will beobserved that when the weights are at the bottom,, weight 11 is passing toward the right, and weight 119 toward the left, and the inertia effects of the weights at this point counteract each other. The same situation takes place when the weights are at the top of the circle in Fig. 10. When, however, the weights are at the'side points of the circle in Fig. 10, it will be found that weight 119 is passing upward when weight 111 is passing upward, and
thus the two weights work together to cause an inertia vibration in the same direction. The combined weights,.therefore, tend to produce vibrations in a vertical direction, as shown by the arrows 120.
In the arrangement of Fig. 11, the combined weights are additive in a horizontal direction and produce vibrations in a horizontal direction, as shown by the arrows 121.
The present vibrator produces much better results than any of the vibrators which have previously been developed, and the higher rates of vibration produce better grades of concrete and better results. The present vibrator is capable of being vibrated at a very high rate and capable of operation for a long period of time without overheating or'requiring any repair.
It may be quickly removed from one form and. placed upon another form, each form carrying an appropriate keystone connecting block, and it is not necessary to loosen or tighten any cables, bolts or securing devices other than the keystone device,.which has a predetermined taper and which is quickly detached.
The heat generated by the operation of the device is quickly radiated from the outside, and the motor is entirely enclosed so that dust and other foreign matter from concrete operations cannot get-into the motor and affect its operation. It is not necessary to provide for ventilation of the inside of the motor with the regular sizes of motors; but, if desired, in larger types of motors positive ventilation may also be provided.
While I have illustrated a preferred embodiment of my invention, I contemplate that many modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention, and I do not wish to be limited to the precise details of construction set forth, but desire to avail myself of all changes within the scope of the appended claims.
* Having thus described my invention,,what I claim is new and desire to secure by Letters Patent 1 5 of the United States, is:
1. In an electric'vibrator, the combination of a motor housing comprising a pair of end plates, a pair of field clamping members, a multiplicity of laminations forming a motor field between said 120 field'clamping members, bearings carried by each of said end plates; a motor armature and shaft, and auxiliary vibrating elements mounted on each end of said motor casing and comprising a shaft with bearings at each end and an eccentric weight mounted between said bearings, said motor shaft 1 and said vibrator shafts being provided with interlocking lugs on the ends of said shafts and nonmetallic elements disposed between said lugs,
said non-metallic element being substantially groove-formed in shape, and said lugs being substantially segmental, and the lugs on each shaft spaced from each other to provide space for said non-metallic element.
2. In an electric vibrator, the combination of a motor housing comprising a pair of end plates,
a pair of field clamping members, a multiplicity of laminations forming a motor field between said field clamping members, bearings carried by eachof said end plates, a motor armature and shaft, and auxiliary vibrating elements mounted on each end of said motor casing and comprising a shaft with bearings at each end and an eccentric weight mounted between said bearings, said end plates each being formed with opposed angular grooves, the opposed faces of saidgrooves diverging downwardly from each other for engagement with a complementary shaped anchoring memher, said eccentric weight being substantially stream-lined in shape, threaded members passthrough said end plates, clampinginembers and field laminations, and a handle substantially U shape carried by one of said threaded.
3. In a vibrating apparatus for concrete, the combination of a form having a pair ot'substantially parallel angle irons attached thereto, a channelled metal member having a pair of flanges attached to said angle irons and having a supporing body joining said flanges, a tapered metal at t t member. carried by said channelled member, said tapered securing member having plane wedging surfaces sloping outward from. each other and sloping outward toward the bot-