|Publication number||US1907053 A|
|Publication date||2 May 1933|
|Filing date||7 May 1931|
|Priority date||7 May 1931|
|Publication number||US 1907053 A, US 1907053A, US-A-1907053, US1907053 A, US1907053A|
|Inventors||Flath Otto S|
|Original Assignee||Flath Otto S|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (54), Classifications (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
May 2, 1933. o. s. FLATH 1,907,053'
RETAINING WALL Filed lay 7. 1951 4 sheets-sheet 1 May 2, 933. Q FLA-TH 1,907,053
RETININCY WALL -Filed May '7'. 1951 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 mmmlllILlmm "uw III - Tun @E @nnmnmmmlw "n mllllll l f. llll" G. S. FLATH May 2, 1933.
RETAINING WALL Filed May 7. 1951 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 14 ...r h y v l 4. M Wi 4 41. m v J I May 2, 1933. o. s. FLATH 1,907,053
RETAINlNCr WALL Patented May 2, 1933 RETANING W'ALL Application inea May 7, i931.v serial No. 535,7ee.
My invention relates to retaining walls composed of separate units adapted to have interlocking relation; these units being preferably made of reenforced concrete.
rlhe wall comprises a plurality of headers and stretchers arranged in courses, with the headers and stretchers formed to provide an interlocking relation not only between headers and stretchers arranged in the same rcourse, but also Jformed to provide interlocking relation between the headers and stretchers of the superposed courses.
The invention also involves other units, namely foundation or separating units and spacer members or units, adapted to be used in certain instances when desired, as for example in situations where is desired to provide an open faced wall; or where snorter header sections are to be used.
The objects and advantages ot my inven@ tion will be readily comprehended from the following detailed description of the accompanying drawings wherein:
Figure 1 is a perspective view illustrating one form oi my invention in process ot construction, with certain portions broken away to more clearly disclose the construction.
Figure 2 is a sectional perspective view ot 'the wall and provided with the lill and a traclr foundation.
Figure 3 is a top plan view ol a short or end stretcher.
Figure l is a side elevation of the same with a portion broken away and shown in section to disclose the construction.
Figure 5 is al top plan view of a foundation or separating` member.
Figure 6 is a side elevation of same with a portion broken away and shown in section.
Figure 7 is a perspective view of the rear of my improved wall, made substansiniilar to tlie type shown in Figure ustrating the use of superposed short ader unit-s as well as a different type o'i acer member.
Figure 8 is an elevation of one of the spa-cY r members used in Figure 7 Figure 9 is a bottom plan view of the spacer member shown in lligure 8.
Figure 10 is a. plan View of one of the headers.
Figure 11 is a side view or" the same with portions broken away and shown in section.
Figure 12 is a plan view of a full stretcher section.
Figure 13 is a side view of same with p0rtions broken away and shown in section.
Figure 111 is a rear perspective view illustrating a modified arrangement of my improved wall.
Figure 15 is a plan view ot' a modilied form of stretcher.
Figure 16 is a side elevation of same with portions broken away and shown in section.
Figure 17 is a plan view of a. modiiied form ot a foundation or separating block.
Figure 18 is a side view of same with portions brolren away and shown in section.
Figure 19 is a plan view of a modiiied arrangement of the headers.
Figure 20 is a sectional view of the adjacent portions of headers, stretchers and spacing blocks, as arranged in Figure 7, and taken on the line 20-20 of Figure 7.
Figure 21 is a similar View illustrating the use of stretchers and spacing blocks of the types shown in Figures 15 and 17; the View being taken substantially on the line 21-21 of Figure 19.
My invention relates to retaining walls more especially adapted for supporting embankments or ills7 and particularly where conditions make construction o' the ordinary solid wall impracticable and its eX- pense prohibitive.
The invention has for its object the provision of an economical construction composed o' a few standardized units of such 'formation as to be readily adaptable to ifarying conditions; namely units which may be easily transported and readily put into asemliled relation without need of special si. ll; with the respective units so Jtermed tnat an interl cking relation between the respective units is provided wherein the units will be interloclred so that the assembled units are interloclred in longitudinal, trans- 20j a flush 25 7 transverse verse and vertical directions, thus providing a fully interlocked Wall throughout adapted to withstand the pressures and lateral strains of the subsequently' introduced lilling and 5 a superposed track or other structure.
In the exemplification of the invention as shown in Figure l, the retaining wall consists of headers 25, of uniform dimensions, arranged in aligned courses, with the headers of the respective courses arranged predetermined distances apart, namely so as to be disposed adjacent to the ends of the respective stretchers 26.
In Figures l and 2, the headers of 15 the respective courses are preferably verti- `extend laterally beyond the planes of the longitudinal sides of the body; the head portions 28 preferably being made With the tapered sides 29, preferably terminating adjacent to the outer ends in the straight side portions 30 so asnot to provide sharp tips at opposite sides of the heads, which would be apt to become broken.
The heads 28, on one of the faces, are shoivn provided with the vertically disposed 'lugs 3l, which may be of any transverse configuration, being preferably rectangular as shoivn; While the other face of each head 28 is shown provided With a socket 32. The sockets 32, like the lugs 3l, are preferably iarranged at the median line of the heads and the lugs and soci-iets at the respective ends arranged in vertical alignment with each other; the socket vbeing preferably of the same configuration and dimensions h15 the lugs.
The headers 25 are usually arranged at the ends of thel Wall, particularly at the initial ends, and at the opposite ends of the `stretchers as sho-Wn in Figure l, Where a f ivall consisting merely of two vertical rows of stretchers is illustrated.
The stretchers 26, employed throughout the major portion of the Wall disclosed in `Figures l and 2, are shown in detail in Figures l2 and 13. These stretchers consist of the main body portion 33, which is preferably rectangular in cross-section and of greater vertical ividth than the transverse dimensions, provided with the enlarged ends 34 and an intermediate enlargement 35.
These enlargements are arranged on the same vertical face or side of the stretcher, namely on what constitutes the inner side of the stretcher when in assembled position.
The end enlargements 34, at least at the outer ends of the stretcher, are formed with the sloping or tapered sides 36, sloping outwardly beyond the ends of tle stretcher. These end faces 36 of the enlargements 'l-l are formed to match the sloping or tapered sides 29 of the ends of the headers; the taper 36 of the stretcher enlargements terminating short of the outer face or side of the stretcher so to provide the straight end shoulders 37 vrhich match and abut the straight side faces 30 of the header ends.
In assembly, the tapered extensions of the stretchers are arranged rearward of the outer ends of the headers, relative to the vertical outer face of the Wall, so that the outer vertical sides of the stretchers will be arranged flush With the outer ends of the header ends as slioivn in Figures l and 2, and thus provide a Wall with a smooth or unbroken outer face. The intermediate enlargements 35, which, like the end enlargements, are arranged on the inner vertical face or side of the stretcher, are preferably made with the oppositely sloping sides 38, 38, and the enlargements 35 preferably made to extend into the same horizontal plane as the end enlargements. These intermediate enlargements 85, provi/le a greater bearing surface for the ends of the intermediate headers, as shown at 39 in Figure l; and these enlargements extend inwardly heyond the vertical planes of the tapered sides of the header ends, as clearly shown at 3. iu Figure l. Vith these intermediate enlargements, like the end enlargements protruding on the inner face of the Wall, additional anchorage in the fill (indicated at il. in Figure 2) is obtained against moi/ement in a direction lengthwise of the Wall.
The stretcher, at a point coincident with the intermediate enlargement 35 and on one horizontal face, is provided with a vertically disposed boss or lug 40; While the opposite side or face of the stretcher, in vertical alignment with the lug 49, is provided with a. recess or socket 41, see Figure 13.
The lugs 3l and 40 and the sockets 92 and All of the headers and stretchers are intended to be of similar configuration so as to match each other and thus alleny the lug 3l of a header to enter the socket l of r. stretcher.
In order to save cost in material and construction, the side of the wall which is disposed Within the fill A, namely what. ma.;v be termed the inner longitudinal side ot the Wall, need not be roi-med with the stretclier. in superposed relation with each other as at the outer side of the vfall and therefore l provide the relatively small foundation or separating blocks 42, shown at the rear side of the Wall in Figure l and in detail in Fig ures 5 and 6.
These foundation or separating units 42 are preferably of rect-angular coniglnation, in cross-section, of wiflth corresponding to the Width of the stretchers 26 their enlargements 34 and 35; While the lengths of the units 42 are substantially equal to the combined 'idtli---considered lengtl 'se of the Wall-of the ends of two aligned su etchers and an intermediate header end, seen at the top in Figure l. The nuits or blocks 42 are shown preferably with th corners, at Whatconstitutes the inner side cut-away at 43, 43, seo Figure 5, to correspond with the beveled faces of the stretcher end enlargements.
These blocks provide a firm support or bearing for the ends of the headers and thc ends of the aligned stretchers; and, as they also extend inwardly beyond the vertical pla-ne of the inner sides of the stretchers, obtain lirm anchorage in the filling material against movement longitudinally. One horizontal face of the block 42 is provided with a vertical lug 44; While the opposite face is provided with a corresponding socket 45, see Figures 5 and 6.
rlhe lugs and sockets of the headers, stretchers and blocks are all similar in configuration and dimensions so as to match each other.
For the sake of economy, the Wall shoivn in Figures l and 2, beneath the normal surface, is formed With an initial course of foundation and separating blocks or units 42, shown submerged in the ground in Figure 2; the blocks of the front and rear courses being spaced apart, longitudinally of the Wall so as to receive the ends of the headers and intermediate portions of the first course of stretchers.
In constructing my improved Wall, the respective units are arranged with the socketed faces downward, so as to preve1 accumulation of moisture in the respective sockets.
It is therefore apparent that the lugs44 on the blocks 42 will enter the sockets 32 the ends of the headers 25 and t ie sockets 4l in the intermediate portion of the stretclr ers in the lirst course of said units; while the lugs 40 of the stretchers and the lugs 3l of the headers in the superposed courses will enter, respectively', the sockets 32 of the superposed headers and the sockets 4l of the superposed stretchers. As a result, all of the units of my improved Wall Will be in interlocked relation with eachother; the lugs and corresponding sockets locking the ends of the headers and intermediate portions of the stretchcrs against movement laterally longitudinally while the matching lapping ends of the stretchers and the header ends will firmly hold the ends of the stretchers against lateral movement; with the result that a very firm thoroughly interlocked Wall is provided.
In the type of Wall shown in Figure 1 with a front flush, unbroken face, the stretchers of the different courses are arranged in superposed relation With each other and therefore the stretchers of one course are preferably arranged staggered with those of the adjacent courses. That to say, the stretchers of a superposed course are arranged to lap or rest on the adjacent ends of tWo stretchers and the end of the intermediate header in the subjacent course.
In order to obtain this condition or relation, it is apparent that a certain number of short stretchers must be used at the ends of the different courses. I therefore provide the shorU stretchers 46 arranged at the end of each alternate course in Figure l. These short stretchers 46 are substantially equal to one` half the length of the usual stretcher 26 and are of the same vertical and transverse dimensions. The short stretchers 46 each have one end 47 made similar to the ends 84 of the stretchers 26; While the other end 48 of the short stretcher is similar to the intermediate portion 35 of the stretcher 26. The end 48 on one horizontal face is provided With a lug 49, While the opposite face has a recess 50, see Figures 3 and 4; the lugs and recesses being made to match the respective sockets and recesses in the other units heretofore described.
Under certain conditions, it may be desirable to provide the lower part of the retaining Wall With Water draining openings and therefore I show the stretchers 26a and 46n cut away on their lower longitudinal sides and intermediate of the ends to provide the Water drain openings 5l, see Figure l; the stretcher units in every other respect being identical with the units 26 and 46 heretofore described.
In certain situations, and for the purpose of economy in construction, the upper part of the retainingY Wall may be of less transverse or horizontal Width, as shown in ure 7, Where the upper ycourses involve a nun ber of short headers 25, Which, except as to length, are similar in construction to the headers 25 heretofore described.
Figure 7 illustrates, in perspective, the inner or rear side of the Wall, namely the side which extends into the embankment or lill. The Wall in Figure 7' consists of foundation or separating blocks 42 at the bottom, with the superposed courses of headers 25 and stretch-ers 26. lVhere a 'Wall is to be constructed like that shown in Figure 7, I prefer to employ the typo of spacer members 52 for the first course of short headers 25"L in order to effect a secure interlocking relation with the intermediate portion of the headers 25 in the subjacent course. The spacer member 52 is shown preferably made with its sides 53 tapering inwardly toward the bottom; while the bottom is provided with a slot 54 of width sufficient to it about the upper side of the headers 25, as shown in Figure 7, and thus hold the spacer 52 against movement transversely of the subjacent header. 'lhe top of the spacer 52 is provided with an upstanding lug 55 which is similar to the lugs on the other units heretofore described and is intended to fit into the socket 32 in the lower face of the end of the short header a, thus not only locking the spacer to the header 251 against movement longitudinally of the header, but also locking the header 25a against lateral movement.
In Figure 14 I illustrate another type of wall construction wherein the lower portion consists of additional courses of headers 25 and foundation or separating blocks 42 and modified forms of stretchers 26b and foundation or separating blocks 42a; Figure 14 25 being a perspective of the inner or rear side of a. portion of the wall.
The wall in Figure 14 involves headers 25 similar to the headers shown in Figure l, except that an additional lot are used with the ends of the rear lot resting on the ends of the front lot of headers; and as these headers all have the lugs and sockets heretofore described, the lugs and sockets at the lapping ends are in interlocking engagement, thus locking the rows of headers together. The upper part of the wall, which does not extend as far inward or rearward, involves the short headers 25 shown in Figure 7.
The wall construction shown in Figure 14 involves the modified forms of stretchers 26b illustrated in Figures 15 and 16. These stretchers in general construction are similar to the stretcher 26 shown in Figure 12 and merely differ therefrom in providing each end of the stretcher 26", on the same longitudinal side, with the vertically disposed lugs, 56, similar in construction to p. the intermediate lug and the lugs on the other units. The opposite longitudinal side of the stretcher and in alignment with the lugs, is provided at each end with a recess or socket 57, in addition to the socket 41 at the intermediate point.
In Figures 17 and 18 the modiied form of foundation or separating block 42 is shown in detail; these blocks being adapted Jfor use with the modiied form of stretcher shown i in Figures 15 and 16. The blocks 42a as will be seen in Figure 14, are intended to be used to support one end of a header, whose socket 82 on the the lower face receives the intermediate vertical lug 44; while the lugs 58, adjacent each end of the block, are each intended to enter the socket 57 at the ends of the two aligned stretchers 26".
The separating block 42a is similar to block 42 except as to length and the additional lugs 58, as well as the additional sockets 59 at each end and on the side of the block opposite to the lugs 58. The socket is intended to receive lug 28 on the end of the subjacent header 25, while the sockets 59, 59 are intended to receive the lugs 56, 56 on the adjacent ends oic the two subjacent stretchers 26h. The manner in which the respective units are interlocked is more clearly shown in detail sectional view 21, taken on the line 21-21 Figure 19, while in the detail sectional View, Figure 20, I illustrate the manner of interlocking the units as employed in the wall constructions shown in Figures 1 and 7 this view being substantially on the line 20-2() of Figure 7.
Figure 19 is a plan of a modified arrangement wherein the headers 25 in one portion or side ot the wall are placed in staggered relation with those in the other portion of the wall; the headers, however, being similar to those previously described. The wall in Figure 19 illustrates aA manner of preventing longitudinal movement of the ends of the headers which contact with intermediate portions of some of the stretchers 26 by having the lugs 28 at such ends lap the rear side of the stretchers 26 at the inner ends of the headers 25, as shown at the intermediate course of stretchers.
The figure also illustrates the use of both types of foundation or separating blocks 42 and 42a' as well as both types of stretchers 26 and 26h.
In order to adapt the short stretchers 46 to both ends of a wall, these short stretchers 46 are made as rights and lefts7 to permit use, respectively, at opposite ends of the wall and tc match the other units of the wall adjacent thereto.
I have shown what are believed to be the best embodiments of the invention and have described them in terms employed merely as terms of description and not as terms of limitation, as structural modifications are possible and may be made without, however, departing from the spirit of my invention.
IVha-t I claim is:
1. A retaining wall composed of a plurality of precast concrete units adapted to be arranged in superposed courses to constitute headers and stretchers, the ends of the headers being enlarged laterally on opposite sides of the body of the headers, said end enlargements being substantially V- shaped, while the ends of the stretchers are laterally enlarged toward one side with said enlargement sloping beyond the ends of the stretchers, with the slope at the outer ends terminating short of the opposite side of the stretchers, the sloping sides of the stretcher enlargements matching the slope of the header enlargements and thereby permit the ends of the headers to be aligned with the ends of the stretchers and thereby prevent lateral movement of the stretchers; the headers and the stretchers on one of the horizontal faces and adjacent to the ends being provided with vertically disposed angular lugs, while the opposite horizontal faces adjacent to the ends are provided with angular recesses corresponding to said lugs whereby the headers and stretchers of one course are interlocked with the headers and stretchers of superposed and subjacent courses.
2. A retaining wall composed of a plurality of units adapted to be arranged in superposed courses to constitute headers and stretclfiersy the ends of the headers being enlarged laterally and provided with oppositely tapered sides, while the ends of the stretchers are enlarged laterally toward one longitudinal slide to provide parallelogrammatic extensions having portions disposed beyond the normal ends of the stretchers with the outer sloping side of said extensions terminating intermediate of opposite sides of the stretchers, the side faces of the header-ends and the outer end sides of the stretcher extensions being formed to match and permit abutting alignment of said units and thereby prevent lateral outward movenient of the stretchers, the headers and stretchers on one side having upstanding lugs while the other sides have complementary sockets to receive the lugs of superposed or subjacent headers.
3. A retaining wall composed of a plurality of units adapted to be arranged in superposed courses to constitute headers and stretchers, with the ends of the headers and stretchers of each course adapted to be arranged in abutting relation; the ends of the headers being enlarged laterally toward opposite sides and the vertical sides of the enlargements tapered inwardly toward the body of the header; while the ends of the stretchers on the same longitudinal side of each stretcher are enlarged laterally and disposed beyond the normal ends of the stretchers, the outer vertical faces of said enlargements being tapered to match the tapered sides of the header-ends and permit interengaging relation between the ends of the headers and stretchers arranged in the same course; one horizontal face of the headers adjacent to the ends being provided with vertically disposed lugs while the opposite face is provided with matching recesses; the stretchers, intermediate of their ends, being enlarged toward one side and on one horizontal face thereof provided with vertically disposed lugs, while the opposite faces are provided with matching recesses,
said lugs and recesses being adapted to interengage with the recesses and lugs of adjacent courses of units.
l. A retaining wall comprising a plurality of units constituting headers and stretchers, the ends of the headers being enlarged laterally to opposite sides of the body and having inwardly sloping sides, the ends of the stretchers being enlarged toward one longitudinal side and sloping beyond the ends of the stretchers, the sloping enlargements matching the sloping sides of the ends of the headers and thereby prevent outward lateral movement of the stretchers7 one face of the headers adjacent to the ends being provided with upstanding lugs while the other face is provided with complementary sockets whereby the units are locked in place.
5. A. retaining wall comprising a plurality of units adapted to be arranged in superposed courses and consisting of headers and stretchers, the headers comprising elongated members having laterally enlarged ends Whose opposite sides each consist of a face at right angles to the ends and parallel with the body portion and of a face sloping inwardly from the first mentioned face toward the body portion, each enlarged end of the headers on one horizontal face thereof having an integral non-circular lug, while the other horizontal face of the enlarged ends is provided with a non-circular socket adapted to receive the non-circular lug on a superposed header; while the stretchers comprise elongated members whose endsv are enlarged toward the inner sides thereof and slope beyond the main ends of the stretchers whereby each end of the stretchers is provided with a face at right angles to the sides of the stretcher and a rearwardly sloping face at an obtuse angle to the right angular face7 one horizontal face of each stretcher having an integral non-circular lug matching` the non-circular socket in the headers, while the opposite face of each stretcher has a non-circular socket matching the non-circular lugs on the headers.
OTTO S. FLATH.
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