US 1733790 A
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Oct. 29, 1929. c. GILMAN 1,733,790v CONCRETE CRIBBING Filed March 16. 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Z INVENTORL BY 7L ATTokNEYs.
Oct. 29, 1929. c. GILMAN CONCRETE CRIBBING 7 Filed March 16, 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 A TTORNEYS.
Patented Got. 29, 1929 eteran stares CHARLES GILMAN, OF PLAIINIEIELD,
new JERSEY, assrenon 'ro MASSEY con r est eries new. i.
CONCRETE CRIBBING- Application filed March 16, 1925. Serial No. 15,743.
The present invention relates to improvements in reinforced concrete cribbing, and is more particularly directed toward the provision of a cribbing which may be construct ed out of a number of reinforced concrete units of predetermined size adapted to be interfitted so that aretaining wall, embankment, or the'like be constructed.
Walls and embankments of the type con templated by the present invention are particularly useful in building up temporary or permanent structures in places where there is limited area for working. They provide effectively for draining the filling materials soas to prevent the accumulation of water. The concrete units are 'not permanently and inseparablyifastened together, and the salvage value of the wall is practically.100 These walls may be erected in sections or cells as convenient and may be taken down andstored, or rebuilt in different locations as described.
The present invention contemplates the provision of concrete units so designed that 35 a high and substantial wall'may be constructed with its outer face vertical, without any batter, if desired; one wherein the headers, or cross members are flush with the longi-' tudinal members, and one wherein these longitudinal members, knownas stretchers, are
provided with suitably disposed means for retaining the filling material and interlocking them with the headers. z
Other objects of the invention are the provision of a wall in which different types of stretchers may be usedin the different parts of the wall, according to the character of fill, or as other conditions dictate, and in which shorter headers may be used in the upper part of the fill than would be required in the. lower part. By properly combining these features in a wall, the wall may be more economically constructed than were it necessary to build the entire wall out of uniform headers and stretchers (designed for the heaviest loads). Other and further objects of the invention will appear as the'description proceeds. v *The accompanying drawings show, for
purposes of illustration, one of the many forms in which the presentinventionmay be embodied together with modifications of certain parts, it being understood that the drawings are illustrative of the invention. which is not limited thereto.
In these drawings: 7 j J Fig. l is a perspective view showing a concrete cribbing utilizing by the present inve'ntion;-
Fig. 2 is a horizontal plan View one form of joint formed by'theimproved showing units contemplated units, it being assumed that the upper course of stretchers has not'yet been laid; 7
Fig. 3 is across section taken on line 33 l of Fig. 1, through a'header between opposite courses of stretchers and shows how the head.- er is supported 'on adj acent stretchers and how the next course of stretchers is supported In: said "figure an additional. stretcher is shown in place, which is absent on the header.
from Fig. 1. v 1
Fig. 4' is a side elevational'view'of one form of'improved header;
Fig. 5 is a perspective'view' of oneform of improved stretcher Fig.6 is an elevational view illustrating a modified form of stretcher;
Figure 7 is a cross sectional view through a the stretcher shown in Figures 1 to 3, and
illustrating an arrangement of reinforcing rods; and j Y F 1g. 8 is a sectional'view through 'aretaim ng wall built up usingditfer'entforms of stretchers and headers contemplated by the present invention.
Figure 1 shows one form of. cribbing built up'in accordance with the present invention. As here shown afp'lurality of headers 10 are horizontally arranged and extend: across the n wall or cribbing, while a plurality of stretchers 11 are also horizontally arranged and extend lengthwise of the wall as indicated the headers are in verticaltiers regularly spaced along the cribbing while the stretchers arei-n vertical tiers. at both the front and rear'sides of the wall. There may be any number of tiers of stretchers to make up the lengtlrof wall desired. These stretchers and headers may be laid on one another alternately, as indicated, and the wall extendingvertically shaped and horizontally as appears in the drawings.
These headers, as indicated in Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 are composed of properly rein- 'forced blocks of predetermined size and rectangular cross-section and provided with T- heads 12. The headers may have any desired and convenient length, and are preferably made with identical ends so that the header may be symmetrical and placed in a wall or cribbing more easily.
The stretchers 11,as indicated in Figures 7 1, 2 and 3' are made of properly reinforced concrete I fromthe ends. of the stretchers. so that the body of the header 10;.may be placed, between the ends 14of adjacent lugs as appears in Figures v1, 2 and 3.
-- From the foregoing it will be apparent that the stretchers, at the front and/or back a of the wall, are supported at their ends on the headers. A cell .or. sectionof cribbing may be b'uilbupwithoutthe use ofmetallic pins or other fastening devices, by alternately arrangingthe headers and stretchers; The
stretchers may readily have a large'bearing surfaceonthe-headers. The lugsare placed 2 I on the back of the stretchers so that they asand below as indicated in Figure 3).
sume; apart of the load and materially strengthen the stretchers. They make it'unnecessary to use fillers, and are so arranged on the stretchers that they will come behind the head of thefTof the-headers (both aboye T 1e ends 'ofthe stretcherswill be close together,
and additionalbearing surface may be provided, if desired, by making the lugs some 7 what deeper near the ends so that they will meet as indicated at 15. 7
The interlocking of the headers and stretchers makes it impossible for the filling material to force the headers or stretchers out 'ofpl-ace, yet thecribbing may be assembled or torn down very easily. The cribbing may be built-to the desired height and length and later extended or raised or lowered as desired; I
The stretchers andjheaders are so propor tioned that the, stretchers are out of contact with one another (except possibly at their ends) The longitudinal lugs 13' are spaced sufliciently to permit drainage ofthe filling Inaterial, 'without permitting the escape of 1 thefilling material." smallamount of loose filling imaterial' may pja ss out through these spaces, butlit" will be jcaught on the shelf formed by the body of the stretchers and will naturally slope up (at about 1 to 1) toward the stretcher next above andprevent further escape of filling material. The filling material will, of course, settle in the cribbing, and the settled material has little tendency to escape. If there is a batter to the; cribbing, there will be less tendency for the loose material to escape through the spaces between the stretchers, and therefore, these spaces may be made wider by using narrowerlugs than would be the case on a vertical wall. On the other hand, if the lugs are made of suflicient width so that the material does not escape from the vertical cribbing, it will certainly take care of the cribbing built up with a batter.
As shown in Figure 5., andthe; upper part of Figure 1the stretcher 11 is providedwith only one lug 13inst-ead of two as used in. the formv of stretcher shown in Figures 2 and 3.
In Figure oshortlugs 16, 16 arecarried near the ends of the stretcher. These short lugs may be placed on one side of a stretcher or on both sides as desired, and may be ofa size 1 V to provide additional bearing surface. They serve to interlock the headers and stretchers, without adding materially to the Weight of the unit. Such stretcher units are'pa'rticularly useful where the tendency of filling material to escape is low.
In Figure 8a cribbing utilizing various forms of units contemplated by-theipresent nventlon, is shown in cross-section.
andvertical and the rear or right hand side ofthe cribbing is set back in steps. Inthis cribbing the lower front, .St-retcherQO .is of type illustrated. in Figuref being smooth on its. lower side and having an upper rib 13. It is also made much broader to provide increased bearing surface against the soil. The front stretchers 21, 22,23 which make up the lower front of the cribbing; maybe like those llustrated in Figures 1, 2, and 30f the drawings, while the remainder'of the front I 7 Here the front'or left sideof thecribbingis smooth stretchers 24 may be similar to the stretcher 11" of Figure 5, with the stretcher inverted so as to hung the lug- 13v to the bottom side of. the stretcher, if desired. The top front stretcher 25 is made somewhat. wider than the other stretchers so; as to. provide a cop ng to finish ofi the topof the wall. I The. back side of the cribbing may also use varlousformsof units, arranged in various manners. The single or double lugged stretchers may be arranged with; the lugsin side theT. heads of. theiheaders oron the outside as shown at 27 and 28. These-lower stretchers, may have their lugs on the 'outsideasthey are frequentlyplaced.Where'they V areheld against firm earth or old fill. Shorter headers 10 and 10 may be usedtoward' the .top ofithe. cribbing, as clearly appears, from the drawings, and the stretchers. interlock with them in the same manner. In this case, it is preferable to provide the first stretcher used with a shorter header with lugs on top and bottom, as indicated by the stretchers 29 and 30.
WVhile the present drawings show the cribbing arranged for building long straight embankments, it is of course obvious that the parts may be readily shaped and proportioned to build curved embankments or to make offsets or corners as desired. Of course, other shapes of header may be used to give the enlarged bearing surface and provide for interlocking with the stretcher, and other forms of stretchers may be employed. The cribbing may be laid 'so that the front face is vertical or at a batter as desired.
That is claimed is:
1. In a reinforced concrete cribbing, two parallel stretchers of T-shaped cross-section similarly disposed and spaced one above the other, the heads of the Ts being spaced apart to provide drainage, the lower stretcher providing a shelf to hold loose filling material 7 and cause it to slope up to the upper stretcher,
the ends of the stretcher being rectangular, and a header spacing the stretchers and having a T-shaped end on which the ends of adjacent stretchers rest and the ends of the heads of the Ts of the stretchers being interlocked behind the heads of the T of the header,
2. In reinforced concrete cribbing, a horizontal header having a T-shaped front end with the ends of the T placed horizontal and four horizontal stretchers arranged in pairs, each pair extending at right angles to the header, at least two of the stretchers being interlocked with the T-shaped head, two of the stretchers being supported by the header, and the other two-stretchers supporting the header.
3. In a reinforced concrete cribbing, two parallel stretchers spaced one above the other, the side of each of the stretchers adjacent the other stretcher having alongitudinally extending integral lug spaced from the adjacent stretcher to prevent the escape of filling materials, the lugs throughout the major portion of their length, being of a depth such as to leave a space between lugs of vertically adjacent stretchers except at the ends of the stretchers where said adjacent lugs meet and thereby aflord additional bearing surfaces.
4. A reinforced concrete cribbing comprising a plurality of horizontally disposed reenforced concrete headers arranged across the cribbing and a plurality of horizontally disposed reenforced concrete stretchers arranged lengthwise of the cribbing, the end of the headers having enlarged bearing surfaces providing vertical shoulders, said surfaces aifording a support for said stretchers, and the stretcher which is supported by a given header having vertically enlarged portions which engage behind one of the shoulders of said header and form an inter-' provide drainage and disposed with the bodies of the Ts exterior of the cribbing so as to provide shelves to hold loose filling material and cause it to slope up to the stretcher next above.
6(A reinforced cribbing comprising a plurality of T-shaped horizontally disposed reinforced concrete headers arranged across the cribbing and a plurality of horizontally disposed reinforced concrete stretchers arranged lengthwise of the cribbing, said headers terminating flush with said stretchers, thereby permitting the face of said cribbing to be smooth, each header having a flat surface supporting thereon abutting stretchers, said stretchers having lugs interlocking behind the T-shaped ends of the headers whereby longitudinal movement of such stretchers is prevented'by said headers in contact therewith.
In testimony whereof I have affixed my signature to this specification.