US 1585934 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. MUIR DIAGNOSTIC NEEDLE Filed Dec. 29, 1923 Patentbd May 25, 1926.
UNITED STATES PATENT, OFFICE.
JOSEPH mom, or mew YORK, N. 1., assmnon TO ran mum miwnox conromrron, or new 2031:, N. Y.
nmenos nc NEEDLE.
Application filed December 29, 1923. Serial No. 683,859.
This invention relates to surgical instruments and more articularly to a diagnostic needle to be emp oyed in removing from the body, specimens to be examined. Heretofore it has been a more or less tedious and diiiicult matter to extract from the body of a patient, a specimen of tissue or suppuration, for examination and diagnosis. It is, of course, desirable if not essential that the specimen be removed from the precise seat of the trouble but by the ordinary methods of procedure the specimens are frequently contaminated or mixed with other tissues with the result that they are not satisfactory for examination or may lead to an error in the diagnostication. The present invention therefore has as its primary object to provide a diagnostic needle by the employment of which specimens may be obtained in an uncontaminated condition and directly from the seat of the disease and with minimum inconvenience and pain to the patient.
Another object of the invention is to so construct the needle that in the use of the same the tissue or other specimen to be extracted may be cleanly severed or, if it be suppuration, may be removed and collected in the most satisfactory manner.
Another object of the invention is to provide an instrument of this type which will be sanitary in that it may be readily sterilized and is devoid of cavities of such a character as would preclude thorough cleaning.
Anotherobject of the invention is to so construct the needle that when manipulated in the manner intended, the portion of tissue or the accumulation of suppuration will be not only pocketed within the instrument but it will be so housed that as the instrument is withdrawn there will be no possibility of any other tissues or any other body secretions coming in contact with the collected specimen to contaminate the same.
Another important object of the invention is to so construct the needle that the same may be inserted into the body with the least pain and inconvenience and will leave a puncture of minimum size, upon its withdrawal.
In the accompanying drawings:
Figure 1 is a view'in elevation of a diagnostic needle embodying the invention, the
needle proper being rotated within its sheath to a position to uncover the pocket in which the specimen is to be collected;
Fi re 2 is a vertical longitudinal sectiona view taken substantially on the line 2-2 of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a detail view in elevation of the lower or entering end of the needle proper removed from its sheath;
Figure 4 is a detail horizontal sectional view on the line 4-4 of Figure 1 looking in the direction indicated by the arrows.
The instrument comprises a needle proper which is indicated in general by the numeral 1, anda sheath which is indicated in general by the numeral 2. The needle 1 comprises a shank 3 which is of cylindrical form and at its entering end is tapered gradually, in conical form, as indicated by the numeral 4., and is provided with a hardened piercing point indicated b the numeral 5. At its opposite end the s 'ank 3 is provided with a finger knob comprising aportion 6 of substantially conical form and provided with a milled eriphery indicated by the numeral 7 The nger knob or head is provided with an axially positioned polygonal stem 8 which may be grasped between the fingers for the purpose of rotating the needle 1 under conditions which willpresently be explained. v
The sheath 2 comprises a tubular body 9 which is internally of a diameter to snugly receive the shank of the needle 1, and the parts are thus assembled, the needle being received within the sheath and the sheath being rovided at its upper end with a head or en argement 10 having a substantially conical recess 11 which'is adapted to snugly receive the conical body portion 6 of the finger knob of the needle. The opposite end of the sheath 9 is of course open to permit of the projection of the tapered extremity 4 of the needle 1 therethrough. In this re spect, as well as in others which will presently be pointed out, 'the instrument of the present invention 'difiers from instruments which have been previously employed for somewhat similar. purposes. More specifically, the piercing point of the instrument of the present invention is provided at the extremity of the needle 1 and the bore of the sheath 9 is of uniform diameter throughout its length, and inasmuch as the shank of the needle 1 fits more or less snugly within the bore of the sheath, there is no possibility of any tissues,,secretions, or other contaminating constituents of the body entering between the sheath and the needle. Furthermore, the piercing-point is a part of the needle and does not constitute a tapered extension of the sheath which, being hollow, would serve as a trap for pieces of tissue, secretions, or suppuration. On the other hand, upon separation of the needle and sheath, the two parts of the instrument may be thoroughly cleansed and sterilized so as to avoid any risk of infection during subsequent use.
The specimen to be collected is to be received. within a pocket which is formed in the shank of the needle 1 and which is indicated in general by the numeral 12. This pocket comprises a longitudinal recess which is formed in one side of the needle.
and which is defined by walls indicated one by the numeral 13 and the other by the numeral 14. At the ends of the pocket 12, the wall 13 of the recess defining the pocket is curved until it merges with the wall 14, as indicated by the numeral 15. The sheath 9 is formed in one side with a longitudinally extending slot which is indicated by the numeral 16, and this slot is of approximately the same length as the pocket 12 and is so located with relation to the entering end of the sheath, and the pocket 12 is so located with relation to the tapered entering extremity 4 of the needle, that in one position of rotative adjustment of the needle the pocket will be presented at the slot 16 and in another position of rotative adjustment the pocket will be closed by the portion of the wall of the tubular sheath 9 which is opposite the said slot 16. By reference to Figure 4 of the drawings it will be observed that the line of juncture of the walls 13 and 14 is eccentric to the axis of the needle shank 3 and it will also be observed that the walls occupy planes defining approximately an angle of 60. In any event the walls will occupy planes at an angle of less than 90 so that the wall 14 will constitute a collecting wall, so to speak, the edge of this wall, indicated by the numeral 17, being more or less acute due to the location of the line of juncture of the walls eccentric to the axis of the said needle shank. By forming the pocket 12 in the manner illustrated in the drawings and as previously described, it is given a maximum capacity to receive the specimen to be extracted, and at the same time the instrument is provided with a cutting edge which, as it moves past one side wall of the slot 16, indicated by the numeral 18, has a shearing effect which insures of a complete severance of such particles of tissue as are to be rethe location of the a ected area and has determined that the slot 16 is substantially within the area, the needle 1 is rotated until the pocket 12 is exposed at the slot 16. Further rotation of the needle in a clockwise direction will result in the wall 14 of the pocket 12 accumulatin such tissues or other matter as may be in t e path of movement of the wall, and the cutting edge 17 will have shearing coaction with the wall 18 of the slot 16 to effect removal of the specimen. After the specimen has been collected, the instrument is withdrawn and the specimen may be dislodged from the pocket 12 by rotating the needle 1 into substantial registration with the slot 16, or the needle may be completely withdrawn from the sheath and the specimen then dislodged from the pocket. In any event it will be evident that there is no possibility of the specimen becoming contaminated or mixed with other particles of tissue or other secretions or suppuration so that if due skill is exercised in introducing the implement into the body and collecting the specimen, a perfect specimen may be obtained, whereas, as previously pointed out, under the ordinary modes of procedure, the specimen is extremely liable to be contaminated so that a correct diagnosis cannot be made. It will also be evident from the foregoing that by separation of the needle and sheath, the parts may be thorou hly cleansed and sterilized and therefore t e possibility of infection in subsequent use of the instrument is practically eliminated.
As previously pointed out the walls 13 and 14 of the pocket 12 are located in planes at less than right angles to each other and the line of juncture of the walls is located eccentric to the axis of the needle and it will be evident that not only is this true, but it is also true that the said line of juncture between the walls is located at that side of the axis of the needle substantially opposite the side at which the open side of the pocket is located, the wall 13 being substantially in a plane diametric to the needle, and the wall 14 in a plane substantially chordal thereto, when the needle is viewed in cross section as shown in Figure 4. 7
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as new is:
A diagnostic instrument comprising a sheath havin an opening in its side and a needle rotate. 1y received within the sheath and having a pocket in its side to be presented at the opening in one position of rotation of the needle and closed by the wall of the sheath in another position of rotation of the needle, the pocket being defined by walls occupying planes at an acute angle to trically 0 the needle, and
set with relation to the axis of l.
the other wall being substantially in a plane diametric to the axis of the needle.
In testimony whereof I afiix my signature.
JOSEPH MUIB. 1. 5.