US 1507300 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 2 1924. 1,507,300
J. a. REPLOGLE ELECTRICITY GENERATING AND STORM !v SYSTEM Filed larch 31 '1920 5 3% 2s 0 54 42 H10 O a) g m 54 v Patented Sept. 2, .1
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
JAMES B. EEPLOGLE, F DETROIT, MICHIGAN, ASSIGNOB- TO DECO-LIGHT CODA-NY,
OF DAYTON, OHIO, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE.
ELECTRICITY GENERATING AND STORAGE SYSTEM.
Application filed Karen 8!, 1920. Serial No. 370,235.
To all whom it may concern Be it known that I, JAMES B. Rarnocus, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Detroit, county of Wayne, and State of ti Michigan, have invented certain new 'and useful Im rovements in Electricity Generating and tom e Systems, of which the following is a ful clear, concise, and exact descri tion, such as will enable others skilled in in e art to which the invention relates to make and use the same, reference being made therein to the accompanying drawings, which form a part of this s cification;
The present invention relates to a system of generating and storing electricity wherein an internal combustion engine is automatically set in operation to cause the generation of electricity for charging a attery whenever the electrical condition of the latter demands such action, and wherein the englue is shut down when the electrical condition of the battery is restored to normal; and its object is to insure better starting and running conditions, in so far as the vaporization of fuel is concerned, than has been attained heretofore.
To this end the invention provides automatic means so constructed and arranged as to heat the fuel or fuel mixture when the engine is being cranked for starting purposes. Again, the invention provides manually controlled means superposed on the automatic engine starting means and available for starting the engine, together with means automatica 1y 0 crating to heat the fuel or fuel mixture un er such conditions.
lay the use of anelectric heater operating in e general manner stated the desired results are attained with a minimum expendi- 4 ture of energy, but it is possible to employ other types of relation.
In the drawings: Fig. 1 shows t e complete circuit, the va- 4 rious component elements or devices appearing diagrammatically. These features of construction otherwise than the heater and heater circuit are substantially the same as described and covered by application for 0 U. S. Patent, Serial No. 298,160 filed Ma. 52, 1919 by James B. Replogle and John a. Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic sectional view heaters in the same generalshowing the preferred relation of the heater to the carburetor.
In order to understand the resent invention, it will be necexa to re er to the main constituent elements 0 the apparatus as a whole, that is, the basic elements covered by the above identified applicatio as well as the additional and modifying ieatures entering more particularly into the present case. These are:
1st. The storage battery (1).
2nd. A temperature compensated voltage control device, a thermostatic safety cutout and a minimum environment tem rature control device which are prefera 1y embodied in a single piece of apparatus (2). This apparatus is made up primarily of four thermostatic blades mounted on a sin 10 base and having their metals or thermal e ements arranged in the same order.
The purpose'of the voltage control device is to initiate the starting of an en ine-gener- 7 ator unit to supply current to t e battery when the voltage of the latter falls to a predetermined value and to interrupt the charging operation when the voltage attains a predetermined high value; that of the thermostatic safety cut-out is to interrupt the su ply of current to the starting motor in t e event the engine fails to start and to break the main circuits nerally under abnormal conditions; and t at of the environment temperature. control device is to'initiate' the operation of the en e for self-heat whenever the surroun iiig temperature in below a predetermined exceptional and undesirable minimum. It will be understood, however, that the present invention is of application to system wherein these general functions are accomplished in other ways or wherein no full equivalent is found, for example, wherein the environment temperature control device is omitted.
3rd. An ignition apparatus (3) so arranged that it will function on a voltage between the limits at which the battery 18 to be maintained. 100
4th. A generatonengine unit (4) the generator part of which has sufiicient energy to crank the engine roperlymwhen 88 a motor connecte to the ttery, and w '01: will deliver the proper current when dl'lV6l1 I by the engine as a generator.
5th. A polarized relay (5) for rendering the thermostatic safety cut-out inoperative except when current flows from the batter; to the generator acting as a motor to cran the engine.
6th. A ma-in contactor .or switch (6 which is adapted to connect the battery with the engine and to supply current to the ignition circuit. g. a
In accordance with the present invention, I associate with the above-mentioned elements a carburcter. heater of such nature that the fuel mixture is heated under the conditions heretofore stated. The actual construction of the heater is, of course, subject to wide variation, but I refer to arrange the part in the manner iagrammatically shown in Fig. 2 wherein 100 indicates a p lea sup lysuch as the chem r 101 wherein the fueFis'maintained at about the level of the line 102, by any desired means (not shown). From the passage 100, the fuel flows past the regulating valve 103 and thro h the passage 104 to the well 105 wherein the resistance coil or heater 106 extends below the, normal level of the fuel, the upper end of said well being restricted more or less in its communication with the atmosphere by the valve 107 which is operated by the thermostat 108. The rich mixture of fuel and air derived from the well is drawn through the mixture passage 109 the groove 110 and ports 111 to e the main e passage 1 engine through the main mixture assage 114. Under conditions of relative y high valve 107 opens to a relatively rge extent as compared to its opening when the temperature is relatively low, eonsa uently the mixture supplied the air su ply entering 13 and flows to the engine is automatically rendered richer as the temperature falls.
The co-ordination and operation of the various parts may be more fully pointed out, it being understood that the battery is connected to the power consuming devices, for example, the lights 10, through the medium 0 the conductors 11-.12, the blades 1314 of a double pole service switch, the conductors 1516, and the fuses 17--18.
Normal thermostat heati circuit, "voltage within proper its,
Assumin that the voltage of the battery (I) is.wit the limits to which the low vo tage thermostat blade 21 and the high voltage thermostat blade 22 are adjusted, say 102 volts and 122 volts in the event the power consuming devices are of the 110 volt type, and that the armature of the polarized re 8311(5) is in counterclockwise position, current will flow from the n u positive pole of the battery through'the con u ctor 1113- to a source of fuel venturi 112 where it.
15, the conductor 24, the contact 25 of the polarized relay (5), the contact 26, and the conductor 27 to the blade21 through the winding 28 of the thermostat blade 28 and the conductor 29-l2 back to the battery.
) A The heating coil or windin 28 is thus connected directl across the attery terminals and heats the lads 28 more or less according as the battery volta e is high or low. Hi battery voltage wifi cause blade 28 to heated above normal and thus deflected towards blade 22 and low battery volta results in a subnormal temperature of t 0 blade 28 which, causes it to be deflected towards blade 21.
Voltage low, thermostat directing current through mai'n' ccntactor winding and generator field.
The voltage in the battery dropping to the permissible minimum (102 in the case stated), the thermostat b ads 28 makes contact with the blade 21, and a flow of current takes place from the positive pole of the battery to blade 21, as above described, thence through blade 28, conductor 31, the winding 32 of the'relay or main contactor (6), the conductor 33, field 34 of the go erator (4), and the conductor 161412 back to the negative side of, the battery, thereby exciting the field of the generator and energizing contactor winding '32 which attracts the armature 36 to establish the following conditions. e
Field circuit after main contacto'r or relay operates.
5), and a to the negative side of the battery as already described.
It will be observed that this circuit 'ves an alternate ath for the current w ich travels through contact 25 and thermostat blades '2128; therefore should the wound blade 28 be withdrawn from contact with the blade 21 or the circuit be broken at 25, rupture of the generator field current will not result.
Ignition Current from the positive side of the batlery also passes from the bar 36 through the contact 40, conductor 41, breaker 42, primary coil 43, resistance unit or coil 44 and conductor 2 912 to the negative side of the. battery, and acts on the secondary coil 45 and spark plug 46. If the engine from which it passes to th .side of the the relay winding 37, bar armature 36,
the conductor 115 to the .tlirough contact 70, conductor 71-33, generator and associated arts are. in normal perating condition, t e ignition will be 1D position to-cau'se the operation of the engine on the latter being cranked.
Armature circuit and safety cut-cut The current flows at the same time from the bar 36 through the contact 50 and conductor 51, throu h the furcations of the blade 52 of the tiermal safety cut-out device, conductor 53, armature 54 of the generator (4), and conductor 16 to' the negative battery. This circuit connecting thermostat blade 52, and generator armature 54 in series with the battery, is shown in heavy lines in Fig. 1 and may be termed the charging circuit. Relay winding 37, bar armature 36, and thermostat blade 52, being connected between the positive poles of the battery 1 and generator 54, are said to be in the positive side of the charging circuit.
The field 34 having previously been excited, as explained heretofore, the current passing through .thearmature '54 causes it to act as a motor, cranking the engine to which .it is attached.
The current flowing poses, however, swin the armature 25' .of the polarized relay 5) clockwise, to cause the contact (carried thereby and insulated therefrom at 61) to touch the rigid back contact 62, and thereby send current from the bar 36 through contact 40, conductor 64, contacts '6062, conductor to the winding 66 of thermostat blade 52, e negative side of the battery through the conductor 29--12. At the same time current is directed throu h heater I06, whereby the fuel passing to the engine is heated, and thence through the conductor 116-12 back to the battery. Winding 66 and heater 106 are thus connected in parallel with one another across the terminals of the battery.
The bifurcated thermostat element 52 is of course heated throu h the winding 66, and approaches the over an ing contact 70, which is mechanically and e ectrically connected to the high voltage blade 22. If the generator should be driven as a motor for more than a predetermined time, say one minute, the element 52 will make contact with the contact 70, in which case current wilh flow from the positive side of for motoring purthe battery through coil 37 of the polarized relay and armature or bar 36 and one side of the bifurcated blade 52 on the positive side of the chargin circuit, and thence igh volta old 34 and to the ne Inasmuch as t is circuit conductor 16'1412 of the battery.
is in parallel with the winding 32 of the blade 22.
tive side main contactor. (6), and is of relatively small resistance, current will be diverted from the Battery charged to nmmz'mm.
Should the engine become self-operative before the safety cut-out operates as above described, the dynamo-electric machine (4), functioning as a generator, willcause a reversal of current in the chargin circuit, so.
that current will then flow from t e dynamo electric machine (4) through bar armature 36 and winding 37 of polarized relay (5) to char e the battery. Such reversal of current in winding 37 causes armature 25' to swin in a counter-clockwise direction back to its original position, thereby breaking the circuits through contacts 6062 to heater 106 and winding 66 of the safety cutout device, and at the same time reestablishin the original thermostat heating circuit t rough contacts 25-26 from positive side of the battery through heating coil 28' on thermostat blade 28 to the negative side of the battery. The armature 25' remains in its counter-clockwise position during the entire time that the dynamo-electric machine operates as a generator, and thus windin 28' of thermostat blade 28 is connec across the battery while the battery is being charged. When throu h the chargin o eration the battery sha have reached the desired maximum voltage, throu h winding 28' will attain such value that t e temperature produced thereb will cause'the blade 28 to approach and nally effect a contact with the blade 22.
When this takes place, the current departthe current ing from the positive side of the charg- System ing circuit at contact 31', passes through conductor 31, to the wound volta e control blade 28, to and through the big volta blade 22, conductor 71-33, generator fie d 34, and-conductor 1614-12 to the negative side of the batte The current is thus diverted from the winding 32 of the main contactor (6); it therefore de-energizcs, and permits the bar armature 36 to fall afivay from the contact 50, thereby openmg t e disconnect-ingthe batterv from the generator. Falling awe of the bar armature as described openst e engine ignition circuit at contact 40 thereby causing the engine to stop, and also opens the control circuits connected to contact 31'.
When the charging circuit is thus broken in response to the state of charge of the battery, it will be observed that the armature charging circuit at this point and.
run until the blade 28 connects with the high voltage blade 22,7as will be readily erative to move the vol amo-electric machine (4) became operative as a generator to-charge the battery, and the contacts 25--26- remain closed. The. thermostat heating circuit is thus connected across the termmals of the battery andthe winding '28' remains o 28 into contact with the low-voltage blade 21 whenever the battery voltage falls to a predetermined low point,lwhereby to again set the engine in operation to charfidthe battery the manner already descrl Minimum cmziromrwnt temperature control In the event the environment tempera ture were i'mitted to fall, too low, the system. 'miggfb fail to start or m' ht be-. come inefliclent through-any one of oral causes, such, for example, as the failure of the fuel to pro erly' vaporiz e,'the conaling of the 000 .oil or other liquid or the engine, or the'freezing and consequent destruction or impairin of the battery. Moreover, even where does not take place, the internal resistance of a battery-increases rapidly as the temperature falls, and'it becomes desirable, therefore, where the likelihood of objectionably low temperature exists, to provide. for starting up the engine whenever the temperature falls to a minimum redetermined, safe point, so that the resulting engine heat ma serve to maintain the immediate surroun in above the danger line'.
is is accomplished in the present case by providing a rigid or temperature-independent contact 85, adapted to .co-operate with the blade 21at the predetermined. minimum tem erature to. complete the initial starting circuit through the main eont'actor winding and generator field as follows:
. from the positive side of the battery through conductor 11-43-15, contact 25, contact 26, conductor 27, blade 21, contact 85, blade 86, conductor 31, winding 32, conductor 33, generator field 34, and conductor -16-14 -12 to the negative side of the battery, whereupon the engine' will start in the manner heretofore described and will continue to understood from the fore mg.
In this operation it will be noticed that current is supplied the heater 106 and finally cut oil therefrom in the same eral manner heretofore outlined with re i' ence to the starting throughthe-medium of the voltage control ap aratus; i. e., the heater is heated only during the period in which the dynamo-electric machine operates as a motor to start the engine and the heater circontrol bla e.
that is, when the dynamo-electric machine operates as a 'gener'ator to charge the batery, as'heretofore dwcribed Manual starting circuit In the event ,the system is disconnected through the operation of the safetyicut out thermostat '52, the armature 25' will be left in clockwise position as is more fully explained in the above identifiedap lication; and the circuits thus far describes contain no means whereb the engine may again be manually started (except that the use'r .might manually act directly on the arif ture to swingthe latter) something which is desirable for obvious reasons, particularlly when the failure is due to lack of fuel. t is, therefore, advisable to provide for conveniently manually starting the dynamoelectric machine as a motor to crank the engine, after which the volta e control blade 28 will contact. with the high voltage blade 22 to cause the dis-connection of the system, as an incident to which the armature remains in counterclockwise position. One inex .complishmg the desired pur ose consists in a push botton or switch (8 connected to the positive side of the batteryby the conductor 95 and adapted to completes field and main contactor winding circuit through the conductor 86, conductor 31, main con; tactor winding 32 conductor 33, generator field 84, and conductor 161412 to the negative side of the battery, whereupon the bar 36 closes upon its .contactsto complete the charging circuit and the ignition circuit, as will be readily understood. Immediately when this takes lace, current flowing from the battery to t e generator for motoring purposes insures the positioning of the arm'- ature 25' at the limit of its clockwise movement and current passing through-the bar 36, the conductor 64, contacts 62 and conductor -115, heats the elementlOb. The current thus supplied the heater is ultimately cut-off in the manner heretofore indicated. c
In other words, the heater is effective for vaporizing the fuel whenever thejcurrent flows from the battery to the generator for motoring purposes. The safety cut-outcircuit through winding 66 is also closed at the same time as the circuit through the heating element 106. It is obvious that the minimum environment temperature control features might in some instances be omitted; likewise the manual starting switch (8), since the armature 25' might, be thrown to counterclockwise position by hand; and the; actual details of the several parts ma be cuit is broken when the motoring ceases, In the present state of the art it is of nsive and suitable means for ate-- course somewhat a matter of choice whether to employ starting and generating ets of the single unit type such as shown (wherein a single rotor operates both for starting and for generating) or of the double unit type wherein the starting device is separate from the generator, both types being well known in automotive service. The particular mechanism shown may therefore be reded as comprising two electrical maes one of'w ich operates as a starting motor and the other of which acts as a generator.
1. An electricity generating and storage system comprising a battery, a'hydro-carbon engine, a generator adapted to operate as a motor to crank the en 'ne and to be driven thereby to char t e battery, an electric heater for the gi el assing to the engine, and automatic means or controlling the operation of the generator and en ine in accordance with the electrical condition of the battery to maintain the latter within predetermined limits of voltage, means for initiating the operation of the generator to crank t e engine when the environment temperature falls to a predetermined minimum and for substantially simultaneously initiatin the flow of current to the heater to heat the atter.
2. In combination, including means for fuel mixture a hydro-carbon engine supplying an explosive to, a starting motor therefor, a supply circuit for the motor including a storage battery, means res onsive to the condition of charge of the battery for controlling said circuit to initiate the operation of the en 'ne, and thermostatic means for automaticsfily initiating the operation of the engine at a predetermined temperature with a fuel mixture predetermined for the said temperature.
3. In an apparatus of the kind described, in combination, an engine including means for supplying an explosive mixture thereto, a starting motor therefor, a supply circuit for the motor, and means for connecting the motor with the suppl circuit at intervals varying inversely wit the temperature of the apparatus, said means having provisions for automatically varying the explosive mixture supplied to the engine according to the temperature of the apparatus.
4. In an apparatus of the kind described, in combination, an engine including means for supplying an explosive mixture thereto, a starting motor therefor, a supply circuit for the motor, and thermostatic means for connecting the motor with the supply circuit at intervals varying inversely with the temperature of the apparatus, said means having provisions for automatically var ing the explosive mixture supplied to t e engine according to the temperature of the ap aratus.
n testimony whereof I aflix my 31 JAMES B. REP