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Publication numberCA2462137 C
Publication typeGrant
Application numberCA 2462137
PCT numberPCT/EP2002/010050
Publication date4 Aug 2009
Filing date3 Oct 2002
Priority date18 Oct 2001
Also published asCA2462137A1, CN1561360A, CN100371374C, DE60211545D1, DE60211545T2, EP1448681A1, EP1448681B1, US7279504, US20040242713, US20060058407, WO2003035728A1
Publication numberCA 2462137, CA 2462137 C, CA 2462137C, CA-C-2462137, CA2462137 C, CA2462137C, PCT/2002/10050, PCT/EP/2/010050, PCT/EP/2/10050, PCT/EP/2002/010050, PCT/EP/2002/10050, PCT/EP2/010050, PCT/EP2/10050, PCT/EP2002/010050, PCT/EP2002/10050, PCT/EP2002010050, PCT/EP200210050, PCT/EP2010050, PCT/EP210050
InventorsDario Ghidoni, Roberto Lanfredi, Gilberto Frigerio, Alessandro Casalini
ApplicantPolimeri Europa S.P.A., Dario Ghidoni, Roberto Lanfredi, Gilberto Frigerio, Alessandro Casalini
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: CIPO, Espacenet
Expandable vinylaromatic polymers and process for their preparation
CA 2462137 C
Abstract
Expandable vinylaromatic polymers which comprise: a) a matrix obtained by polymerizing 50-100% by weight of one or more vinylaromatic monomers and 0.50%
by weight of a copolymerizable monomer; b) l-10% by weight, calculated with respect to the polymer (a), of an expanding agent englobed in the polymeric matrix; c) 0.05-25% by weight, calculated with respect to the polymer (a), of an inorganic filler homogeneously distributed in the polymeric matrix with a substantially spherical granulometry, an average diameter ranging from 0.01 to 100 ~m, a refraction index higher than l.6 and a white index, as defined in "Colour Index" (third edition published by the Society of Dyers and Colourists, 1982), equal to or lower than 22.
Claims(20)
1. An expandable vinylaromatic polymer which comprises:
a) a matrix obtained by polymerizing 50-99.5% by weight of one or more vinylaromatic monomers and 0.50% by weight of a copolymerizable monomer;
b) 1-10% by weight, calculated with respect to the polymer (a), of an expanding agent englobed in the polymeric.matrix;
c) 0.05-25% by weight, calculated with respect to the polymer (a), of an inorganic filler homogeneously distributed in the polymeric matrix with a substantially spherical granulometry, an average diameter ranging from 0.01 to 100 Ám, a refraction index higher than 1.6 and a white index equal to or lower than 22.
2. The polymer according to claim 1, wherein the vinylaromatic monomer is selected from those corresponding to the following general formula:

wherein R is a hydrogen or a methyl group, n is zero or an integer ranging from 1 to 5 and Y is a halogen, or an alkyl or alkoxyl radical having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms.
3. The polymer according to claim 2, wherein Y is chlorine or bromine.
4. The polymer according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the vinylaromatic monomers having general formula (I) are used in a mixture, of up to 50% by weight, with other copolymerizable monomers selected from (meth)acrylic acid, C1-C4 alkyl esters of (meth)acrylic acid, amides and nitriles of (meth)acrylic acid, butadiene, ethylene, divinylbenzene and maleic anhydride.
5. The polymer according to claim 4, wherein the copolymerizable monomers are acrylonitrile and methylmethacrylate.
6. The polymer according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the inorganic filler has a refraction index ranging from 1.6 to 3 and a white index ranging from 21 to 5.
7. The polymer according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the inorganic filler is present in concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 8% by weight and with a granulometry ranging from 0.1 to 50 Ám.
8. The polymer according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the inorganic filler is titanium dioxide or barium sulfate.
9. An expanded article obtained with the expandable vinylaromatic polymer according to any one of claims 1 to 8, having a density ranging from 5 to 50 g/l and a thermal conductivity ranging from 25 to 50 mW/mK.
10. A process for preparing an expandable vinylaromatic polymer which comprises polymerizing in aqueous suspension one or more vinylaromatic monomers, optionally together with at least one polymerizable comonomer in a quantity of up to 50% by weight, in the presence of an inorganic filler with a substantially spherical granulometry, an average diameter ranging from 0.01 to 100 Ám, a refraction index higher than 1.6 and a white index equal to or lower than 22, and an expanding agent added before, during or after the end of the polymerization.
11. The process according to claim 10, wherein, at the end of the polymerization, substantially spherical beads of polymer are obtained, with an average diameter ranging from 0.2 to 2 mm inside which the inorganic filler is homogeneously dispersed.
12. The process according to claim 10 or 11, wherein during the polymerization flame-retardant agents are added in a quantity ranging from 0.1 to 8% by weight, with respect to the weight of the resulting polymer.
13. The process according to claim 12, wherein the flame- retardant agents are brominated aliphatic, cycloaliphatic or aromatic compounds.
14. The process according to any one of claims 10 to 13, wherein the expanding agents are added during the polymerization phase and are selected from aliphatic or cycloaliphatic hydrocarbons containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms; halogenated derivatives of aliphatic hydrocarbons containing from 1 to carbon atoms; carbon dioxide and water.
15. The process according to any one of claims 10 to 14, wherein the polymerization in suspension takes place through a solution of vinylaromatic polymer in the monomer, or mixture of monomers, wherein the concentration of polymer ranges from 1 to 30% by weight.
16. A process for preparing in continuous, an expandable vinylaromatic polymer, which comprises the following steps in series:
i. feeding a vinylaromatic polymer, as defined in claim 1, to an extruder, together with an inorganic filler, having a substantially spherical granulometry, an average diameter ranging from 0.01 to 100 Ám, a refraction index higher than 1.6 and a white index equal to or lower than 22;
ii. heating the vinylaromatic polymer to a temperature higher than its relative melting point;
iii. injecting an expanding agent and optionally additives, into the molten polymer, before extrusion through a die; and (iv) forming expandable beads through the die, in a substantially spherical form with an average diameter ranging from 0.2 to 2 mm.
17. The process according to claim 16, further comprising a step of pretreating the beads by:
a) treating the beads with a liquid antistatic agent; and b) applying a coating to the beads thus treated, said coating consisting of a mixture of mono-, di- and tri-esters of glycerin with fatty acids and of metallic stearates.
18. The process according to claim 17, wherein the liquid antistatic agent comprises amines, thertiary ethoxylated alkylamines or ethylene oxide-propylene oxide copolymers.
19. The process according to claim 17 or 18, wherein the metallic stearates are zinc and magnesium stearates.
20. The process according to any one of claims 17 to 19, wherein the inorganic filler is also added in the coating together with the mixture of esters.
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

EXPANDABLE VINYLAROMATIC POLYMERS AND
PROCESS FOR THEIR PREPARATION
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to expandable vinylaro- matic polymers and the process for their preparation.
More specifically, the present invention relates to a process for the preparation of expandable vinylaromatic polymers which, after expansion, have a reduced thermal conductivity also with a low density and to the products thus obtained.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Expandable vinylaromatic polymers, and among these expandable polystyrene in particular, are known products which have been used for a long time in various applicative sectors, among which one of the most important is the field of thermal insulation.
These expanded products are obtained by swelling in a closed mould beads of expanded polymer impregnated with a gas and molding the swollen particles contained inside the mould by means of the contemporaneous effect of pressure and temperature. The swelling of the particles is generally I

effected with vapour, or another gas, maintained at a tem-perature slightly higher than the glass transition tempera-ture (Tg) of the polymer.

A particular applicative field of expanded polystyrene is that of thermal insulation in the building industry where it is generally used in the form of flat sheets. The flat expanded polystyrene sheets are usually used with a density of about 30 g/l as the thermal conductivity of the polymer shows a minimum at these values. It is not advanta-geous to fall below this density limit, even if it is tech-nically possible, as it causes a drastic increase in the thermal conductivity of the sheet which must be compensated by an increase in its thickness.

U.S. patent 6,130,265 describes a method for preparing particles of expandable polystyrene which allows thermo-insulating sheets to be prepared for the building industry, having a density lower than 30 g/l but with a thermal con-ductivity analogous to that of traditional sheets. Accord-ing to this method, particles of expandable polystyrene can be prepared, which are capable of giving articles, for ex-ample, sheets, with a density ranging from 10 to 15 g/l and a thermal conductivity which is such as to satisfy the re-quest of class 035 of the DIN 18164, Part 1, Standard en-globing in the particle itself from 0.05 to 25% by weight of graphite powder in the form of substantially spherical particles with an average diameter ranging from 0.1 to 50 pm. More specifically, the method of the U.S. patent cited above comprises polymerizing the styrene monomer, or a solution of polystyrene in styrene, in an aqueous suspension, in the presence of graphite particles and conventional reagents and/or polymerization additives. Expandable polystyrene spherical beads are thus obtained with an average diameter ranging from 0.2 to 2 mm in which the graphite in powder form is homogeneously distributed.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

An object of the present invention concerns an expandable vinylaromatic polymer which comprises:
a) a matrix obtained by polymerizing 50-99.5% by weight of one or more vinylaromatic monomers and 0.50% by weight of a copolymerizable monomer;
b) 1-10% by weight, calculated with respect to the polymer (a), of an expanding agent englobed in the polymeric matrix;
c) 0.05-25% by weight, calculated with respect to the polymer (a), of an inorganic filler homogeneously distributed in the polymeric matrix with a substantially spherical granulometry, an average diameter ranging from 0.01 to 100 pm, a refraction index higher than 1.6 and a white index equal to or lower than 22.
The present invention also relates to an expanded article obtained with the expandable vinylaromatic polymer as described above, having a density ranging from 5 to 50 g/l and a thermal conductivity ranging from 25 to 50 mW/mK.
The invention further provides a process for preparing an expandable vinylaromatic polymer which comprises polymerizing in aqueous suspension one or more vinylaromatic monomers, optionally together with at least one polymerizable comonomer in a quantity of up to 50% by weight, in the presence of an inorganic filler with a substantially spherical granulometry, an average diameter ranging from 0.01 to 100 pm, a refraction index higher than 1.6 and a white index equal to or lower than 22, and an expanding agent added before, during or after the end of the polymerization.
The present invention is also directed to a process for preparing in continuous, an expandable vinylaromatic polymer, which comprises the following steps in series:
i. feeding a vinylaromatic polymer, as defined in claim 1, to an extruder, together with an inorganic filler, having a substantially spherical granulometry, an average diameter ranging from 0.01 to 100 pm, a refraction index higher than 1.6 and a white index equal to or lower than 22;
ii. heating the vinylaromatic polymer to a temperature higher than its relative melting point;
iii. injecting an expanding agent and optionally additives, into the molten polymer, before extrusion through a die; and (iv) forming expandable beads through the die, in a substantially spherical form with an average diameter ranging from 0.2 to 2 mm.

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

The Applicant has now found that it is possible to obtain expandable styrene polymers capable of providing low density expanded materials, with characteristics comparable to those of the materials obtained with the method of the known art, without having to resort to the use of an athermanous additive such as graphite which has, among other things, the defect of giving the polymer, before and after expansion, an unaesthetic grey colour, sometimes intense. It has been found, in fact, that it is possible to obtain products based on vinylaromatic polymers with a density much lower than 30 g/1 and with a thermal conductivity also capable of satisfying class 035 of the DIN 18164 Part 1, Standard by substituting athermanous graphite, i.e. capable of absorbing infrared radiation, with materials having a refraction index which is sufficiently higher than that of the polymer and which are therefore capable of favouring 3a the reflection of infrared radiation. This result is par-ticularly interesting as it also allows a material such as titanium dioxide to be selected, which, as it is white, does not alter the colouring of the polymer, in particular polystyrene.

An object of the present invention therefore relates to expandable vinylaromatic polymers which comprise:

a) a matrix obtained by polymerizing 50-100%, by weight of one or more vinylaromatic monomers and 0.50% by weight of a copolymerizable monomer;

b) 1-10% by weight, calculated with respect to the polymer (a), of an expanding agent englobed in the polymeric ma-trix;

c) 0.05-25% by weight, calculated with respect to the poly-mer (a), of an inorganic filler homogeneously distrib-uted in the polymeric matrix with a substantially spherical granulometry, an average diameter ranging from 0.01 to 100 pm, a refraction index higher than 1.6 and a white index, as defined in "Colour Index" (third edition published by The Society of Dyers and Colourists, 1982), equal to or lower than 22.

The term "vinylaromatic monomer", as used in the pres-ent description and claims, essentially refers to a product which corresponds to the following general formula:

CR=CH7 (I) (`~)n wherein R is a hydrogen or a methyl group, n is zero or an integer ranging from 1 to 5 and Y is a halogen, such as chlorine or bromine, or an alkyl or alkoxyl radical having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms.

Examples of vinylaromatic monomers having the general formula defined above are: styrene, a.-methylstyrene, meth-ylstyrene, ethylstyrene, butylstyrene, dimethylstyrene, mono-, di-, tri-, tetra- and penta-chlorostyrene, bromo-styrene, methoxy-styrene, acetoxy-styrene, etc. Preferred vinylaromatic monomers are styrene and a-methylstyrene.

The vinylaromatic monomers having general formula (I) can be used alone or in a mixture of up to 50% by weight with other copolymerizable monomers. Examples of these monomers are (meth)acrylic acid, C1-C4 alkyl esters of (meth)acrylic acid, such as methyl acrylate, methyl-methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, ethylmethacrylate, isopropyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, amides and nitriles of (meth)acrylic acid such as acrylamide, methacrylamide, ac-rylonitrile, methacrylonitrile, butadiene, ethylene, divi-nylbenzene, maleic anhydride, etc. Preferred copolymeri-zable monomers are acrylonitrile and methylmethacrylate.
Any expanding agent capable of being englobed in the vinylaromatic polymeric matrix, can be used in a combina-tion with the vinylaromatic polymers object of the present invention. Typical examples are aliphatic hydrocarbons, freon, carbon dioxide, water, etc.

The inorganic filler with a refraction index higher than 1.6, preferably from 1.6 to 3, extremes included, and with a white index equal to or lower than 22, preferably between 21 and 5, extremes included, can be added to the vinylaromatic polymer both by polymerization in suspension and by means of the continuous mass technique, in such quantities as to give a final concentration in the polymer ranging from 0.05-25% by weight, preferably from 0.5 to 8%.

The granulometry of the filler preferably ranges from 0.1 to 50 m. The preferred inorganic filler is represented by titanium dioxide and barium sulfate.

At the end of the addition of the filler, an expand-able polymer is obtained, which can be transformed to pro-duce expanded articles having a density ranging from 5 to 50 g/l, preferably from 10 to 25 g/l. These materials also have an excellent thermal insulation capacity expressed by a thermal conductivity ranging from 25 to 50 mW/mK, pref-erably from 30 to 45 mW/mK which is generally on an average even over 10% lower than that of equivalent non-filled ex-panded materials currently on the market, for example EXTIR
A-5000 of EniChem S.p.A., as illustrated in Tables 1 and 2 enclosed. Thanks to these characteristics of the expandable polymers object of the present invention, it is possible to prepare thermo-insulating articles with significant mate-rial savings or, for example, to prepare sheets having a lesser thickness than those produced with traditional non-filled polymers, with a consequent reduction in space.

Conventional additives, generally used with tradi-tional materials, such as pigments, stabilizers, flame-retardants, antistatic agents, detaching agents, etc. can be added to the expandable polymers object of the present invention.

A further object of the present invention relates to the processes for the preparation of expandable polymers with an improved thermal conductivity, after expansion, with a density lower than 30 g/l.

In particular, a further object of the present inven-tion relates to a process for preparing expandable vi-nylaromatic polymers which comprises polymerizing in aque-ous suspension one or more vinylaromatic monomers, option-ally together with at least one polymerizable comonomer in a quantity of up to 50% by weight, in the presence of an inorganic filler with a substantially spherical granulome-try, an average diameter ranging from 0.01 to 100 m, a re-* trademark _ 7 fraction index higher than 1.6 and a white index, as de-fined in "Colour Index" (third edition published by The So-ciety of Dyers and Colourists, 1982), equal to or lower than 22, and an expanding agent added before, during or af-ter the end of the polymerization.

At the end of the polymerization, substantially spherical polymer beads are obtained, with an average di-ameter ranging from 0.2 to 2 mm, inside which the inorganic additive is homogeneously dispersed.

During the polymerization in suspension, polymeriza-tion additives, typically used for producing expandable vi-nylaromatic polymers, are adopted, such as peroxide ini-tiators, stabilizing agents of the suspension, chain trans-fer agents, expanding aids, nucleating agents, plasticiz-ers, etc. In particular, it is preferable to add flame-retardant agents during the polymerization, in a quantity ranging from 0.1% to 8% by weight, with respect to the weight of the resulting polymer. Flame-retardant agents particularly suitable for the expandable vinylaromatic polymers, object of the present invention, are brominated aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic compounds such as hex-abromocyclododecane, pentabromomonochlorocyclohexane and pentabromophenyl allyl ether.

The expanding agents are preferably added during the polymerization phase and are selected from aliphatic or cy-cloaliphatic hydrocarbons containing from 3 to 6 carbon at-oms such as n-pentane, isopentane, cyclopentane or their mixtures; the halogenated derivatives of aliphatic hydro-carbons containing from 1 to 3 carbon atoms such as, for example, dichlorodifluoromethane, 1,2,2-trifluoroethane, 1,1,2-trifluoroethane; carbon dioxide and water.

To improve the stability of the suspension, it is pos-sible to use a solution of vinylaromatic polymer in the monomer, or mixture of monomers, in which the concentration of polymer ranges from 1 to 30W by weight, preferably from 5 to 20W. The solution can be obtained either by dissolving a preformed polymer (for example fresh polymer or the waste products of previous polymerizations and/or expansions) in the monomer or by pre-polymerizing the monomer, or mixture of monomers, in mass, in order to obtain the above concen-trations, and then continuing the polymerization in aqueous suspension in the presence of the remaining additives.

Another object of the present invention relates to a process for preparing in mass and in continuous, expandable vinylaromatic polymers, which comprises the following steps in series:

i. feeding a vinylaromatic polymer, as described above, to an extruder, together with an inorganic filler, having a substantially spherical granulometry, an av-erage diameter ranging from 0.01 to 100 rn, a refrac-tion index higher than 1.6 and a white index, as de-fined in "Colour Index" (third edition published by The Society of Dyers and Colourists, 1982), equal to or lower than 22;

ii. heating the vinylaromatic polymer to a temperature higher than the relative melting point;

iii. injecting the expanding agent and possible additives such as flame-retardant agents, into the molten poly-mer before extrusion through a die; and iv. forming expandable beads, through a die, in a substan-tially spherical form with an average diameter ranging from 0.2 to 2 mm.

A detailed method for preparing vinylaromatic polymers in mass and in continuous is provided in European patent EP
126,459.

At the end of the polymerization, either it be carried out in suspension or in continuous mass, the expandable beads produced are subjected to pre-treatment generally ap-plied to conventional expandable beads and which essen-tially consists in:

1. coating the beads with a liquid antistatic agent such as amines, tertiary ethoxylated alkylamines, ethylene ox-ide-propylene oxide copolymers, etc. The purpose of this agent is to facilitate both the adhesion of the "coating" and also the screening of the beads prepared in suspension;

2. applying the "coating" to the above beads, said coating essentially consisting of a mixture of mono-, di- and tri-esters of glycerin (or other alcohols) with fatty acids and of metallic stearates such as zinc and/or mag-nesium stearate.

Alternatively, the inorganic filler can also be added in the coating, together with the mixture of esters.

Some illustrative but non-limiting examples are pro-vided for a better understanding of the present invention and for its embodiment.

A mixture of 150 parts by weight of water, 0.1 parts of sodium pyrophosphate, 100 parts of styrene, 0.15 parts of benzoyl peroxide, 0.25 parts of ter-butyl perbenzoate and 1 part of titanium dioxide with a substantially spheri-cal granulometry and an average diameter of about 0.2 m, are charged into a closed, stirred container. The mixture is heated to 90 C under stirring.

After about 2 hours at 90 C, 4 parts of a solution at 10% of polyvinylpyrrolidone are added. The mixture is heated, under stirring, for a further 2 hours to 100 C, 7 parts of a 70/30 mixture of n-pentane and i-pentane are added and the mixture heated for a further 4 hours to 125 C.

The beads of expandable polymer thus produced are sub-sequently recovered, washed with deionized water, dried in a stream of warm air, added with 0.02% of ethoxylated amine, and screened by separating the fraction with a di-ameter ranging from 1 to 1.5 mm.

0.2% of glycerylmonosterate and 0.05% of magnesium stearate are then added to the fraction.

The product is pre-expanded with vapour at a tempera-ture of 100 C for three contact times and aged for a day (density in Table 1).

A part of the beads is expanded a second time to reach even lower densities.

Both the beads expanded once only and those expanded twice were used for the moulding of blocks (dimensions 1040 x 1030 x 550 mm) at a pressure of 0.4 bars, and the cooling time was measured (data in Table 2 - sheet 1).

The blocks were then evaluated (shrinkage, or the dif-ference between the volume of the block and the volume of the mould)_and cut to prepare flat sheets for measuring the sintering and thermal conductivity. The thermal conductiv-ity was 36.7 mW/mK whereas that of a sheet having the same density prepared with a traditional non-filled reference product (EXTIR A-5000), was 42.5 mW/mK.

Table 2 indicates the physical characteristics of an expanded polystyrene block obtained with the expandable beads, object of the present invention, in a first and sec-ond expansion and compared with an analogous block obtained from the commercial reference product. The block obtained with the beads object of the present invention surprisingly shows a drastic increase in the sintering degree.

A polystyrene having a Melt Index of 10 g/101 at 200 C/5 kg premixed with titanium dioxide alone (2 and 4%) in a first phase, and with barium sul f ate alone (2%) in a second phase, is fed into a twin-screw extruder equipped with a feeding hopper. After bringing the polymer to the molten state, 6 parts of a mixture of n-pentane/i-pentane with a weight ratio of 70/30, are injected.

The resulting mass is drawn through an extrusion head equipped with holes. The polymer emerging from the holes is cut by a series of rotating knives in contact with the sur-face of the die in order to obtain substantially spherical beads having an average diameter of about 1.2 mm. The die is immersed in a water bath.

The beads are sent by the stream of water, cooled to 35 C, separated from the water and dried in a stream of warm air.

Ethoxylated amine and the coating are then added to the beads as described in Example 1.

The expansion and moulding were effected as described in Example 1. The thermal conductivity was about 36 and 35.5 mW/mK with 2 and 4% respectively of titanium dioxide.

The thermal conductivity value of 36.7 mW/mK was ob-tained, on the other hand with a flat sheet containing 2t by weight of BaSO4, with a density however of 17 g/l.

Table 2 indicates the physical characteristics of ex-panded blocks obtained from expandable beads modified with titanium dioxide. Also in these cases, the blocks obtained with the beads, object of the present invention, show a drastic increase in the sintering degree with respect to the reference block.

Reference Contact time Density (g/!) min.
1 20.5 2 17.2 3 15.5 Example 1 (1% Ti02) 1 19.5 2 15.6 - 3 14.2 Sheets DENSITY THERMAL CONDUC-TIVITY (mW/mK) Reference 14 g/I 42.5 Sheet 1(1% Ti02) 14 g/I 36.7 Sheet 2 (2% Ti02) 14 g/I 36 Sheet 3 (4% Ti02) 14.4 g/I 35.5 TABLE 2 - Blocks from beads of first and second expansion Reference Density (g/1) 16.5 7.8 Cooling time 30' 2' 30"
Shrinkage (mm) -7 -5 Sintering (%) 15 20 Sheet 1 (1 % Ti02) Density (g/1) 15 8.3 Cooling time 25' 2' 30"
Shrinkage (mm) -2 -3 Sintering (%) 85 35 Sheet 2 (2% Ti02) Density (g/1) 18.1 8 Cooling time 30' 2' Shrinkage (mm) -4 -4 Sintering (%) 80 30 Sheet 3 (4% TiO2) Density (g/1) 15 8.4 Cooling time 25' 2' 30"
Shrinkage (mm) -2 -4 Sintering (%) 80 40

Classifications
International ClassificationC08L25/06, C08J9/20, C08J9/00, C08J9/16
Cooperative ClassificationC08J9/20, C08J9/0066, C08J9/16, C08J2325/06, C08J2201/03
European ClassificationC08J9/00M, C08J9/16, C08J9/20
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
1 Nov 2004EEERExamination request